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? 艺术 · Art 1.abstract art : 抽象派艺术 A nonrepresentational style that emphasizes formal values over the representation of subject matter. 强调形式至上,忽视内容的一种非写实主义绘画风格 Kandinsky produced abstract art characterized by imagery that had a musical quality. 康定斯创作的抽象派作品有一种音乐美。 2.abstract expressionism : 抽象表现派;抽象表现主义 A nonrepresentational style that emphasizes emotion, strong color, and giving primacy to the act of painting. 把绘画本身作为目的,以表达情感和浓抹重涂为特点的非写实主义风格。 Abstract expressionism was at its peak in the 1940s and 1950s. 20 世纪四五十年代是抽象表现艺术发展的顶峰时期。 3.action painting : 动作画派 A term used to describe aggressive methods of applying paint. 指使画布产生强烈动作效果的绘画风格。 Action painting often looks childish to the non-artist because of the techniques used to apply paint, such as throwing it on the canvas. 在外行看来,动作派的作品通常是幼稚的,这主要是因为画家采用的作画方法,比如将颜料泼洒在画布上。 4.airbrush : 喷枪;气笔 A nozzled tube used to apply paint in a spray form. 一种将颜料喷成雾状的喷嘴管。 The famous sexy robots in Japan are produced using an airbrush. 那些性感的日本机器人就是用喷枪绘制成的。 5.art deco :装饰派艺术 A style dominant in the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by repetitive, ornamental, and highly finished curvilinear and geometric designs, esp. in synthetic materials such as plastics. 盛行于 20 世纪二、三十年代的装饰艺术和建筑艺术风格,以重复的、装饰精美的曲线和几何图案为特点国,多采 用塑料等合成材料。 Mary attended high school in a building that was famous for art deco style of architecture. Mary 就读的中学以其装饰派建筑而闻名。 6.art nouveau :新艺术 A decorative style in which fluid, biomorphic lines and swirling motifs were emphasized. 以曲折有致的天然生物形态为特色的装饰性风格。 Beardsley prints produced in the late 19th century are a good example of the style of art nouveau. 19 世纪末比乐兹利的作品是新艺术的典范。 7.avent-garde : 先锋派 Innovative art in advance of popular ideas and images, characterized by unorthodox and experimental method.


不拘于现有的创作定式,勇于创新超前思维的艺术形式。 The avant-garde home of the famous actress sold for millions. 那位影星的先锋派住宅卖出了几百万美元的好价钱。 8.Baroque :巴罗克风格 An emotional, dramatic style of the 16th-18th century, anticlassical in form and spirit. 流行于 16 至 18 世纪,以情感强烈、铺张浮华为特点的反古典主义的艺术风格。 Status and architecture from the Baroque have a dark, muscular, looming quality about them. 巴罗克风格的雕塑和建筑雄伟、高大、格调阴暗。 9.batik :蜡防印花 Painting on wax-treated cloth. 在蜡布上作的画。 Susan learned about batik in college. 苏珊在读大学时学过蜡防印花。 10.Bauhaus :包豪斯建筑风格 A design school that promoted functional and geometric elements in design. 指包豪斯造型学院倡导的强调实用和几何学要素的建筑风格。 Bauhaus school of design in Germany changed the way that the world thought about design. 德国的包豪斯造型学院倡导的艺术改变了世人的既定设计思维模式。a 11.Byzantine :拜占庭艺术风格的 (adj.) A term used to describe a style of art with strong religious content. 艺术风格突出强烈宗教色彩的。 The Byzantine era extended from the 13th century and went into the 16th century and was characterized by art with religious influence. 拜占庭式艺术始于 13 世纪,一直延续到 16 世纪,其主要特点是浓郁的宗教气息。 12.calligraphy 书法艺术 Handwriting or penmanship, esp. elegant or “beautiful” writing as a decorative art. 书写的艺术,特别是优雅漂亮可作装饰的笔迹。 Calligraphy has practically become a lost art in today’s computerized society. 在今天的电脑时代,书法艺术差不多要消亡了。 13.cartoon 草图,底图 A full-size, preliminary painting or sketch for a completed work. 一部完整艺术作品的雏形。 Leonardo da Vinci’s cartoon of the Virgin Mary and Saint Anne hangs in the British National Gallery. 达·芬奇的圣母马丽亚和圣安妮画像的草图现存于英国国家美术馆。

14.ceramics (1)The art of making objects such as pottery or clay. (2)The objects themselves.


陶器制作艺术;陶器制品。 Savannah enjoys making ceramic pottery. 萨文喜欢做陶器。 15.collage :拼贴艺术 A composition of found objects, newspaper, and cloth over other material on a single surface. 把拣得的报纸、碎布等在画面上粘贴成画。 We used to make computer collages when I was in college by first pasting various items together and then using a video camera to transmit the image onto a computer screen. 我们在大学时曾用电脑制作拼贴画。其步骤是:首先,将各种材料粘在一起,然后用摄像机将图像传送到电脑上。 16.composition :艺术作品 Aesthetically pleasing, harmonious, and effective arrangement of parts to form a whole. 各部分和谐生动、符合美学规律的作品。 Matisse used color and shapes and worked back and forth until he felt he had achieved a balanced composition. 马蒂斯反复调试色彩、构思图案,终于画了一幅布局和谐的作品。 17.computer art 计算机艺术 Electronically produced images displayed on video screen. 在屏幕上显示运用电子手段设计图像的艺术。 Computer art become popular in the 1980s when computers started to become more available to the public. 当 80 年代个人电脑开始普及之后,计算机艺术也流行起来。 18.cubism :立方主义;立体派 A style of art that departs from traditional reality, and emphasizes multifaceted, simultaneous views of subject and distorted perspectives.(early 20th century) 20 世纪初出现的一个艺术流派。它抛弃传统现实,强调艺术作品的形体结构,即同时性、多角度性及扭曲的视角。 Pablo Picasso played a principal role in the early movement of cubism. 帕勃洛·毕加索在立体派早期发展中起首重要的推动作用。 19.Dada :达达主义 A style (1915-1925) with antirational approach and nihilistic, absurdist, and incongruous themes. 流行于 1915 年至 1925 年间的艺术流派,其特点是反理性的创作手法和虚无、荒诞。矛盾的主题。 Dadaism asked “what is art?” and used humor and shock value as communicative elements. 达达主义设问“什么是艺术?”并用幽默和让人震惊的色彩对比手法作答。 20.drawing :素描 A picture, design, or sketch done with lines in pen or pencil. 用钢笔或铅笔勾勒出的图画、图案或写生图。 The drawings of Michelangelo were recently exhibited in New York. 米开朗基罗的素描最近在纽约展出。 21.expressionism :表现主义 An early 20th-century style emphasizing emotional expression, strong color and composition, and a distorted, theatrical


treatment of image. 20 世纪的一种艺术风格,强调情绪的表现,以浓重的色彩、鲜明的构图,扭曲、夸张的形象处理为特点。 Professor Bryer will be giving a lecture on expressionism tonight. 今晚布莱恩教授有一个关于表现主义的讲座。 22.fresco :温壁画技法;湿壁画 A technique of painting directly on a wet, plaster surface. 在潮湿的石膏表面上直接作画。 We all marveled at the beauty of the 17th century fresco. 23.funk art :非理性艺术;恶臭艺术 A combination of painting and sculpture, deliberately messing and rough, often humorously depicting provocative subjects.(U.S., mid-20th century) 20 世纪中期出现在美国的一种艺术流派。故意杂乱无章、不加修饰的绘画与雕塑的融合。多以幽默的方式描绘刺 激性的场面。 Jeson has been collecting funk art since the mid 1960s. 杰森从 20 世纪 60 年代中期就开始收集非理性艺术作品。 24.futurism :未来主义 A style glorifying modern technology, speed, and the machine age. ( Italy, early 20th century ) 颂扬现代技术、速度和机器时代的创作风格。起源于 20 世纪初的意大利。 Art from the era of futurism can be identified by a combination of machine elements, cubism, and motion. 未来主义时期艺术的突出特点是机器法则、立方主义与运动机械的组合。 25.genre :风俗画 A realistic depiction of scenes from everyday domestic life. 日常家居生活的写实画。 Who is your favorite genre painter? 你最喜欢的风俗画家是谁? 26.Gothic :哥特风格 A style that emphasizes Christian imagery, brilliant color, and strong verticality in composition. ( 12th – 16th century ) 以基督教题材、亮丽的色彩、明显的垂直线条为特点的绘画风格。流行于 12 至 16 世纪。 Jean dislikes Gothic art because it feels too religious. 吉不喜欢哥特风格的作品,因为它们的宗教色彩太浓。 27.gouache :树胶水彩颜料 An opaque watercolor bound with gum. 由胶水调和的不透光水彩。 Do you like the quality of gouache in paintings? 你喜欢水彩画吗? 28. graphic arts :平面造型艺术 Those visual arts that are linear in character, such as drawing and engraving, esp. those that involve printing and


printmaking. 平面视角艺术,特别是指与印刷业有关的素描、雕刻等。 The computer is now enabling anyone to produce and design and experiment with graphic art. 计算机的出现使任何人都能制造、设计和试验平面视角艺术。 29.hard-edge :锋刃派绘画的;硬边画的 (adj.) A style characterized by geometric abstraction, a flat picture plan, perfection of a surface, and graphic precision. (U.S., mid-20th century) 流行于 20 世纪中期的美国,以轮廓分明的几何形体、精确的画面为特点的抽象绘画。 Patrick Nagel’s hard-edge style of 80’s women became one of the strongest images in the 20th century. 派特克·纳哥尔的锋刃派风格的 80 年代妇女成了 20 世纪最具说明力的形象之一。 30.history painting :历史题材的绘画 An academic depiction of scenes from mythology, history, or the Bible. 以神话、历史或圣经为题材的传统绘画。 Temple Square in Salt Lake City has a visitor center filled with history paintings. 盐湖城的神殿广场有一个观光中心,里面存满了历史题材的绘画作品。 31.hyperrealism :高度写实主义 An extension of photorealism in which depiction of subject is indistinguishable from reality. (late 20th century) 20 世纪末兴起的一种绘画流派。照相现实主义的延伸,强调对现实的临摹。 The interesting aspect of hyperrealism is that it challenges the viewer to try to decide what is real and what isn’t. 高度写实主义绘画很有意思的一点是,观者很难判断哪些是真实的,哪些是虚构的。 32.impressionism :印象主义,印象派 A style emphasizing the depiction of light and its effects, with the act of seeing as its primary subject. (France 19th century 强调绘画中的光感,以视觉影象作为描绘对象。 Impressionism has long been one of the most popular art movements. Van Gogh’s impressionistic painting entitled “Dr. Gachet” was purchased for a world record $ 85 million by a Japanese investor. 长期以来,印象主义一直是最具有影响力的艺术运动之一。凡高的印象派作品《盖什医生》被一名日本投资商以 8500 万美元的天价购得。 33.Kakemono :画轴 A Japanese vertical scroll painting. 日本的一种垂直式卷轴画。 Debbie purchased several kakemono scrolls during her year as an exchange student in Japan. 德比在日本做交换学生时买了几卷画轴。 34.kinetic art :活动艺术 Art characterized by the incorporation of painted and sculpted mechanical parts into an art piece that moves or creates the impression of movement. 兴起于 20 世纪中期的一种与机械学相结合的艺术,采用活动部件,造成动感效果的雕塑艺术。 Kinetic art can be seen in front of many office buildings built during the 50’s and 60’s.


