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Section 3
Time-25minutes 24questioins

Turn to section3(page4) of your answer sheet to answer the question in this section

Directions: for each question in this section, select the best answer from the choice given and fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet.

Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best first the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Example: Hoping to------the dispute ,negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be --------to both labor and management. (A) Enforce..useful (B) End..divisive (C) Overcome..unattractive (D) Extend..satisfactory A ○ B ○ C ○ D ● (E) Resolve.. acceptable ○ 1. Geoffrey’s corrupt dealings earned him such disg race that any possibility of his being reelected to the city council was completely -------. (A) ensured (B) approved (C) belittled (D) eliminated (E) defended 2. Although the editors were reputed to be very ------, the uneven quality of the material they put into the an thology suggests they were too -------. (A) amateurish . . professional (B) lax . . harsh (C) selective . . inclusive (D) judgmental . . discriminating (E) sensitive . . insightful

3. The professor’s presentation was both ------- and ------: though brief, it was instructive. (A) verbose . . mundane (B) concise . . elaborate (C) comprehensive . . edifying (D) succinct . . enlightening (E) provocative . . technical 4. With its large circulation, Essence magazine has enj oyed ------- only recently challenged by new publications ag gressively seeking female African American readers. (A) an aggregation (D) a retrenchment (B) an inclination (C) a prognosis (E) a preeminence

5. The judge’s published opinions, though sophisticate d and subtle, were undeniably -------: they left no doubt of h er intentions. (A) unequivocal (B) effusive (C) incorrigible (D) tenuous (E) ineffable

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The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passages and in any introductory material that may be provided

Questions 6-7 are based on the following passage. Properly speaking, a movement is a continuous, collective effort to bring about fundamental social reform. It is a collaborative rather than an individualistic enterprise. No matter how many factions are involved, there is always a common objective. The Black freedom struggle of the 1960's was such an effort. Its objective was to transform the manner in which Black Americans in the United States were viewed and heated. And Black writers and artists, as a vital sector of the movement, sought to transform the manner in which Black Americans were represented or portrayed in literature and the arts. 6. The first sentence of the passage ("Properly speaking . . . reform") primarily serves to (A) present a controversial opinion (B) question the effectiveness of a process (C) provide an example of an abstract idea (D) define the meaning of a term (E) offer a solution to a problem 7. The passage indicates that Black writers and artists were most important to the freedom struggle in that they (A) promoted freedom of artistic expression for Black Americans (B) attempted to alter the way Black people were depicted in the arts (C) created powerful protest art that documented the Black struggle (D) were a cohesive group that opposed excessive individualism (E) prescribed a course of action to help ensure social justice

Questions 8-9 are based on the following passage. As a slang word, "cool" has stayed cool far longer than most such words. One of the main characteristics of slang is the continual renewal of its vocabulary: in order for slang to feel slangy, it has to have a feeling of novelty. Slang expressions meaning the same thing as "cool," like "groovy," "hep," "far-out," "rad," and "tubular," have for the most part not had the staying power of "cool." In general, there is no intrinsic reason why one word stays alive and others get consigned to the scrap heap of linguistic history, but slang terms, like fashion designs, are rarely "in" for long. The jury is still out on how long "def' and "phat" will survive. 8. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) address a pressing question (B) define an unusual expression (C) note the durability of a term (D) oppose a particular use of language (E) challenge a linguistic theory 9. In line 11, "fashion designs" serve as an example of something (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) provocative ephemeral pretentious esoteric exotic

