◆定义及其作用： ◆定语从句是中学阶段英语语法中十分重要的 一个语法项目，它在句子中出现的频率很高。 对正确理解句子的意义起着举足轻重的作用。 定语从句可分为：限制性定语从句和非限制性 定语从句。 ◆定语从句一般都紧跟在它所修饰名词后面， 所以如果在名词或代词后面出现一个从句，根 据它与前面名词或代词的逻辑关系来判断是否 是定语从句。
被定语从句所修饰的名词或 代词叫做“先行词”。引 导定语从句的词叫“关系词”。关系词有两个作用： 一、引导定语从句 二、代替先行词在其引导的定语从句中充当一定的句 子成份。 理解和牢记这两条概念，弄清楚关系词在定语从 句中充当什么成分，是掌握定语从句的关键。
which who whom whose when where why as
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说明 可以修饰人、物， 不可用于非限制性 从句中 仅能修饰物 仅能修饰人 仅能修饰人 可以悠人或者物 修饰时间 修饰地点 修饰原因 用于非限制性定语 从 句 和 such…as, the same…as,as…as 结构中
? 修饰物体时关系代词that和 which的区分
? 使用that的情况： ? 1、当先行词是nothing, something, anything, all,
each等不定代词时。 ? eg. Do you have anything that is important to tell me? ? 2、当先行词被all, any, some, no, not, every, each等
? eg. I have some books that are very good. ? 3、当先行词被形容词最高级、序数词所修饰时。 ? eg. This is the first book that I bought myself. ?
The biggest bird that I caught is this bird.
? 4、当先行词被the very, the last, the next, the only 等
? eg. This is the very book that I lost yesterday. ? 5、当先行词又有人又有物时。 ? eg. I won’t forget the things and the persons that I saw. ? 只能使用which的情况。
? eg. Mary has a book, which is very precious. ? 2、在介词之后。 ? eg. This is a house in which lives an old man. ? 3、当主句中的主语被that修饰时。 ? eg. That dog which I found in the street belongs to
? Consolidation exercises. ? Fill in the blanks with suitable relative pronouns. ? 1. This is the only book ____ I got last year. that
? 2. Is this the book in whichyou are interested? ____
? 3. This is the largest animal ____ Tom saw in the zoo. that ? 4. Rose still remembers the trees and teachers____ exist that
(存在)in the mother school. ? 5. All the desks ____ are bought look really wonderful. that ? 6. Do you have any money ____is used to build the that factory? ? 7. Tom has a toy, whichwas given by his father. ____ ? 8. This is the second watch that my father bought for ____ me.
? 修饰人时关系代词that 和who, whom的区分。 ? 当主句中的主语是who时，只能用that。 ? eg. Who is the girl that is standing over there?
? 在非限制性定语从句中以及介词后面时只能用who 或
? eg. I have a son, who is really lovely and interesting.
? There are 40 students in the class, most of whom are
? eg. She is the girl whose English sounds very beautiful. ? Mary has a very good dog, whose hair turns out white
? Correct mistakes for the following sentences.
? 1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them
come from class two. whom ? 2. My mother has a good book, which cover looks terrible. whose ? 3. Who are the young girls who are having dinner in the restaurant? that are ? 4. She is one of the girls who is very interested in maths. ? 5. Tom is the only one of the boys who like playing football. likes ? 6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now? her ? 7. This is the very pen that you gave it to me before. it ? 8. There is an old woman, that is holding a stick. who
? 关系代词as的用法及其与which的区别。 ? 关系代词as在定语从句中指代整件事，充当句中的
主语或者宾语，它经常和the same, such, as一起搭配 使用，共同构成一个固定词组。
? eg. As we all know, he is a famous scientist. ? He is a diligent boy, as is expected. ? She has the same book as you have. ? 关系代词as可以放在句子的开头，可以使用被动语
? As everyone knows, it is necessary to build a hospital in
this small town. ? It is necessary to build a hospital in this small town, which is clear to us. ? Our department will hold the meeting,as is known by us.
? 关系副词when, where, why的用法以及与关系代词的
? eg. I won’t forget the time when I got married. ? Have you still remember the days when we stayed
together? ? This is the place where we had a good time. ? Is this the house where Mr Smith lives? ? I don’t know the reason why he won’t join us. ? Do you know the reason why he didn’t come to sweep the classroom?
? 关系副词when, where和关系代词that, which的区分。
同样是修饰一个地点，有时使用where，有时使用 that/which；同样是修饰一个时间，有时使用when， 有时使用that/which。这主要看两点：一是定语从句 是否完整；二是定语从句中的谓语动词是否是一个 及物动词。请比较以下句子：
? This is the park that we visited last year. ? This is the park where we held a birthday party. ? She won’t forget the days that she spent on the island. ? She won’t forget the days when they stayed together. ? That’s the date when we went to the college. ? That’s the date that she won’t forget for ever. ? I like the time when we lived together. ? I like the time that we had together.
? Exercises : ? Fill in the blanks with appropriate relative pronouns and
that ? 1. Is this the room ____ you cleaned last time?
? 2. Is this the roomwhere we lived before? ____ ? 3. This is the gardenwhere they stayed for a night. ____
that ? 4. This is the garden ____ they visited last time.
? 5. Tom has forgotten the day when he left his home. ____ ? 6. Tom has forgotten the day ____ I told him last day. that ? 7. She still remembers the year when she found her first ____
job. ? 8. She still remembers the year ____ she spent in Jining. that
? 关系副词when, where, why 和介词+which之间的关系。
关系副词when, where, why可以用适当的介词+which 来替代。如：when=in/on/at…+which, where=in/on/at…+which, why=for+which介词的位置 非常灵活，有时放在关系代词之前，有时放在动词 之后。
? eg. 1. I won’t forget the date when( on which) I was born. ? 2. This is the room where (in which) I lived. = This is the
room which I lived in. ? 3. I don’t know the reason why (for which) he haven’t come today. ? 4. Tom still remembers the days when (in which) they lived in Tianjin.
? Comprehensive exercises. ? Fill in the blanks with the suitable relative pronouns or the ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
relative adverbs. 1. Is this the room _____ we spent our childhood? 2. This dictionary is the second one _____ I bought in the shop. 3. I still remember the date _____ I went to Nanjing for the first time. 4. Tom is thinking about the grass and the persons ____ he saw in the yard. 5. There are 100 old men in the street, some of ____ are drinking tea. 6. Do you know the days _____ you spent on English? 7. All the books ____are on the shelf belong to Mary. 8. Are you satisfied with the park ____ you visited last time? 9. ____ we all know, the building will soon be destroyed. 10. I have the same book _____ she has.