在五、六十年代,办公大楼前的雕塑多属活动艺术作品。 35.landscape :风景画,山水画 A depiction of natural land forms, sometimes allegorical. 以自然风景为主题,有时含有讽喻意义的作品。 Paula travels to New Mexico each summer to paint western landscapes. 波拉每年夏天都去新墨西哥州画西部风景画。 36.medium :溶剂,调色剂,材料 A liquid in which pigment is mixed to form paint; a type of paint of coloring matter used in painting. 绘画用的调和颜料的液体;艺术创作所使用的材料。 It’s sometimes fun to look at a painting and try to figure out what medium the artist used. 有时猜猜一部艺术作品所使用的材料很有意思。

37.Ming :具有明代艺术特色的 (adj)Characteristic of a highly academic classicism, esp. in porcelains. (China, 14th –17th centuries) 高度传统古典主义倾向的,特别是指与 14 至 17 世纪中国明代瓷器有关的艺术。 Dr. Franks is an expert on porcelains from the Ming dynasty. 37.minimal art :极简抽象艺术;最小主义艺术 An abstract, simple, reductionist style with absence of all but basic formal elements and primary colors. (U.S. mid-20th century) 美国 20 世纪中期兴起的一种艺术流派,其特点是抽象、简单、微缩,即把作品简略到基本抽象成分。 Minimalism is characterized by space with very sparse design elements and helped launch the popular art slogan of “less is more.” 最小主义艺术的特征是稀疏的画面,这一艺术促成了“简即繁”的艺术口号。 38.modernism :现代主义 A style that breaks with traditional art forms and searches for new modes of expression. 一种新的、脱离传统艺术手法的表现形式。 Modernism became popular in the early part of the 20th century. 现代主义在 20 世纪初开始流行起来。 39.mosaic :马赛克;镶嵌工艺,镶嵌画 An illustration composed of small, colored stones or tiles set into cement. 用五颜六色的小石子或瓦片在水泥板上镶嵌面成的图案。 The new mall in town features a giant mosaic over the main entrance way. 在城里新建的林荫道的主要入口处有一个巨大的镶嵌画。 (我觉得这句话应译成:城里新建的大型商场/购物中心的入口处有一巨幅镶嵌画。---southleaf) 40.mural :壁画;壁饰 A large-scale painting, usually on a wall or ceiling. 通常挂在墙上或天花板上的巨幅画。


The McMullen’s have a giant mural painting along the hallway in their home. 麦克伦家的门厅里有一幅巨型壁画。 41.neoclassicism :新古典主义 A style modeled after proportion and restraint of Greek and Roman classical antiquity. (late 18th, early 19th century.) 模仿和借鉴古希腊罗马匀称、庄重建筑风格的艺术形式,盛行于 18 世纪末,19 世纪初。 We knew that Mr. Samuels was into neoclassicism by the way that he had his courtyard decorated with nude statues. 42.new wave :新浪潮 A combination of cartoon, graffiti, and performance art in a minimalist, unsophisticated style (late 20th century.) 综合漫画、涂鸦和表演艺术的艺术形式,其风格简单自然。 There’s a new wave art show currently on exhibit up at the local college gallery. 本地大学美术馆正在举办一个新浪潮艺术作品展。 43.nude :裸体画,裸体像 The undraped human figure, sometimes allegorical. 无遮盖的人体画像,有时具有讽喻意义。 The nude has always played a powerful role in art throughout the ages. 在艺术领域,裸体画一直占有重要地位。

44.oil paint :油画颜料;油漆 Pigment mixed with drying oil, exp. linseed oil. 和亚麻油等干性油混制成的颜料。 You can buy a beginner’s set of oil paints for under $ 20. 花不到 20 元,你就可以买到初学者所用的一套油画颜料。 45.op art :光效应艺术,视觉艺术 A style with graphic abstraction and pattern-oriented optical effects (mid-20th century) 利用几何图形和色彩对比给人以模棱两可的视幻觉艺术,起源于 20 世纪中期。 Riley and Vasarely are two noteable artists who made contributions in the illusory world of op art. 瑞利和凡撒里这两位著名的艺术家为梦幻般的光效应艺术作出了贡献。 46.performance art :戏剧表演艺术 Use of paintings, sculpture, and video in live theatrical performance by the artist. (late 20th century) 现场戏剧表演中艺术家掺入绘画、雕塑和摄像等形式的综合艺术。兴起于 20 世纪末。 We watched a program that featured performance art on TV last night. 昨晚有一个电视节目介绍了表现派艺术。 47.pastel :彩色粉笔画 A crayon made of color ground with chalk and compounded with gum water into paste, often of pale color. 粉笔作底色,用胶水调和色彩。色调淡雅。 Degas is probably my favorite pastel artist. 德加大概算是我最喜欢的彩色粉笔画家了。


48.perspective :透视画法 A system of realistically depicting three-dimensional objects or views onto two-dimensional, flat surfaces through convergent lines and planes. 以现实的手法,在两维的平面上,利用线和面趋向会合的视错觉原理刻画三维物体的艺术。 Perspective illustration provides a three-dimensional view of objects or views. 透视画法提供了一个对物体或景色的三维视角。 49.pictograph :象形文字;图画文字 A picture symbolizing an idea or object, used as an early form of writing. 代表一个思想或物体的图画。属早期的文字。 Three men were arrested for vandalizing ancient pictographs found I the canyons of southern Utah. 50.pointillism :点画法;点彩派 Neo-impressionism characterized by the use of tiny, closely spaced dots or points of color that blend to produce a luminous quality. 新印象主义画法,用微小、密集的彩色点混合后产生一种夺目的效果。 The painting “Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte” by Seurat is probably the most famous work of pointillism. 修拉的《在拉·格兰德·加特岛的一个星期天下午》大概是最有名的点彩派画了。 51.pop art :波普艺术 A style-making use of images from popular culture and commerce, often reproduced exactly. (mid-20th century) 把精确复制大众文化和商业中的形象作为一种艺术创作。起源于 20 世纪中期。 Roy Litchenstein, who helped start the movement in the 1950s, continues to rule the king of pop art into the 90s. 早在 50 年代,罗耶·列克敦斯坦就参与发起波普艺术运动,直到 90 年代他依然是波普艺术的顶尖人物。 52.primitivism :原始风格 A style with an unsophisticated, pretechnological, simple approach to form and content. 形式处理和内容表现力求简洁,避免复杂化或工艺手段的创作风格。 The famous series of “cut-outs” by Henri Matisse are a good example of primitivism. 亨利·马蒂斯著名的《割断》系列作品是原始主义流派的代表作之一。 53.realism :现实主义风格 Art that depicts reality as it appears. 以写实的手法描绘现实。 I am in awe when I view realism such as the landscapes painted by 17th century Dutch artist Jan Vemeeer. 欣赏着 17 世纪荷兰画家杨·弗美尔的风景画,我被其中的现实主义风格所震撼。 54.Renaissance :文艺复兴时期风格的;文艺复兴 (adj.)Art that is classical in form and content. (n.) revival of aesthetics of classical antiquity. (14th – 17th century) 艺术作品的形式和内容具有古典主义色彩的;从 14 世纪延续到 17 世纪的经典传统美学的复兴。 Renaissance art is still appreciated by artists of today. 现在的艺术家仍然对文艺复兴时期的艺术珍爱有加。


Much of the greatest art in the history of the world was produced during the Renaissance. 世界艺术史上最伟大的作品很多是在文艺复兴时期产生的。 55.rococo :洛可可艺术的;洛可可式的 A style with ornamental, poetic, curvilinear forms and lyrical themes. 融装饰性、诗化的、曲线的形式和抒情主题为一体的艺术。 Mrs. Mead is looking for a chair in rococo style. 米德夫人想买一个洛可可式的椅子。 56.sculpture :雕刻术;雕塑术 The art of carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, etc. into three-dimensional representations, as statues, figures, forms, etc. 通过对木头、石头进行雕刻,对金属加以铸造、焊接,或对泥、蜡加工制成的三维雕塑作品。 Mr. Rushmore which depicts images of 4 U.S. presidents in the Black Hills, South Dakota, is one of the most famous sculptures in America. 在南达科他州布莱克山区的拉什莫尔山刻有四位美国总统的雕像。它们是美国最有名的雕塑之一。 57.self-portrait :自画像 A depiction of an artist’s own face 艺术家创作的自己的肖像画。 Artist’s self-portraits are usually very sought-after works of art. 人们总是乐于求购艺术家的自画像。 58.still lift :静物画 A realistic depiction of inanimate objects, esp. flowers, fruit, or domestic items. 以写实的手法描绘无生命的物体,比如花、水果、家什等。 Cezanne is known for his unique still life paintings of apples. 赛尚以独具一格的苹果静物画闻名遐迩。 59.surrealism :超现实主义 A style using subconscious mental activity as its subject matter, characterized by dreamlike, hallucinatory imagery. 将下意识的精神活动作为描写对象,多运用梦幻意象的艺术形式。 The artist Salvador Dali is synonymous with surrealism. 艺术家萨尔瓦多·达利是超现实主义的同义词。 60.Symbolism :象征主义 A 19th century French movement that rejected realism and expressed subjective visions through evocative images. 产生于 19 世纪的法国艺术运动。它摒弃现实主义手法,通过使人产生联想的意像表达主观感受。 Great art most always incorporates symbolism. 伟大的艺术几乎总具有象征意义。 61.video art :视频艺术 The use of filmed or videotaped material display alone or with other media.( late 20th century) 通过创造性地利用视频技术产生可以在电视屏幕上观看的一种艺术形式,产生于 20 世纪末。