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Questions 10-15 are based on the following passage. This passage was adapted from a 1995 book about astronomy. Apart from the Moon and occasional comets and asteroids, Venus is often our nearest neighbor. Its orbit brings it closer to Earth than any other planet—only 26 million miles away at certain times. Despite that proximity, for a long time it was generally termed "the planet of mystery." This is because the atmosphere of Venus is so dense and so cloud-laden that its surface is permanently hidden from sight. The first attempt to learn more about Venus was to analyze its upper atmosphere using spectroscopic methods. In size and mass, Venus is almost the equal of Earth, and its gravitational field is only slightly weaker than ours, so that logically it might be expected to have the same kind of atmosphere—but this is emphatically not so. Scientists found that the main constituent of its atmosphere is carbon dioxide. Since this is a heavy gas that would be expected to sink, it was reasonable to assume that carbon dioxide made up most of the atmosphere down to ground level. Carbon dioxide acts in the manner of a greenhouse, trapping the Sun's heat, so it followed that Venus was likely to be a very torrid sort of world. Yet opinions differed. According to one theory, the clouds contained a great deal of water. It was even claimed that the surface might be largely ocean covered, in which case the atmospheric carbon dioxide would have fouled the water and produced seas of soda water. Another intriguing theory made Venus very similar to the Earth of over 200 million years ago. There would be marshes, luxuriant vegetation of the fern and horsetail variety, and primitive life-forms such as giant dragonflies. If so, then Venus might presumably evolve the same way Earth has done. In 1962 the American probe Mariner 2 bypassed Venus at less than 22,000 miles and gave us our first reliable information. The surface proved to be very hot indeed; we now know that the maximum temperature is almost 500° C. The atmosphere really is almost pure carbon dioxide, and those shining clouds are rich in sulfuric acid. All ideas of a pleasant, oceanic Venus had to be abandoned. In 1975 Venera 9, a Russian automatic lander, visited Venus and sent back pictures direct from the surface. The scene— a rocky, scorched landscape—could hardly be more hostile. Subsequent probes have confirmed this impression.

Why is Venus so unlike Earth? The answer can only lie in its lesser distance from the Sun. It seems that in the early days of the solar system the Sun was less luminous than it is now, in which case Venus and Earth may have started to evolve along the same lines, but when the Sun became more powerful the whole situation changed. Earth, at 93 million miles, was just out of harm's way, but Venus, at 67 million, was not. The water in oceans vaporized, the carbonates were driven out of the rocks, and in a relatively short time on the cosmic scale, Venus was transformed from a potentially life-bearing world into the inferno of today. 10. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) criticize the lack of research on a topic of mystery (B) speculate about life on another world (C) lament the demise of a compelling theory (D) illustrate the principles of planetary research (E) discuss attempts to understand an astronomical enigma 11. The statement in lines 11-14 ("In size . . . so") functions primarily to (A) dismiss a plausible supposition (B) mock an outrageous claim (C) bolster an accepted opinion (D) summarize a particular experiment (E) undermine a controversial hypothesis 12. The primary purpose of the third paragraph (lines 22-31) is to (A) provide evidence in support of a controversial theory (B) challenge two popular misconceptions about Venus (C) show why a particular hypothesis was misguided (D) suggest that Venus has been romanticized throughout history (E) present two distinct theories about Venus

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13. In order for the hypothesis in lines 28-30 ("There would . . . dragonflies") to be correct, which statement could NOT be true of conditions on Venus? (A) The environment is generally warm and humid. (B) The atmosphere is pure carbon dioxide. (C) It is possible for evolutionary change to occur. (D) There is enough light for photosynthesis to occur. (E) Creatures are able to fly with ease. 14.The statement in lines 32-34 ("In 1962 .. . information") suggests that the (A) quality of the data surprised the scientists (B) evidence collected earlier was relatively untrustworthy (C) records had been lost for a long time before scientists rediscovered them (D) probe allowed scientists to formulate a completely new theory (E) data confirmed an obscure and implausible theory

15. The tone of the statement in lines 43-44 ("The answer... Sun") is best described as (A) regretful (B) guarded (C) skeptical (D) decisive (E) amused