Video art has become a popular medium in today’s art, especially in collages. 今天,视频艺术已经成为一种非常受欢迎的绘画形式,特别是拼贴画中。 62.watercolor :水彩颜料;水彩画 A paint which is mixed with water and used to create pictures; A picture which has been done with this type of paint. 一种与水混合用来作画的颜料;用这种颜料作的画。 My uncle did a beautiful watercolor of a sunset while in Mexico. 我的叔叔在墨西哥时画了一幅漂亮的日落水彩画。

商业·Business 63.account :财务帐;帐户 A record of financial transactions kept in a ledger. 在分类帐中保存的财务来往记录。 A bank account 银行帐户 A customer or client 顾客或客户 Let’s check the account again. 我们再查一遍帐。 How much is left in our bank account. 银行帐上还剩多少。 This firm is our best account. 这家商行是我们最好的客户。 64.accounting :会计 A system and process of gathering and recording financial information that provides a continuous balance between assets and liabilities. 收集和记录财务住处的制度和过程,并据此不断提供资产和负债之间的余额。 You need to discuss that matter with the accounting department. 你应当和财务部讨论这个问题。 65.accumulation :资本增益 An addition to capital investments or stock from profits. 资本投资的收益或股分增值。 What kink of accumulation are you getting on the ABC stock? 你有 ABC 公司的股份有什么资本增益? 66.affluence :富裕 The condition of substantial wealth and economic power. 拥有雄厚财富和经济实力的状况。 Luxury cars are targeted towards the affluent segment of a population. 豪华轿车是以人口中的富裕阶层为销售对象的。


67.affiliate :成员,分公司 A business that contracts to work with another business. 签订合同与另一公司合作的公司。 The ABC office supply company is one of our many affiliates. ABC 办公用品公司是我们众多分公司的其中之一。 68.agenda :日程表 A list of things to be done. 要处理的事务清单 Could you please fax me a copy of tomorrow’s agenda? 能否将明天的日程表给我发个传真? 69.agribusiness :农业综合企业 The production and marketing of corps by large corporations as opposed to individual farms. 由大集团公司进行的农产品的生产和销售,与个体农场主经营方式相反。 John was forced into bankruptcy when he lost millions of dollars he had invested in a poor agribusiness venture. 约翰在农业综合企业中投资不当,损失了数百万美元,被迫破产。 70.air-pocket stock :气穴股票 Stock that falls sharply on bad news. 一有坏消息便急剧下跌的股票。 Company stock sometimes turns into air-pocket stock upon the news of the company’s CEO’s serious illness or death. 一旦公司总裁病重或去世的消息传出,其股票有时会变成气穴股票。 71.annual report :年度报告 A financial report produced by the management of a corporation for shareholders the end of fiscal year. 在每个财政年末,由公司的资方向股东提供的财务报告。 72.asset :资产 A possession that can be turned into cash to cover liabilities 能被转化为现金以抵消债务的财物 We were forced to liquidate some of our assets to pay our debts. 我们被迫变卖一些资产以偿还债务。 73.automation :自动化 The replacement of human laborers with computers and self-regulating machines 用计算机和自动化控制的机器来代替人力。 Automation in factories will continue to eliminate more and more jobs into the 21 st century. 到 21 世纪,工厂的自动化将继续削减更多的就业机会。 74.balanced budget :平衡预算 Spending that is equal to revenue, esp. in government. 一个机构的开支和收入相等,特别指在政府方面


75.bankruptcy :破产 The inability to pay one’s debts; legal insolvency 无力偿还债务,法律上的资不抵债。 Many private companies are forced to declare bankruptcy when they begin to lose business to their competitors. 许多私营企业在经营上输给其竞争对手时,不得不宣布破产。 76.big business :大公司 A term used to describe large corporations, as opposed to small individually or family-owned business. 大规模的股份有限责任公司,与私有或家庭经营的小型企业相反。 Darren wants to get into big business some day. 77.Black Monday :黑色星期一 October 19, 1987, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell a record 508 points in trading on the New York Stock Exchange. 1987 年 10 月 19 日,纽约股票交易所道·琼斯工业股票平均指数狂跌创纪录的 508 点。 78.blue chip stock :热门股票,绩优股,蓝筹股 A term used to describe high-quality stocks of financially sound corporations 指财务上可靠的公司发行的高质量股票。 Mr. Jeppson has a portfolio of nothing but blue chip stocks. 杰普逊先生持有的有价证券里全部都是热门股票。 79.bond :债券 A security issued by a corporation or public body and carrying a fixed rate of interest 由公司或政府机构发行的固有利率的有价债券。 What’s the interest rate on these bonds? 这些债券的利率是多少? 80.boom :繁荣 A period of great economic activity and business expansion (企业等)经济非常活跃,经营扩张的时期。 The soft drink business always booms in the summertime. 饮料业在夏天总是兴旺繁荣。 81.boondoggle :无效的投资 A wasteful business venture 不见回报的经营投机 Our investment in water softeners was a boondoggle. 我们在水软化器上的投资打了水漂。 82.bottom line :最终结果 The final result or ultimate objective 最终的结果或目标 What’s the bottom line of your proposal?


你的建议要达到的最终目标是什么? 83.boycott :抵制 The refusal to purchase the products of an individual, corporation, or nation as a way to bring social and political pressure for change. 拒绝购买某一个人、公司或国家的产品,作为施加社会、政治压力,促进其改变政策的一种手段。 Americans boycotted tuna several years ago until tuna companies guaranteed that they weren’t catching dolphins in their tuna nets. 几年前美国人抵制金枪鱼,直至金枪鱼公司保证在捕捞金枪鱼时放掉海豚。 84.budget :预算 A plan of expenditures based on anticipated revenues. 根据估算的收入而制订的开支计划。 How much do we have left in our budget? 我们的预算还剩多少? 85.business cycle :景气周期 Periodic rise and fall in economic activity 经济活动中周期性的涨落。 U.S. retailers see the same basic business cycle every year and typically do most of their business during the Christmas season. 美国零售商们每年都经历相同的景气周期。通常情况下,他们大部分生产都是在圣诞节期间做的。 86.bust :崩溃 An informal term referring to a financial or economic collapse 非正式用语,指金融或经济上破产。 The economy is currently in a bust. 目前经济处于崩溃之中。 87.buying power :购买力 Purchasing power 购买商品的能力。 The buying power of the dollar has steadily declined during the last twenty-five years. 在过去的 25 年里,美元的购买力持续下降。 88.capital :资本 Money, assets, or property used as a means of production or for investment 可以用作生产或投资手段的金钱、资产或财物。 Some futurists claim that human capital is a company’s greatest asset. 一些未来学家声称公司的人力资本是其最大的资产。 89.capitalism :资本主义 An economic system based on private ownership and profit incentive 建立在私有制和利润刺激基础上的一种经济制度。


People in some countries don’t really understand the system of capitalism. 一些国家的人们并不真正理解资本主义制度。 90.cash cow :摇钱树 An informal term for a business with a dependable source of income 非正式用语。指收入来源可靠的生意。 This product has always been a cash cow for our company. 这种产品一直是我们公司的摇钱树。 91.cash flow :现金流通 Fluctuations in a company’s cash position 公司现金形势的波动情况。 Our company is currently having a cash flow problem. 92.CEO :总裁,总经理 An acronym for “chief executive officer”. The highest executive officer of a company. “chief executive officer”的缩略词。指公司的最高行政长官。 Advertisers are using CEO’s more frequently in their company’s commercials because studies show that people trust and admire leaders. 广告商们在广告片中越来越多地利用总裁的形象,因为研究表明,人们相信、崇拜领导者。 93.Chapter 11 :破产条款 A bankruptcy code section that applies to a corporation going out of business which may require restructuring. 破产法的部分章节,适用于需要重组的倒闭公司。 Rumors are spreading that one of the big movie companies is filing a chapter 11. 有谣言说一家大的电影公司正申请破产。 94.commercialism :重商主义,商业行为 The practice and spirit of business in which the making of profits is emphasized. 商业做法和精神,强调利润的追求。 Many American dislike the commercialism that is associated with Christmas. 95.competition :竞争 The rivalry between similar businesses for customers or clients. 经营产品相近的厂商间争夺顾客或客户的斗争。 Competition in business is good because it generally results in better quality and lower prices for consumers. 商业竞争中是好事,它可以为消费者带来更好的质量和更低的价格。 96.conglomerate :集团公司,联合大企业 A corporation made up several companies that produce large quantities of output in a variety of industries. 诸多产业中,由几家公司组成的股份公司,大量生产各种产品。 Proctor & Gamble is a large personal product conglomerate. 宝洁公司是一家生产个人卫生用品的大集团公司。


97.consumerism : (1)消费; (2)消费者权益运动 The consumption of goods and service. 商品和服务的耗费 Inflation always hurts consumerism. 通货膨胀总是打击消费。 The protection of consumers form poor products or misleading claims. 保护消费者免受劣质产品和误导性广告的侵害。 The U.S. Food and Drug administration tries to regulate consumerism. 美国食品和医药管理局想规范消费者权益运动。 98.consumer price index :消费品价格指数 A measure of the fluctuation in prices of common consumer goods and services over a fixed time period. 在一定时期内衡量常用消费品和服务价格波动情况的一种尺度。 The consumer price index is a good reference tool to use in order to learn how much the price of a specific item has changed over the last several years. 想了解某一特定商品在过去几年内的价格变化情况,消费品价格指数是一个很好的工具。 99.corporate ladder :公司的官阶 A series of steps in the organizational hierarchy of a company. 公司组织等级制度中的一系列晋升阶梯。 Climbing the corporate ladder is not as popular as it used to be. 走公司的晋升之道不象以前那样有吸引力了。 100.corporate raider :强行收购 A person, company, etc. that attempts to take over another company, exp. by buying up the stock of the target company. 个人或公司通常以全部买下其看准的公司的股份而吞并该公司。

101.cost cutting :削减成本 A reactive measure taken by companies esp. in hard times, in order to save money by eliminating waste or unnecessary spending. 公司采取的应付措施,特别是在困难时期,通过减少浪费和不必要的开支来节省资金。 Companies in the 90s have been implementing a lot of cost cutting in order to become more efficient and competitive. 为了提高效率和竞争力,许多公司在 90 年代一直在实施削减成本的各种措施。 102.cost of living :生活费用 The average cost for the basic necessities of life 支付基本生活必需品的平均花费。 Many employees expect a yearly cost of living increase in their paychecks. 很多雇员希望其工资的生活费用部分每年都有增长。 103.creeping inflation :轻度通货膨胀 The barely noticeable but persistent increase in prices.


物价不断上涨,但因涨幅很小而不为人注意。 Creeping inflation continues to spread throughout the economy in the 1990s. 90 年代轻度通货膨胀一直波及经济生活 104.decline :萎缩,下降 A period of reduced business activity. 经营活动下降的时期。 College students are not happy about the decline of job opportunities waiting for them when they graduate. 大学生们对其毕业后就业机会的减少感到忧心忡忡。 105.deficit :赤字 A budget imbalance in which expenditures exceed income. 支出超过收入的预算失衡 Our company ran a deficit for the first three years before we started to make any profit. 我们公司在开始赢利前的头三年中都是亏损经营。 106.deflation :通货紧缩 A decrease in the money supply, causing a sharp fall in prices. 货币供应的减少,导致物价的急剧下降。 Consumers are always motivated by deflation. 通货紧缩往往能刺激消费者的购买欲。 107.demand :需求 The desire and ability of consumers to purchase goods and services. 消费者购买商品和服务的能力。 Marketers and advertisers are always looking for new ways to create demand for their client’s products. 营销商和广告商总是在寻找新的途径以创造其客户对产品的需求。 108.depression :萧条 A severe, extended period of decline in business activity. 商业活动严重减少并且长时间没有好转。 Many older Americans remember the great depression of the 1930s. 许多上了年纪的美国人对三十年代的大萧条仍记忆犹新。 109.deregulation :撤消管制 A gradual removal of government control over business. 政府逐步撤消对经营活动的控制。 Most business and industries approve of deregulation from government control. 大多数公司和产业赞成政府撤消管制。 110.distribution :商品流通 The marketing of merchandising. 商品的营销。 If a product doesn’t have good distribution, it won’t sell.


商品流通如果不畅就卖不出去。 111.diversification :经营多样化 The act of expanding business by increasing the number of goods produced or the number of services offered. 通过增加产品品种和服务项目来扩展经营业务。 Many fast food businesses are diversifying in an attempt to capture more customers form their competitors. 许多快餐企业正实行经营多样化,力图从其竞争对手手中夺取更多的顾客。 112.dumping :倾销 The act of selling goods below cost to other nations to eliminate surpluses or offset competition. 以低于成本的价格向其他国家销售产品以减少过剩产品,引发竞争。 The U.S. has accused Japan of dumping mini-vans here in American. 美国控告日本在美国倾销小型货车。 113.economics :经济学 The study of wealth and its creation, distribution, and consumption. 形容财富及其创造、分配和消费的科学。 Susan is majoring in economics at Harvard. 苏珊在哈佛攻读经济学专业。 114.economy :经济 The organization of social and political institutions and business for production. 社会及政治机构的组织以及以生产经营为目的的企业组织。 National leaders must always worry about the state of the economy. 国家领导人必须一直为经济状况操心。 115.Fortune 500 : 《财富》500 家公司 A list of the 500 largest American corporations published annually by “Fortune” magazine. 由《财富》杂志每年公布的全美国最大的 500 家公司。 Who are the top 10 companies on the Fortune 500 list? 在《财富》500 家公司中,前 10 名是哪些? 116.franchise :经销权,连锁店 A contract or license permitting a regional distributor to use the name and sell products of another company. 地区分销商得到其他公司的合同或许可证,有权使用其名称并销售其产品。 Clancy is opening a new McDonald’s franchise in London. 克兰西在伦敦开了一家麦当劳连锁店。 117.freeze :冻结 The fixing of some economic factor, such as prices, employment, spending, etc. 停止一些经济因素的变动,如价格、就业、开支等。 The government caused a price freeze at the gas pumps. 政府冻结了汽油泵的价格。


118.full employment


An economic condition in which unemployment is deemed minimal and acceptable, usually under six percent. 失业率处于可接受的最小值,常常是6%以下的经济形势。 The condition of full employment is something that most countries rarely achieve. 充分就业是大多数国家很少取得的经济局面。 :热门股票

119.glamour stock

A stock in a new or rapidly developing industry that tends to rise quickly in price. 新兴且发展迅速的产业所发行的股票,有迅速升值的趋势。 John specializes in buying glamour stock, particular in media, and entertainment companies. 约翰专门购买由传媒、娱乐公司发行的热门股票。 120.glas ceiling :性别障碍,玻璃天花板 A term used to describe an invisible barrier that prevents women from entering the ranks of senior-level management. 指阻止女性进入高级管理阶层的一种无形障碍。 Many women in the 90s are protesting the glass ceiling that bars them form upper management in large corporation. 90 年代,许多妇女抗议阻止她们进入大公司高级管理阶层的性别障碍。 121.global economy :全球经济 Worldwide trade, travel, competition, etc. 世界范围内的贸易、旅游、竞争等。 Companies in the 1990s are thinking globally in order to stay competitive in the new global economy. 为在新的全球经济中保持竞争力,90 年代的公司都从全球的角度考虑问题。 122.GNP :国民生产总值 An abbr. For “gross national product.” The total annual monetary value of all goods, services, and products sold on markets of national economy. “gross national product” 的缩写词,指在国民经济市场上销售的所有商品、服务和产品的年度货币总值。 What was Japan’s GNP in 1987? 1987 年日本的国民生产总值是多少? 123.golden parachute :高额离职补贴 A substantial compensation given to top executives as a severance bonus when they are terminated from the positions in the event of a corporate merger or takeover. 在发生合并或兼并的情况下,公司高层行政领导离开其职位时所获得的丰厚补偿,作为高额离职补助金。 CEOs typically receive a golden parachute when their companies are seized in a hostile takeover. 公司被他方恶意接管时,通常情况下总裁们都会得到高额的离职补贴。 124.gray market :灰色市场 A market in which scare goods such as computer chips are traded at above-market prices through irregular channels or by methods not illegal but usually not considered ethical. 以高于正常市场价格来销售稀缺商品如电脑芯片的市场。这种交易通常以非正常渠道进行,手段虽不犯法但也不 被认为是合乎道德的。 Our company is losing a lot of money to similar products being sold on the gray market.


由于类似产品在灰色市场上销售,我们公司损失很大。 125.greenmail :绿票欺诈 The purchase, usually in secret, of a large block of a company’s stock, thereby signaling a possible takeover attempt, and ultimately forcing the company to try to thwart the attempt by buying back its stock at a much higher price. 秘密购买一公司的大部分股票,以此暗示可能进行接管,最终迫使该公司为挫败对方的企图,不得不以高出很多 的价格买回股份。 The ABC company found themselves a victim of greenmail when they realized they had bought back their stock at a much higher price. 当 ABC 公司以高得多的价格买回自己的股份时,发现本公司成了绿票欺诈的受害者。 126.hardball :商场上的杀手锏,动真格 Slang for highly competitive or ruthless business practices. 俚语,指生意上极具竞争力或冷酷无情的做法。 Our competitors are using tactics that indicate that they want to play hardball. 我们的竞争对手所用的战术表明他们要动真格了。 127.hostile takeover :敌意接管 The act of taking control of a company by buying up enough of its stock t gain a controlling interest. 通过购买足够股份从而获得控股权的办法来接管一家公司。 Last year the small airline company was bought up in a hostile takeover. 去年这家小航空公司在一次敌意接管中被收购。 128.hyperinflation :高通胀 Rapid inflation and major shortages caused by panic buying. 迅猛的通货膨胀和抢购造成严重的商品短缺。 The fear of sudden natural disaster caused hyperinflation to occur in certain food markets because of panic buying by the public. 由于担心自然灾害会突然降临,公众疯狂抢购,导致了一些食品市场的高通胀。 129.inflation :通货膨胀 A sustained rise in the price of goods and services. 商品和服务的价格持续上涨。 Has the rate of inflation dropped in the last six months? 在过去的6个月里通货膨胀率下降了吗? 130.junk bond :风险债券,垃圾债券 A slang term for a high-risk bond that offers a high return but is considered to have a dubious backing. 俚语。指高风险高回报的债券,但被认为有可疑的背景支持。 Michael Milken will always be synonymous with the term ”junk bond king.” 迈克尔·米尔肯总是“风险债券之王”的同义词。 131.labor-intensive :劳动密集型的 (adj.)A term used to describe production that uses more labor than capital.


运用人力多于资本的生产。 The parts are very labor-intensive which makes them very expensive. 零件是用密集劳动生产出来的,这样价格就很贵。 132.leveraged buyout(LBO) :举债收购 A procedure by which an investor borrows money to purchase enough of a company’s assets to gain a controlling interest, using the assets of the targeted firm as collateral. 投资者以收购对象的资产作担保,借钱来收购该公司的足够资产以获得控股权的过程。 Sometimes a smaller company will use the technique of a leveraged buyout to takeover another company. 有时候小公司可以用举债收购的手段来接管另一家公司。 133.macroeconomics :宏观经济学 An economic branch dealing with broad aspects of the economy, esp. factors on a national level. 经济学的分支,研究经济的宏观方面,尤其是国家层次上的因素。 Mr. Samuels is an expert in macroeconomics. 塞谬尔斯先生是位宏观经济学专家。 134.market share :市场份额 A percentage of total sales within a specific market by one company. 一公司产品的销售总额在某一特定商品市场上所占的百分比。 The kelloggs company has over 50 percent of the market share for breakfast cereals 克洛格公司在早餐粥市场上占有超过 50%以上的份额。 135.mass production :大规模生产 The manufacturing of goods in large quantities using standardized parts and assembly lines. 利用标准零件和生产线大批量生产商品 Mass production allows a lot of people to enjoy a particular product at a more reasonable price. 大规模生产使得很多人能以更为便宜的价格享用某种产品。 136.microeconomics :微观经济学 The branch of economics that deals with single units of production and consumption. 经济学的分支,研究生产和消费的单个单位。 Microeconomics in the future will lead to more customization and specialization of products for consumers. 在未来微观经济会导致产品的专业化和客户化以方便顾客。 137.mogul :商业巨头 Informal. A rich and powerful person in business or industry. 非正式用语。商业或产业界的富有且势力大的人物。 We watched a television interview of an entertainment mogul who had amassed a fortune of over $ 100 million. 我们收看了一段电视访谈,采访对象是一位拥有一亿多美元资产的娱乐业巨头。 138.mommy track :母亲路线 A career path in which a woman declines rapid advancement in order to spend time with her family. 女性的职业模式。指女性不愿晋升过快,以便有更多时间和家人相处。