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Question 16-24 are based on the following passages This passage has been adapted from a memoir publ ished in 1999. The year is 1961; the author, then a young girl, has just moved to New York City with her family. New York was darker than I expected, and, in spite of the cleansing rain, dirtier. Used to the sensual curves of Puerto Rico, my eyes had to adjust to the regular, agg ressive two-dimensionality of Brooklyn. Raindrops poun ded the hard streets, captured the dim silver glow of-stre et lamps, bounced against sidewalks in glistening sparks, then disappeared like tiny ephemeral jewels, into the dar kness. Mami and Tata teased that I was disillusioned bec ause the streets were not paved with gold. But ) I had no such vision of New York. I was disappointed by the dar kness and fixed my hopes on the promise of light deep w ithin the sparkling raindrops. Two days later, I leaned against the wall of our apar tment building on McKibbin Street wondering where Ne w York ended and the rest of the world began. It was har d to tell. There was no horizon in Brooklyn. Everywhere I looked, my eyes met a vertical maze of gray and brown straight-edged buildings with sharp corners and deep sh adows. Every few blocks there was a cement playground surrounded by chain-link fence. And in between, weedy lots mounded with garbage and rusting cars. A girl came out of the building next door, a jump ro pe in her hand. She appraised me shyly; I pretended to ig nore her. She stepped on the rope, stretched the ends overhead as if to measure their length, and then beg an to skip, slowly, grunting each time she came down on the sidewalk. Swish splat grunt swish, she turned her ba ck to me; swish splat grunt swish, she faced me again an d smiled. I smiled back, and she hopped over. "iTu eres hispana?" she asked, as she whirled the ro pe in lazy arcs. "No, I'm Puerto Rican." "Same thing. Puerto Rican, Hispanic. That's what w e are here." She skipped a tight circle, stopped abruptly, and shoved the rope in my direction. "Want a turn?" "Sure." I hopped on one leg, then the other. "So, if y ou're Puerto Rican, they call you Hispanic?" "Yeah. Anybody who speaks Spanish." I jumped a circle, as she had done, but faster. "You mean, if you speak Spanish, you're Hispanic?" "Well, yeah. No ... I mean your parents have to be P uerto Rican or Cuban or something."

I whirled the rope to the right, then the left, like a boxer. "Okay, your parents are Cuban, let's say, and you're born here, but you don't speak Spanish. Are you Hispanic?" She bit her lower lip. "I guess so," she finally said. "It has to do with being from a Spanish country. I mean, you or your parents, like, even if you don't speak Spanish, you're Hispanic, you know?" She looked at me uncertainly. I nodded and returned her rope. But I didn't know. I'd always been Puerto Rican, and it hadn't occurred to me that in Brooklyn I'd be someone else. Later, I asked, "Are we Hispanics, Mami?" "Yes, because we speak Spanish:" "But a girl said you don't have to speak the language to be Hispanic." She scrunched her eyes. "What girl? Where did you meet a girl?" "Outside. She lives in the next building." "Who said you could go out to the sidewalk? This isn't Puerto Rico. Algo te puede suceder." "Something could happen to you" was a variety of dangers outside the locked doors of our apartment. I listened to Mami's lecture with downcast eyes and the necessary, respectful expression of humility. But inside, I quaked. Two days in New York, and I'd already become someone else. It wasn't hard to imagine that greater dangers lay ahead. * The narrator's mother and grandmother 16. In line 3, "regular" most nearly means (A) customary (B) agreeable (C) unvarying (D) recurring (E) average 17. Lines 4-8 ("Raindrops... darkness") are particularly notable for their (A) despairing mood (B) vivid imagery (C) humorous wordplay (D) nostalgic atmosphere (E) abstract language