Millions of women in the 1990s are choosing the mommy track over climbing the corporate ladder. 90 年代,数以百万计的妇女宁愿走母亲路线也不愿攀登公司的官阶。 139.monopoly :垄断 A domination of the market by a single company. 由单一公司统治市场的局面。 The breakup of monopolies creates competition, which leads to better quality and lower prices for the public. 打破垄断可以产生竞争,这会给公众带来更好的质量和更低的价格。 140.oligopoly :寡头垄断 A market condition in which there are few sellers, enabling them to influence price and other factors. 少数商家占有市场,因此他们可以操纵价格和其他因素。 The U.S. auto industry is an oligopoly, because there are only three main producers. 美国汽车工业是寡头垄断的行业,因为只有 3 家主安生产商。 141.Pac Man defense :帕克曼防卫 An attempt to prevent a hostile takeover in which a targeted company bids to take over the hostile firm. 被定为兼并对象的公司通过出价收购敌对公司,从而阻止其恶意收购。 The out-throat 1980s made strategies like Pac Man defense essential to companies who wanted to survive a hostile takeover. 在竞争残酷无情的 80 年代,对于那些希望躲过恶意兼并的公司来说,帕克曼防卫之类的战略手段太重要了。 142.Paper profit :纸上盈利 An unrealized profit due to appreciation in value of something owned but not yet sold. 对拥有的某种商品进行估价而计算出来的利润,因为商品没有出手,利润尚未实现。 Jack’s business showed a paper profit last year simply due to the appreciation. 因为评估了公司的所有的资产,去年杰克的生意才有纸上盈利。 143.paradigm shift :改组 A term by a CEO to inform his company that there will be major changes made. 公司总裁通知公司上下将有重大变化时所用的词。 The CEO of a major computer software manufacture announced a paradigm shift to his executives today. 一家大型软件生产商的总裁今天宣布要对其管理人员进行改组。 144.Peter Principle :彼得原则 A statement that every employee in a hierarchy tends to rise to the level of his or her incompetence. 一种认为在等级森严的公司里,每个职员都想升到其无法胜任的位置的说法。 The term “Peter Principle” has become quite popular among the American work force. 在美国的劳动力大军里,常可听到”彼得原则”这个术语。 145.poison pill :反兼并手段,毒丸 Any of various methods devised by a company to thwart a hostile takeover attempt, such as by issuing new stock or instituting a generous package of employee benefits, which would prove costly to a potential acquirer. 公司为挫败敌意兼并所采取的各式各样的方法,如发行新股票,为雇员制定慷慨的福利计划。这会使潜在的兼并


者感到代价昂贵而放弃兼并。 146.power lunch :事务餐 A business lunch where food is an afterthought to intense dealmaking and negotiation. 在工作午餐上,忙于紧张的交易和谈判而顾不上吃饭。 We’re discussing the possibilities of a company merger over a power lunch this afternoon. 今天下午我们在事务餐上讨论了公司合并的可能性。 147.productivity :生产力 A measure of ability to produce output from given input 一定投入得到产出的能力的衡量尺度。 Productivity at the XYZ company was up slightly this month over last. XYZ 公司本月的生产比上月略有提高。 148.quality control :质量管理 Techniques used to eliminate defective products or to improve performance standards and practices. 采用技术以消除次品,或提高经营水平。 No company can afford to neglect quality control if they wish to remain competitive in the new global economy. 任何一家公司要想在新的全球经济中保持竞争力,就不得不重视质量管理。 149.raw goods :原材料商品 Materials gathered in original state from nature for use in production. 源于自然,收购来用于生产的原始材料。 Knowledge and information are becoming the most valuable assets to a company while raw goods are becoming less and less valuable. 知识和信息正成为公司最有价值的资产,而原材料商品的价值越来越低。 150.recession :衰退 A period of no growth in the national economy for at least six months. 国民经济在至少 6 个月的时间里没有任何增长。 A recession is characterized by a decreased demand for goods, increased unemployment, and decline in the gross national product. 衰退的特点是需求下降,失业增加,国民生产总值减少。 151.recovery :复苏 An increase in business activity following a recession or depression. 在经历衰退或萧条之后出现的经营活动的增加。 Economists often disagree on whether the U.S. is in 经济学家们对美国经济是否已经复苏看法不一。 152.sanction :制载 Coercive economic restrictions placed on one nation by another. 一国施加给另一国的强制性经济限制。 The two superpowers are currently negotiating trade sanctions. a recovery or not.


两个超级大国目前正就贸易制载进行谈判。 153.service economy :服务经济 An economy that emphasizes services over industrial production. 强调服务甚于工业生产的经济。 You can enjoy almost anything you want in today’s service economy. 在今天的服务经济中,你可以享受到几乎任何形式的服务。 154.slump :疲软 A decline in business activity. 经济活动的减少。 The car industry has been in a slump since the beginning of the year. 汽车工业从年初起就一直疲软。 155.smokestack industry :浓烟工业 A term that refers to heavy manufacturing, such as steel or automobile manufacturing. 指重工业,如钢铁和汽车制造业。 Information and entertainment is replacing the smokestack industry as the new major methods of creating wealth in the economy. 信息和娱乐业正代替浓烟工业,在经济中充当创造财富的新型手段。 156.socioeconomic :社会经济的 A term used to describe the connection of social and economic factors. 用以描述社会和经济因素的联系。 The study of socioeconomic factors is important in order to understand various groups within society. 要了解社会的各个群体,必须研究社会经济的种种因素。 157.stagflation :滞胀 A term that combines inflation and stagnation. A condition when inflation and high unemployment occurring together. “通胀”和”停滞”结合而成的术语,指通货膨胀与高失业率并存的局面。 Stagflation is a very unpopular buzz word in the business world. 滞胀是商界不受欢迎的时髦词语。 158.stock exchange :股票交易所 A market where securities are traded, such as the New York Stock Exchange. 进行证券交易的市场,如纽约股票交易所。 My friends works at the New York Stock Exchange. 我的朋友在纽约股票交易所工作。 159.stock market : (1)股市; (2)股市行情 A market in which stocks are bought and sold. 股票买卖的地方。 The general condition of the sale of securities in a corporation. 一家公司的证券销售情况。


The Wall Street Journal gives a daily report of the stock market. 《华尔街日报》每天报告股市行情。 160.supply and demand :供需 A basic economic law stating that as the price of a good increase, suppliers will be willing to produce more but consumers will demand less, so that price and quantity are both interrelated. 一条经济基本法则,即商品价格上涨时,生产商愿意扩大生产,但消费者的需求下降,这样价格和数量相互制约。 All products must follow the laws of supply and demand. 所有的产品都必须遵守供求法则。 161.surplus :过剩 A situation in which the supply of goods exceeds the demand, esp. at a given price. 特别是以一定价格销售的商品的供应超过需求的状况。 Smart consumers try to purchase items that are in surplus in order to get more for the same money. 精明的消费者在商品过剩时购买,以便用同样的钱购买更多的商品。 162.tax shelter : 减免所得税 An investment in certain business, activities, etc. that legally entitles the investor to avoid, reduce, or defer income taxes. 在某些行业、活动等方面的投资,投资者合法地享受减、免或缓交所得税。 Some business use tax shelters in an effort to reduce or defer their income tax. 一些公司采取合法减免所得税的手段来减少或迟交所得税。 163.tech angst : 技术顾虑 (A combination of “technological” and “anxiety”.) The fear of automation among consumers. “technological”(技术的)和 “anxiety”(担心)的合成词。顾客对自动化产生的担心。 The tech angst of many people makes them reluctant to put their trust in automated teller machines. 许多人有技术顾虑,因而不愿使用自动提款机。 164.technological monopoly : 技术垄断 A condition in which a company has exclusive rights to a patented product or process. 一公司对专利产品或制作方法享有专属权的状况。 AT & T has a technological monopoly over a number of products and processes in the communications world. 在通讯领域中,美国电话电报公司在一些产品和方法 享有技术垄断。 165.trade barriers : 贸易壁垒 Tariffs, quotas, and other regulations used by one country to discourage the importation of certain goods. 一个国家为阻碍某些产品的进口所采用的关税、配额和其他规定。 The U.S. is poised to eliminate trade barriers with Mexico and other neighboring countries. 美国准备减少同墨西哥及其他邻近国家的贸易壁垒。 166.trade deficit : 贸易赤字 An imbalance in which a nation’s imports exceed its exports. 一国进口超过其出口的不平衡状况。 No nation wants to run a continuous trade deficit with other countries.


没有一个国家愿意自己同他国的贸易处于持续的赤字状态。 167.trade imbalance : 贸易不平衡 A condition in which a nation’s exports and imports and imports are not equal. 一国的出口和进口不持平的状况。 The subject of trade imbalance is an ongoing debate between the U.S. and Japan. 贸易不平衡是美日两国间长期争论的话题。 168.trickle-down economics : 滴入式经济学 A theory that government financial incentives to big business will eventually benefit smaller businesses and general public. 一种经济理论,认为政府对大企业的财政补贴最终使小企业和大众受益。 President Bill Clinton dose not believe that trickle-down economics works for the benefit of the nation. 克林顿总统不相信滴入式经济学有益于国家。 169.trust : 托拉斯 Several companies acting together to control production, pricing, and distribution of a product. 几家公司联合行动以控制一种新产品的生产、定价和销售。 The government has anti=trust laws that regulate against companies forming trusts in order to control product prices and distribution. 政府有反托拉斯法,反对公司组成意在控制产品价格和销售的托拉斯。 170.upward mobility : 往上晋升 The movement of an individual to ever higher levels of responsibility in a company. 一个人在公司里上升到承担相应责任的较高职位。 It was no surprise to the other workers that the boss’s nephew enjoined such a great degree of upward mobility. 老板的侄子往上晋升如此之快,其他工人并不感意外。 171.white knight : 公司的救星 A business that prevents a hostile takeover of another company by offering better terms. 一公司通过提出更优厚的条件来阻止另一公司被他人敌意兼并。 One of our affiliates acted as a white knight on our behalf and saved us from being the victims of a hostile takeover. 我们的一家分公司充当了我们公司的救星,使我们免遭敌意兼并。

计算机·Computer 172.abort :异常中止 To cancel or end a program or procedure while it is in progress. 取消或终止正在运行的程序或过程 We decided to abort the program. 我们决定中止这项程序。 173.access :访问,存取