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18. In lines 8-9, Mami and Tata imply that the narrator (A) faced economic barriers (B) exhibited driving ambitions (C) believed in miraculous transformations (D) was ruled by greedy impulses (E) harbored unrealistic expectations 19." The second paragraph (lines 13-22) suggests that the narrator experienced Brooklyn as (A) mysterious and unknowable (B) uniform and oppressive (C) orderly and appealing (D) drab yet multifaceted (E) menacing yet alluring 20. Which of the following best describes the initial interaction of the "girl" (line 23) and the narrator? (A) Neither was in a mood to meet someone new. (B) Neither wanted to show her fear of the other. (C) They acted as if they already knew each other. (D) They studied each other suspiciously. (E) They cautiously took note of each other. 21. The exchange between the narrator and the girl (lines 31-52) is best described as (A) a debate over the power of language to shape personality (B) a discussion of the value of using ethnic labels to characterize people (C) an exchange of strategies for survival in a mystifying culture (D) an attempt to identify the criteria that determine an ethnic label (E) an effort to reconcile group identity with personal autonomy

22. The paragraph in lines 53-55 ("But I. . . else") suggests that, for the narrator, being considered Hispanic represents (A) the end of childhood as she has known it (B) the loss of her former identity (C) a restriction to be overcome (D) an opportunity for self-redefinition (E) an unavoidable result of emigration 23. The mother refers to "Puerto Rico" (line 64) in order to impress upon the narrator that (A) nostalgia for one's birthplace can be a distraction (B) New Yorkers are indifferent to cultural backgrounds (C) newcomers must embrace New York if they are to flourish (D) life was more restricted in Puerto Rico (E) different rules apply to life in New York 24. The narrator's mood at the conclusion of the passage is best described as one of (A) apathy and sullenness (B) anger and bewilderment (C) defeat and resignation (D) fearfulness and uncertainty (E) resentment and defiance

NOTE: The reading passages in this test are brief excerpts or adaptations of excerpts from the published material. The ideas contained in them do not necessarily represent the opinions of the College Board or Educational Testing Service. To make the test suitable for testing purposes, we may m some cases have altered the style, contents, or point of view of the original

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If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section in the test.

Section 7
Turn to section 7(page6) of your answer sheet to answer the question in this section
Directions: for each question in this section, select the best answer from the choice given and fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. 4. No longer considered -------, the belief that all of Puerto Rico’s indigenous Taino people perished centuries ago appears to be a ------- now that modern Taino descendants have come forward. (A) conclusive . . reality (B) tenable . . misconception (C) mythical . . possibility (D) erroneous . . delusion (E) hypothetical . . digression 5. Although easily angered by our mischievous behavior, our mother could be immediately ------- by our expressions of remorse. (A) substantiated (B) impugned (C) protected (D) united (E) mollified 6. Scientists wonder what to do with the dead satellites, jettisoned rockets, drifting paint flecks, and other ------orbiting Earth. (A) flotsam (B) reconnaissance (C) decimation (D) raiment (E) sustenance 7. Although aging brings about profound physiological changes it does not often alter an individual’s -------: an irascible thirty year old will probably still be ------- at seventy. (A) disposition . . cantankerous (B) anatomy . . churlish (C) outlook . . benevolent (D) personality . . laconic (E) stature . . robust 8. The commentator characterized the electorate as -----because it was unpredictable and given to constantly shifting moods. (A) mercurial (B) corrosive (C) disingenuous (D) implacable (E) phlegmatic

Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Example: Hoping to ------- the dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be ------- to both labor and management. (A) enforce . . useful (B) end . . divisive (C) overcome . . unattractive (D) extend . . satisfactory (E) resolve . . acceptable

A ○ B ○ C ○ D ● ○

1. The movie’s plot was -------: once you knew what befell the hero, you could ------- the fate of the villain. (A) convincing . . misinterpret (B) misleading . . anticipate (C) predictable . . foresee (D) ironic . . endorse (E) spellbinding . . ignore 2. A certain additive put in gasoline to reduce air pollution is actually ------groundwater, a finding that shows that even the most well-intentioned fixes can sometimes -------. (A) liquefying . . founder (B) contaminating . . backfire (C) purifying . . boomerang (D) saturating . . reciprocate (E) polluting . . prevail 3. The biologist’s description of the wolf pack was truly -------, devoid of any emotion or personal prejudice. (A) dispassionate (B) insubstantial (C) esoteric (D) capricious (E) indignant