The locating and/or obtaining of desired data. 查找和/或获取所需数据 Only authorized personnel can access these computer files. 只有经过授权的人才可以访问这些计算机文件。 174.artificial intelligence (AI) :人工智能 The branch of computer science that deals with using computers to simulate human thinking and to perform functions normally associated with human intelligence. 计算机科学的一个分支,研究如何使用电脑模仿人的思维,并执行一些通常与人类智能有关的功能。 Artificial intelligence has been the focus of much hype since the early 1980s and is widely expected to be achieved in the 21st century. 自从 80 年代初以来,人工智能一直被大量宣传。人们普遍认为在 21 世纪人工智能将获得成功。 175.backup copy :备份 A copy of a current file made in order to protect against loss or damage. 为防止当前文件的丢失或损坏而另存储的一份。 Did you make a backup copy of that file? 那份文件你有备份吧? 176.batch :批(处理) A group of records or transactions that can be processed together. 可以一块处理的一组记录或事务。 I've gotta finish this batch by tomorrow. 明天之前我必须做完这批处理。 177.boot (up) :启动 To start up a computer, making it ready to operate. 打开电脑使之可以运行。 Just a minute, I'm waiting for my computer to boot up. 等会儿,我正等我的电脑启动起来。 178.bug :错误,故障 A mistake or malfunction that can occur in a computer program. 电脑程序可能出现的错误或故障。 For some reason, we've been experiencing some bugs in this particular program. 不知什么原因,这个特定程序总有错误。 179.canned software :软件包 Programs prepared by computer manufacturers that are in ready to use form and can used by many business and individuals. 由电脑生产商准备好的可供公司或个人即买即用的程序。 WordPefect 6.0 is one of the newest items of canned software on the market. WordPefect6.0 是市场上销售的软件包中最新的一款软件。


180.character :字符 Any symbol, digit, letter, etc. that is stored or processed by a computer. 由电脑存储、处理的任何符号、数字、字母等。 An optical scanner can actually read characters and transfer them to the monitor screen of a computer. 光学扫描仪能读出字符,并将其转换到电脑显示屏上。 181.clones :克隆,仿制品 A term used to describe a product that is a copy of another one, such as a computer clone. 指以其他产品为范本复制出来的产品。 In the new global economy, there are dozens of computer clones on the market. 在经济全球化的今天,市场上有几十种电脑仿制品。 182.coding :编码 The writing of a list of computer instructions causing it to perform specific functions and operations. 编写一系列计算机的指令,使之执行特定功能和操作。 We are currently recoding all the computers in our office. 我们现在正为办公室的所有计算机重新编码。 183.computerese :计算机行话 Slang for computer jargon. 计算机专业术语的俚称。 Are you fluent in computerese? 你对计算机行话熟悉吗? 184.computernik :计算机专家,计算机迷 Slang for a person who spends a lot of time using computers. 俚语,指长时间使用电脑的人。 John hangs around with all the computernik. 约翰同许多计算机机专家有来往。 185.crash : (系统)崩溃 A system shutdown caused by a hardware or software malfunction. 由硬件、软件故障导致系统的关闭。 Our system just crashed. 我们的系统刚才崩溃了。 186.data leakage : 数据丢失 The illegal removal of data from a computer. 非法移动电脑中的数据。 We’ve had no data leakage problems since we’ve installed our new security program. 自从安装新的保密程序后,我们的电脑没有出现数据丢失的问题。 187.dot matrix : 点阵(打印) Forming letters or characters from dots, as opposed to type.


通过输出点来形成字母或字符,这和(传统的)打字相反。 Dot matrix printers are being phased out and replaced by printers that can produce clean type. 点阵式打印机正被淘汰,并为高清晰度打印机所取代。 188.downtime : 故障停机时间 The length of time a computer is “down” because of a malfunction. 由于故障而使电脑停机的时间。 Sorry, you’ll have to come back later – the computers are down. 抱歉,你待等会儿再来,我们的电脑出故障了。 How much downtime did we log last month? 我们上个月的故障停机时间有多长? 189.info highway : 信息高速公路 The flow of TV and cable channels that will allow individuals to access a revolutionary variety of entertainment, news, communications, home-shopping, etc. 电视和电讯通道的信息传输,这些信息通道让个人获得大量的娱乐、新闻、通讯服务和在家购物等,其种类令人 目不暇接。 Time Magazine featured a cover devoted to the new info highway in early 1993. 1993 年初, 《时代周刊》刊载了一篇封面文章,专门介绍信息高速公路。 190.infomaion overload : 信息充塞 A condition characterized by an excess of messages demanding attention, which leads to confusion and a loss of efficiency. 需要关注的信息内容过多的状况,这种状况导致混乱和效率的降低。 Most of us are suffering from information overload in the 1990s. 在 90 年代我们大多数人都受害于信息充塞。 191.information revolution :信息革命 A condition characterized by an excess of message demanding attention, which leads to confusion and a loss of efficiency. 需要关注的信息内容过多的状况,这种状况导致混乱和效率的降低。 192.ink-jet printer :喷墨打印机 An output device that prints by spraying a thin stream of ink onto the paper. 一种通过喷射细墨水流到纸上的打印装置。 What brand of ink-jet printer do you use? 你用的是什么牌子的喷墨打印机? 193.knowledge engineering :知识工程学 The scientific study of integrating knowledge into computer systems to solve complex problems that would usually require human expertise. 一科学领域,主要研究如何将知识合成到电脑系统中以解决通常需要专门知识才能解决的复杂问题。 The next generation of computers will integrate knowledge engineering into their programming in order to solve complex problems in a way that more closely resembles human reasoning. 下一代计算机将会把知识工程学融合到其程序中,以便用一种近似人类思维的方法来解决复杂问题。


194.pixel :象素 The smallest display picture element on a video display screen. 在显示屏上所显示图像的最小显示元素。 The display screen of a computer contains thousands of tiny pixels that convey the images on the computer screen. 电脑显示屏上有千千万万个象素,这些元构成了屏幕上的图像。 195.software piracy :软件盗版 The duplication of commercial software without permission from the developer. 未经开发商许可复制商业软件的侵权行为。 The XYZ company used international lawyers to prosecute a crime ring involving software piracy in Taiwan. 某某公司聘请国际律师起诉台湾的一个涉嫌软件盗版的犯罪团伙。 196.superconductor :超导体 Material that has almost no resistance to the flow of electricity. 对电流几乎没有阻力的材料。 The new technology of superconductors has advanced the world of communications by allowing more information to be sent in a much faster manner. 超导体技术可以使更多的信息以快得多的速度传输,从而促进了通信业的发展。 197.telecommuting :居家办公,远程上班 Working at home and using a computer to communicate and interact with the office. 使用电脑同办公室保持通讯联络,从而实现在家办公。 More and more people are now telecommuting one or more days a week as opposed to going to the office everyday. 与以前每天去办公室上班不同,现在越来越多的人每周一天或几天在家办公。 198.touch screen :触摸屏 A computer that can be given commands by touching its display screen in the appropriate locations. 一种电脑的屏幕,使用者可以触摸其适当的位置而对电脑发出指令。 Some restaurants have provided touch screen computers to enable their customers to order food via the computer without to tell someone. 199.user-friendly :方便用户的 Hardware or software that is designed to help people become familiar with their computer by simple, easy-to-follow instructions. 电脑生产厂商所设计的一些硬件和软件,可让用户通过一些简单易学的指令来熟悉其电脑。 Computers must be user-friendly in order to be accepted by the public. 要让公众接受,电脑必须让用户感到方便。 200.Virus :病毒 Coded directions in software that can erase or replace files and operating software in a computer. A computer virus can sit undetected in a computer until it's automatically activated, as when computer's clock strikes a certain date. 软件中的密码指令,它可删除、转换电脑中的文件以及操作软件。电脑病毒会隐藏在电脑中不被发现,当电脑时 钟指向某一日期它会被自动激活。


犯罪 · Crime 201.accomplice : 同案犯 Any person who takes part in a crime. 参与犯罪的每个人。 Tony was found to be an accomplice in the crime. 人们发现托尼是该案的同案犯。 202.adult business district : 红灯区 A neighborhood zoned for pornographic bookstores and movie theaters, striptease bars, etc. 划定的街区,作为开设色情书店、影院、脱衣舞场等的场所。 Police are constantly arresting people over in the adult business district. 警察常在红灯区拘捕人犯。 203.agricrime : 农业犯罪 Sort for agricultural crime. The theft of crops and /or farm equipment. “agricultural crime”的缩写词,偷盗庄稼和/或农场设备的犯罪。 Farmers are losing thousands of dollars each year due to agricrime. 每年农业犯罪给农场主造成了成千上万美元的损失。 204.armed robbery :武装抢劫 The act of using a deadly weapon when raking or attempting to take property form another person or party. 夺取或试图夺取他人或他方财物时使用致命武器的犯罪行为。 Did you read about the armed robbery in this morning’s paper? 今早的报纸上报道了这次武装抢劫,你读了吗? 205.arrest warrant : 逮捕证 A document that orders the arrest of an individual who has been accused with a crime. 对被指控犯罪的某人实施搜捕的文件。 The court issued an arrest warrant on the suspect. 法庭对这个嫌疑人发出了逮捕证。 206.arson : 纵火 The crime of intentionally destroying property by the use of fire. 故意放火毁坏财产的犯罪。 Police think the fire that burned down the old warehouse was an act of arson. 警察怀疑这座仓库的大火是纵火行为所致。 207.assassin : 暗杀 A murderer. A person who sets out to kill someone, esp. a prominent person. 谋杀者。密谋杀害他人,特别是一位杰出人物的凶手。 Police are still looking for the assassin of the president candidate.


警方仍在追查暗杀总统候选人的凶手。 208.assault : 袭击 The act of attempting or threatening to harm another person. 试图伤害或威胁要伤害他人的行为。 Mr. Green was assaulted while he was walking on 25th street. 格林先生在第 25 大街行走的时候受到袭击。 209.attack dog : 攻击犬 A canine dog that has been trained to attack burglars, etc. 一种经过训练的狼犬,用来攻击窃贼等。 The officer’s attack dog has saved his life many times. 这位警察的攻击犬多次救了主人的命。 210.back-alley butcher : 卑鄙的屠夫 Slang for abortionist. 俚语,给人施行流产手术的人。 Demonstrators picked an abortion clinic with signs that said “back-alley” butcher. 示威者将一家流产诊所用标语牌围起来,牌子上写着”卑鄙的屠夫”。 211.bail : 保释金 Money that is deposited with a court in order to secure the release of a defendant while awaiting trial. 存放在法庭的一定数量的保证金,以使被告在候审期间获得释放。 Frank’s wife came down to the police station to bail him out. 弗兰克的妻子到警察局将他保释出来。 212.ballistics : 弹道学 The science of firearms and the study of the motion of bullets. 研究火器及子弹运动的科学。 A ballistics expert was taking evidence at the scene of the crime. 一位弹道学家正在犯罪现场提取证据。 213.blackmail : 敲诈,勒索 The act of threatening to reveal personal information, esp. sexual scandals, in order to extract money. 以揭露隐私特别是性丑闻为威胁手段以谋取钱财的行为。 Linda was involved in a blackmail scandal of the mayor. 林达涉嫌敲诈市长的丑闻。 214.black market : 黑市 A market place where illegal or hard-to-get items are sold or where money is illegal exchanged. 非法或紧俏物资的销售点,或者非法换汇的地方。 Gangs are buying assault weapons on the black market. 黑帮总在黑市购买攻击性武器。


215.blood money : 血腥钱 Money that is paid as retribution for injury, loss of life, vandalism, etc. 为他人受伤、丧命、损坏财产而付出的酬金。 The mafia paid blood money to have that man killed. 黑手党拿出血腥钱将那人杀了。 216.body bag : 装尸袋 A heavy-duty bag that is used to contain a corpse. 一种结实的用来装运尸体的袋子。 The officer warmed the man to drop his gun or “end up in a body bag.” 警察警告那人放下武器,否则必死无疑。 217.bomb squad : 爆破小组 A team of police who are specially-trained to remove and deactivate bombs. 经专门训练,从事排除和拆卸炸弹的一支警察队伍。 The bomb squad was called in to deactivate the car bomb. 有关部门请来爆破小组拆除这枚汽车炸弹。 218.bootlegging : 贩卖违禁品 The illegal distribution of items such as alcohol, drugs, firearms, etc. 非法销售物品如酒类、毒品、枪支等。 Three Mexicans were arrested for bootlegging firearms across the border. 三名墨西哥人因越境贩卖枪支而被捕。 219.break-in : 非法闯入 A burglar 入室盗窃 It looks like you are the victim of a break-in. 看起来,你是入室盗窃的受害者。 220.bribery : 行贿受贿 The act of offering, giving, or taking bribes. 赠送,提供,或接受贿金的行为。 The congressman resigned after having been found guilty of bribery. 这位议员被证实犯有行贿受贿罪后辞职了。 221.bucket shop : 投机商号 (Also called “telephone boiler room.”) An office that is used to promote worthless land or securities by mail or through telemarketing. (也被称为”电话交易所”)通过邮件或电话营销来推销荒地或垃圾证券的地点。 Crooks across the country are using bucket shops to scam older people. 全国各地的骗子都利用投机商号来欺骗老年人。 222.bug : 窃听


To use electronic listening devices to listen in on the conversations of others. 使用电子收听装置来偷听他人的谈话。 This office has been bugged. 这间办公室已被窃听。 223.bum rap : 错捕 An unmerited arrest 不应实施的逮捕。 Steve served six months jail time on a bum rap. 史迪夫因错捕而受了 6 个月的监禁。 224.burglary : 入室盗窃 The act of breaking into a home, building, etc. with the intent to steal from it. 闯入民宅、建筑物等,企图偷盗的行为。 Burglaries in our town have been on the upswing. 我们小城里的入室盗窃案一直在上升。 225.car bangers : 汽车窃贼 Thieves who steal form automobiles. 从汽车里偷东西的贼。 Police caught the car bangers in the act. 警方将这些汽车窃贼当场抓获。 226.career criminal : 职业罪犯 A person who makes a living from crime. 以犯罪为生的人。 John was a career criminal until the day he got caught in the home of a policeman. 约翰是位职业罪犯,直到一天他在一个警察家里被抓获。 227.child abuse : 虐待儿童 The physical and verbal mistreatment of children. 对儿童进行身体上和言语上的虐待。 The most unnerving thing about child abuse is the number of cases that go unreported. 有关虐待儿童方面最让人不安的事情是大量的此类行为没有报道。 228.chop shop : 地下拆车厂 A shop where criminals take apart stolen cars and sell the parts. 犯罪分子将所盗汽车拆成零件并销售出去的窝点。 I watched a news program that tracked chop shops across the country. 我收看了一个追踪全国地下拆车点的电视节目。 229.cocaine : 可卡因 A powerful stimulant drug. 一种有强力兴奋作用的毒品。


What is the street value of a pound of cocaine? 一磅可卡因市值多少? 230.computer cleaner : 消除财务信息的电脑黑客 A person who, for a price, clean computer files of unfavorable financial credit information of others. 将反映他人财物信用赤字的计算机文件抹去以获取报酬的人员。 Computer cleaners cost companies and financial institutions million of dollars every year. 消除财务信息的电脑黑客每年给公司和金融机构造成百万元计的损失。 231.con artist : 行骗高手 A person who is skilled at convincing others of believing in fraudulent schemes. 擅于蒙骗并使人进入骗局的人。 Bob makes his living as a con artist. 鲍勃是位行骗高手,并以行骗为生。 232.con game : 骟局 Any fraudulent scheme 任何骗人的把戏。 My grandparents got burned in a con game. 我的祖父母曾上过骗子的当。 233.convict : 囚犯 A person found guilty of a felony and confined in a prison. 被判有重罪并羁于狱中的人。 Mr. Welch is an ex-convict. 韦尔奇先生从前是囚犯。 234.counterfeit : 伪造 To illegally reproduce a copy of money, postage stamps, bonds, etc. 非法印造钱币、邮票、证券等。 Police busted up a counterfeiting racket in Miami last week. 上周警方捣毁了迈阿密的一个伪造团伙。 235.credit-card fraud : 信用卡欺诈 The attempted use of a credit to obtain goods or services with the intention of avoiding payment. 企图使用信用卡获取货物或服务,并故意逃避付款。 That woman is wanted in 5 states for credit-card fraud. 那位妇女因信用卡欺诈而被 5 个州通缉。 236.crime of passion : 激情犯罪;冲动犯罪 Murder that resulted form the infidelity of a lover; Murder committed in the heat of rage. 由于情人的不忠而导致的谋杀;暴怒驱使的杀人行为。 Crimes of passion seem to be popular material for TV infotainment programs. 冲动杀人似乎是娱乐性新闻节目受欢迎的题材。


237.Crime rate : 犯罪率 The number of reported crimes per specified number of the population. 每一定人数中发生的犯罪数量。 Which state has the highest crime rate in the U.S.? 在美国,哪个州的犯罪率最高? 238.criminal : 犯罪 A person who has violated a criminal law. 触犯刑法的人。 We are placing your son in criminal detention. 我们对你儿子实行刑事拘留。 239.date rape : 约会强奸 A rape that is committed by a woman’s date. 由女性的约会对象实施的强奸。 Date rape is the last thing that a young girl should have to worry about. 约会强奸是年轻女子最不用害怕的事。 240.deadly weapon : 致命武器 Any object, or instrument that is capable of being used to kill. 任何可以用以杀人致命的物体、器具。 It is against the law to carry a concealed deadly weapon. 秘密携带致命武器是违法的。 241.death penalty :死刑 Punishment by death, that is imposed in a legal manner. 以合法的形式剥夺罪犯生命的一种惩罚。 Three men have received the death penalty so far this year. 今年已有三个被判死刑。 242.death row : 死囚牢房 A cell block reserved for convicts awaiting execution. 特别为等待处决的死刑犯设置的牢房。 This convicted killer has been on death row for 15 years. 这位被判决死刑的杀人犯住在死囚牢房已 15 年了。 243.defendant : 被告 A person who has been charged with a crime 被指控犯有罪行的人。 The court found the defendant guilty of murder. 法庭判定被告犯有谋杀罪。 244.domestic violence : 家庭暴力


Violence toward a family member, including child abuse or wife beating. 对家庭成员施加的暴力,包括虐待儿童和殴打妻子。 Domestic violence is one of the most dangerous calls that a law enforcement officer has to make. 家庭暴力是执法官最难应付的案件之一。 245.drug abuse : 吸毒 The excessive and compulsive use of drugs to the point of damaging one’s health. 强迫性过量使用毒品,以致损害身体。 It was obvious to see by looking at the needle marks on her arms that the young girl was a victim of drug abuse. 从她臂上针扎的痕迹来看,很明显,这位年轻女子是吸毒的受害者。 246.drug king (czar) : 毒枭 The person who controls the production, transportation and selling of drug in an area. 控制某一地区的毒品地区生产、运输和销售的头号人物。 After two years of using an undercover operation, the FBI finally arrested the Cuban drug king. 经过两年的秘密行动,联邦调查局终于逮捕了这位古巴毒枭。 247.drunk driving : 酒后驾驶 Driving while under the influence of alcohol. 在受酒精影响的状态下开车。 This is your second drunk driving offense this month. 这是你本月第二触犯次酒后驾驶的禁令。 248.edp crimes : 电脑犯罪 Electronic data-processing crime; criminal offenses committed using computer technology. 在电子数据处理方面的犯罪;利用电脑技术进行的犯罪。 The IRS investigated hundreds of edp crimes every year. 美国国内收入局每年都要调查数以百计的电脑犯罪。 249.embezzlement : 贪污 The illegal misappropriation of funds entrusted to one’s care. 将由自己保管的资金非法据为已有。 We have never had a problem with embezzlement at this bank. 我们这家银行从没发生过贪污案件。 250.first-degree murder : 一级谋杀案 Premeditated murder. 事先策划好的谋杀。 The man was changed with first-degree murder in the death of his lover’s husband. 这位男子其情人的丈夫死亡案中被指控犯有一级谋杀罪。 251.forensic medicine : 法医学 The use of medicine in solving legal problems. 利用医学解决法律问题。


Many crimes could not be solved without using forensic medicine. 没有法医学,很多犯罪案件无法结案。 252.forgery :伪造 The act of creating a document, either written or printed, with the intent to defraud. Forgery also covers counterfeiting, or producing fake signatures, works of art, etc. 以欺骗为目的而仿制手写或印刷文件的行为。伪造还包括制假钱币、仿冒签名和艺术品等。 253. gamble : 赌博 To bet or wager money on games of chance, races, etc. 在概率类游戏或比赛中打赌或下注。 Burt lost $ 3000 gambling in Las Vegas over the weekend. 伯特周末在拉斯维加斯赌博输了 3000 美元。 254.gang : 黑帮 A group of people organized to achieve some common goal. Gangs are often involved in drugs, violence, money lending, prostitution, etc. 为达到某种共同目的而组织起来的一群人。黑帮常常涉嫌毒品、暴力、高利贷和卖淫等。 Gangs often have automatic weapons more powerful than the police in many large U.S. cities. 在美国的许多城市里,黑帮常配备有自动武器,其火力强于警方。 255.hijack : 劫持 To seize control of an airplane, boat, automobile, etc. 强行控制飞机、船只、车辆等。 Terrorist just hijacked a plane to Cuba. 恐怖分子刚刚动持了一架飞往古巴的飞机。 256.hit-and-run :肇事逃逸 An automobile accident in which the driver fails to stop and identify himself or herself. The term “hit-and-run” may also be applied to such a driver. 指一起汽车事故中,肇事司机不停车,且不亮明自己身份。该词也可以指肇事逃逸司机。 I was a victim of a hit-and-run accident on Monday. 周一发生了一起肇事逃逸案,我是其中的受害者。 257.hold-up : 持枪抢劫 The act of robbing someone at gunpoint. 持枪相威胁,抢夺他人财物的行为。 There was a hold-up at the bank over on 2nd street. 在第二大街的银行里发生了一起抢劫案。 258.homcide : 杀人,他杀 The act of killing someone. 杀死他人的行为。 Police are investigating the homicide of a prostitute.