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The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passages and in any introductory material that may be provided Questions 9-12 are based on the following passages. Passage 1 Just how overcrowded is Earth anyway? Certainly the world is filled with empty places. A flight almost anywhere reveals vast expanses of unoccupied land. Cities cover only a small percentage of Earth. Indeed, when we look at the world's population relative to the land available, we find out just how under populated the world is. A noted economist recently put Earth's population in perspective by asking what would happen if the world's six billion people were put into the land area of Texas. His answer: each person would have an area equal to the floor space of a typical U.S. home. And he further notes that some cities in the United States contain enough land area to provide standing room for the entire global population. Passage 2 The idea that the number of people per square mile is a key determinant of population pressure is as widespread as it is wrong. The key issue in judging overpopulation is not how many people can fit into any given space but whether Earth can supply the population's long-term requirement for food, water, and other resources. Most of the "empty" land in the United States, for example, either grows the food essential to our well-being or supplies us with raw materials. Densely populated countries and cities can be crowded only because the rest of the world is not. 9. The author of Passage 2 would most likely criticize the author of Passage 1 for (A) using incorrect data to support a flawed conclusion (B) severely overstating the extent of a global problem (C) recommending a course of action that might have damaging effects (D) focusing on the wrong factor in considering an issue (E) allowing personal prejudice to interfere with scientific inquiry 10. The tone of the first sentence of Passage 2 is best characterized as (A) wistful (B) dismayed (C) emphatic (D) ambivalent (E) apologetic 11. It can be inferred from the use of quotation marks in line 19 that the author of Passage 2 would most likely (A) criticize Passage 1 for overstating the nature of a problem (B) take issue with Passage 1 for failing to acknowledge a change in population patterns (C) disagree with the characterization in Passage 1 of certain regions (D) endorse the solution to a problem advanced in Passage 1 (E) concur with a specific theory briefly mentioned in Passage 1 12. Both authors acknowledge which of the following points? (A) Earth contains a great deal of unoccupied land. (B) Estimates of Earth's population are not reliable. (C) Technology is transforming empty spaces into productive land. (D) Nonscientists do not appreciate the dangers of overpopulation. (E) Earth's population is outstripping available resources.

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Questions 13-25 are based on the following passage. This passage is excerpted from a novel published in 1970. As the passage begins, four men are looking at a map in preparation for a canoe trip. It unrolled slowly, forced to show its colors, curling and snapping back whenever one of us turned loose. The whole land was very tense until we put our four steins on its corners and laid the river out to run for us through the mountains 150 miles north. Lewis' hand took a pencil and marked out a small strong X in a place where some of the green bled away and the paper changed with high ground, and began to work downstream, northeast to southwest through the printed woods. I watched the hand rather than the location, for it seemed to have power over the terrain, and when it stopped for Lewis' voice to explain something, it was as though all streams everywhere quit running, hanging silently where they were to let the point be made. The pencil turned over and pretended to sketch in with the eraser an area that must have been around fifty miles long, through which the river hooked and cramped. "When they take another survey and rework the map," Lewis said, "all this in here will be blue. The dam at Aintry has already been started, and when it's finished next spring the river will back up fast. This whole valley will be under water. But right now it's wild. And I mean wild; it looks like something up in Alaska. We really ought to go up there before the real estate people get hold of it and make it over into one of their heavens." I leaned forward and concentrated down into the invisible shape he had drawn, trying to see the changes that would come, the nighttime rising of dammed water bringing a new lake up with its choice lots, its marinas and beer cans, and also trying to visualize the land as Lewis said it was at that moment, unvisited and free. I breathed in and out once, consciously; my body, particularly the back and arms, felt ready for something like this. I looked around die bar and then back into the map, picking up the river where we would enter it. A little way to the southwest the paper blanched. "Does this mean it's higher here?" I asked. "Yes," Lewis said, looking quickly at me to see if I saw he was being tolerant. Ah, he's going to turn this into something, I thought. A lesson. A moral. A life principle. A Way. "It must run through a gorge or something" was all he said though. "But we can get through that in a day, easy. And the water should be good, in that part especially."