警方正在调查一起妓女被杀案件。 259.hot wire : (汽车)电启动 To electrically start a vehicle without using an ignition key. 不用点火钥匙而用电来发动汽车。 Seasoned crooks can hot wire a car in seconds. 手段高明的窃贼可在几秒钟内用电启动来发动汽车。 260.impulse crime : 冲动犯罪 Crimes such as shoplifting, raping, vandalizing, etc. that are done on an impulse. 在冲动之下所犯的罪行,如商店扒窃、强奸、损坏公物等。 261.juvenile delinquency : 青少年犯罪 Criminal behavior by adolescents and children. 少年和儿童的犯罪行为。 Some parents aren’t concerned about juvenile delinquency. 一些家长对青少年犯罪漠不关心。 262.labor racketeering : 工会诈骗 Corrupt practices and organized crime that involve organized labor. 涉及工会的腐败行为和团伙犯罪。 The New York union leader was convicted of labor racketeering. 纽约的工会领袖被判有工会诈骗罪。 263.larceny : 偷盗 The stealing of another person’s property. 偷取别人财产的行为。 Have you over been arrested for larceny? 你有偷盗被捕的经历吗? 264.libel : 文字诽谤 Written defamation. 以文字材料来诋毁他人名声的行为。 The famous actress is suing the tabloids for libel. 这位知名的女演员正以诽谤罪起诉数家通俗小报。 265.Mafia : 黑手党 A secret society that originated in Italy in the 1860’s. The Mafia now widespread, and is focused on power and profit. 19 世纪 60 年代起源于意大利的秘密团体。现在黑手党势力广为分布,专门从事扩张势力、牟取钱财。 The “Godfather” is a story about the powerful mafia families in New York. 电影《教父》就是有关纽约黑手党的豪门大户的故事。 266.mail fraud : 邮政诈骗 The using of the mail system to defraud the public.


利用邮政系统诈骗公众的行为。 That mail-order company has been convicted of mail fraud. 那家邮购公司被判有邮政诈骗罪。 267.manhunt : 追捕 An organized search to catch a criminal or an escapee. 有组织的追踪、捉拿囚犯、逃犯。 Police have organized a manhunt to capture the escaped convict. 警方组织了一次追捕以抓获那名逃犯。 268.mass murderer : 谋杀多人的凶手 A murderer who kills many people. 多条命案的谋杀者;连环杀手。 More and more mass murderers are popping up in the news these days. 这些天来,新闻里不断报道谋杀多人的凶手。 269.money laundering : 洗钱 The act of concealing the source of funds for the purpose of tax evasion and fraud. 为达到逃税和欺骗的目的而隐瞒资金来源的行为。 This restaurant is just a front for money laundering. 这家餐馆仅仅是洗钱的掩护所。 270.mule : 挟带毒品者,贩运私货的人 A person used to transport drugs or contraband from one place to another. 被用来从一地到另一地运送毒品或违禁品的人。 Security officials in airports are finding an astounding number of people who are being used as mules. 机场的安检人员发现数目十分庞大的旅客充当贩运私货的人。 271.organized crime : 集团犯罪 A term used to describe underworld societies such as the Mafia who deal in crimes such as gambling, narcotics, and prostitution. 黑手党之类的黑社会组织所进行的犯罪,如赌博、贩毒、卖淫等活动。 This company is associated with an east-coast organized syndicate. 这家公司同东海岸的一个犯罪集团有联系。 272.parole : 假释 A conditional release of an offender from confinement before the expiration of his or her sentence. The offender is usually placed under the guidance of a parole officer. 囚犯在服刑期满前有条件地释放出来,但必须置 于假释官的督导之下。 The victim’s family is nervous that the offender is up for parole. 受害者家属很紧张,因为罪犯即将获得假释。 273.penitentiary : 监狱,劳改所 A maximum-security facility designed to detain prisoners serving long sentences.


Lee is serving his sentence down at the penitentiary. 李正在监狱服刑。 274.perjury : 伪证 The crime of willingly giving false information while under oath. 在法庭上立誓之后故意提供虚假证词的犯罪行为。 If you lie while you are under oath, you can be found guilty of perjury. 如果立誓之后还撒谎,你可能被判伪证罪。 275.pickpocket : 扒手 A thief who is skilled in stealing items from other people’s pockets. 擅于从别人口袋里偷取物品的窃贼。 I had my wallet stolen by a pickpocket while I was on the subway. 今天乘地铁时我的钱包让扒手偷了。 276.pilice brutality : 警察暴力 The act of using excessive physical force by police or other law enforcement officers. 警察或其他执法人员过多使用体罚的行为。 The infamous Rodney King beating in L.A. showed the public at how rampant police brutality is. 发生在洛杉矶的不光彩的罗德尼·金毒打案向公众展示了警察暴行是多少猖狂。 277.police corruption : 警察腐败 The misuse of police power in return for favors of gain. 警察滥用权力以换取好处和利益。 The mayor is working to put an end to police corruption in this city. 市长正致力于肃清本市的警察腐败。 278.pornoshop : 色情商店 A shop or bookstore that sells pornographic materials. 出售色情物品的商店。 The local pornshop has been shut down form selling materials to minors. 当地的色情商店因向未成年人出售色情物品而被关闭。 279.prison break : 越狱 An escape from prison involving violence by one or more prisoners. 一个或多个囚犯使用暴力从监狱逃跑。 Two guards and two inmates were killed in a prison break in Texas, yesterday. 昨天在得克萨斯州发生一起越狱案,两名卫兵和两名囚犯被杀死。 280.property crime : 财产犯罪 Auto theft, burglary, larceny, etc. 偷汽车、入室盗窃、偷盗等。 This section of town has been plagued with property crimes. 这个城区的财产犯罪很猖獗。


291.serial killer :系列命案的杀手,连环杀手 A murder who commits a series of killings, usually with distinct similarities in the murders. 制造多起命案的凶手,其作案手段通常有明显相似之处。 Doesn't it seems a little inappropriate to put serial killers on trading cards. 将系列命案的凶手印在商业卡片上是不是有些不合适? 292.sin tax :罪孽税 Tax that is imposed on cigarettes, liquor, gambling, etc. 对香烟、精、赌博等开征的税收。 Many people complain about the sin tax in Utah. 许多人抱怨犹他州过高的罪孽税。 293.skid row :贫民街,贫民窟 A rundown section of a city characterized by drunkards living on the street. 城市的破旧区域,常见到许多酒鬼露宿街头。 After his divorce, Mike became a drunk down on skid row. 离婚之后,迈克尔沦落为贫民街的酒鬼。 294.slush fund :贿金 Money that is used to bribe public politicians and other influential officials 用来贿赂知名政客或其他有影响力的官员的资金。 Lobbyists use slush fund to bribe public officials. 院外集团的说客用贿金拉拢政府官员。 295.statutory rape :法定强奸罪 Sexual intercourse with a female who has consented, but who is legally incapable of consent because she is underage. 与未成年女子发生的性行为,虽经其本人同意,但法律规定其尚未成年,不具备表达同意意愿的能力。 What is the penalty for statutory rape? 对法定强奸罪的惩罚是什么? 296.suicide pact :自杀合约 An agreement between two or more persons to commit suicide together. 一起自杀的两者或多者之间的协定。 The whole high school was shocked at the news of the two classmates who killed themselves in a suicide pact. 两个同班同学订立自杀合约并自杀身亡的消息使整个学校感到震惊。 297.suicide season :自杀季节 The Christmas season when many lonely people feel isolated and take their own lives. 指圣诞节期间,许多人孤独不堪而自杀。 December is without question, the suicide season. 十二月无疑是自杀季节。


298.tax evasion :逃税 The illegal attempt by a taxpayer to avoid paying his or her taxes. 纳税人企图逃避纳税的非法行为。 Bill was found guilty of tax evasion and owes the IRS over $60,000 in back taxes. 比尔被判逃税罪,他现在仍欠国内收入局六万多美元的滞纳税金。 299.vandalism :故意毁坏 The defacement or destruction of public or private property. 损坏或破坏公私财产的行为。 Vandalism is a major problem in inner city schools. 故意毁坏财物的的行为是市内学校的一个严重问题。 300.vice squad :警察缉捕队 Plain clothes policeman who work undercover to detect crime. 隐蔽调查犯罪的便衣警察。 Sean has been a member of the vice squad for nine years. 西恩在缉捕队工作已经 9 年了。 301.vigilante :治安维持会 A person or group who takes the responsibility of a law enforcement officer into their won hands. 承担执法人员维持治安责任的个人和群体。 The subway vigilante in New York was in the media for weeks. 纽约地铁治安维持会几周来受到了媒体的关注。 302.war crime :战争犯罪 Crimes that violate the customs and laws of war. 违犯战争法律和战争习惯的犯罪。 The retired officer was found guilty of war crimes when evidence was uncovered during a recent investigation. 在最近的一次调查中发现的证据证明这位退休军官曾有战争犯罪。 303.white-collar crime :白领犯罪 Crimes committed by persons in businesses including expense-account padding, stealing office supplies, price-fixing, product fraud, etc. 公司职员的犯罪,包括虚报开支、偷盗办公用品、私定价格、产品欺诈等。 Businesses are losing millions of dollars, and products are more expensive due to white-collar crime. 由于白领犯罪,企业界每年损失数百万美元,产品也因之更贵。


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