I didn't have much idea what good meant in the way of river water, but for it to seem good to Lewis it would h ave to meet some very definite standards. The way he we nt about things was strictly his own; that was mainly what he liked about doing them. He liked particularly to take s ome extremely specialized and difficult form of sport—us ually one he could do by himself—and evolve a personal approach to it which he could then expound. I had been th rough this with him in fly casting, in archery and weight li fting and spelunking, in all of which he had developed co mplete mystiques. Now it was canoeing. I settled back an d came out of the map. Bobby Trippe was there, across fr om me. He had smooth thin hair and a high pink complexi on. I knew him least well of the others at the table, but I li ked him a good deal, even so. He was pleasantly cynical a nd gave me the impression that he shared some kind of un derstanding with me that neither of us was to lake Lewis t oo seriously. "They tell me that this is the kind of thing that, gets h old of middle-class householders every once in a while," Bobby said. "But most of them just lie down till the feelin g passes." "And when most of them lie down they're at Woodla wn* before they think about gelling up," Lewis said. * A cemetery. 13. In lines 1-5 ("It unrolled . . . north"), the map is descri bed as if it were (A) invaluable (B) animate (C) cryptic (D) antiquated (E) erroneous 14. Lines 9-14 ("I watched . . . made") primarily serve to ( A) recount an anecdote (B) offer an example (C) note an impression (D) make a prediction (E) advance a theory

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15. In lines 9-14 ("I watched .. . made"), the narrator suggests that Lewis' hand is (A) deft (B) languid (C) resilient (D) omnipotent (E) expressive 16. In line 13, "hanging" most nearly means (A) flowing (B) drooping (C) inclining (D) unfinished (E) suspended 17. In line 22, "Alaska" serves as an example of a place that is

20. In lines 25-30 ("I leaned . . . free"), the narrator reacts to Lewis' suggestion by (A) visualizing an unlikely series of events (B) imagining two radically different states (C) considering a problem and its proposed solution (D) weighing the pros and cons of a course of action (E) reflecting on how the past shapes the future 21. The narrator's reference to his "back and arms" (line 32) primarily serves to (A) suggest a sense of physical anticipation (B) emphasize his insecurity about his athletic abilities (C) indicate a feeling of intense discomfort (D) express pride in his personal appearance (E) call attention to his success in previous contests of strength 22. In line 34, "picking up" most nearly means

(A) distant (B) immense (C) scenic (D) cold (E) undeveloped 18. Lewis' attitude toward the "real estate people" (line 23) is best described as (A) contemptuous (B) envious (C) furious (D) puzzled (E) intrigued 19. Lewis' use of the word "heavens" (line 24) is best characterized as (A) appreciative (B) deceitful (C) tentative (D) defensive (E) ironic

(A) locating (B) acquiring (C) learning (D) claiming (E) gathering 23. In lines 39-40 ("Ah . . . Way"), the narrator suggests that Lewis is sometimes (A) whimsical (B) callous (C) remiss (D) didactic (E) impetuous

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24. The narrative in lines 46-54 ("The way . . . mystique s") suggests that Lewis prefers sports that (A) do not require special equipment (B) are inherently competitive (C) allow room for individual expression (D) demand great strength but little skill (E) pose few risks to beginners endeavors

25. In context, Bobby's remarks in lines 63-66 ("The y . . . passes") are best characterized as (A) explicit criticism (B) veiled malice (C) dry humor (D) frank confession (E) factual observation

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If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this section only. Do not turn to any other section in the test.

Section 8
Turn to section 8(page7) of your answer sheet to answer the question in this section
Directions: for each question in this section, select the best answer from the choice given and fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five words or sets of words labeled A through E. Choose the word or set of words that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. Example: Hoping to ------- the dispute, negotiators proposed a compromise that they felt would be ------- to both labor and management. (A) enforce . . useful (B) end . . divisive (C) overcome . . unattractive (D) extend . . satisfactory (E) resolve . . acceptable 3. The pharmaceutical company insisted that its testing of new drugs was quite ------, more rigorous than the industry standard. (A) stringent (B) dispersive (C) conditional (D) recessive (E) obtrusive 4. Freedom of expression is not necessarily a ------force: communities that encourage it often feel less threatened by social unrest than do those in which dissent is -------. (A) revolutionary . . promoted (B) positive . . prohibited (C) successful . . protested (D) divisive . . restricted (E) militant . . fostered 5. Thomas Hardy’s novels are described as ------because of their preoccupation with daily life in rural and agricultural settings. (A) bucolic (B) prolific (C) lugubrious (D) sundry (E) metaphorical 6. Some skeptics consider the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence(SETI) to be -------, even foolish; others go so far as to accuse SETI scientists of outright ------- in applying skewed data. (A) misguided . . remonstrance (B) absurd . . erudition (C) plausible . . lassitude (D) painstaking . . fabrication (E) wrongheaded . . chicanery

B○ C○ D● A ○○

1. Many paintings of the American Southwest co nvey a feeling of isolation and loneliness that mirrors the ------- landscape they depict. (A) lush (B) sprawling (C) desolate (D) gaudy (E) monumental 2. Only recently created, this orchid is a -------, a plant produced by deliberately crossbreeding two diff erent varieties of flowers. (A) misnomer (B) hybrid (C) vector (D) curative (E) precursoral

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The passages below are followed by questions based on their content; questions following a pair of related passages may also be based on the relationship between the paired passages. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passages and in any introductory material that may be provided Questions 7-19 are based on the following passage. Passage 1 was adapted from a well-known 1953 study of comic books. Passage 2 was adapted from a 1965 analysis of the major comic books of the 1940's and 1950 's. I have found the effect of comic books to be first of all anti-educational. They interfere with education in the larger sense. For children, education is not merely a e question of learning, but is a part of mental health. They 5 do not "learn" only in school; they learn also during play, from entertainment, and in social life with adults and with other children. To take large chunks of time out of a child's life—time during which he or she is not positively, that is, educationally, occupied—means to interfere with healthful 10 mental growth. To make a sharp distinction between entertainment and learning is poor pedagogy, and even worse psychology. A great deal of learning comes in the form of entertainment, and a great deal of entertainment painlessly teaches important things. By no stretch of critical standards can the text in comics qualify as literature, or the drawings as art. Children spend an enormous amount of time on comic books, but their gain is nil. They do not learn how to read a serious book or magazine. They do not gain a true picture of the West from the "Westerns." They do not learn about any normal aspects of sex, love, or life. I have known many adults who have treasured throughout their lives some of the books they read as children. I have never come across any adult or adolescent who had outgrown comic book reading who would ever dream of keeping any of these "books" for any sentimental or other reason. In other words, children spend a large amount of their time and money on these publications and have nothing positive to show for it. And since almost all good children's reading has some educational value, comics by their very nature are not only non-educational; they are anti-educational. They fail to teach anything that might be useful to a child; they do suggest many things that are harmful. Passage 2 Surprisingly, there are old comic book fans, a small army of them: adults wearing school ties and tweeds, teaching in universities, writing ad copy, writing for chic magazines, writing novels—who continue to be addicts, who save old comic books, buy them, trade them, who publish mimeographed "fanzines," strange little publications deifying what is looked back on as "the golden age of comic books." Ruined by the critics. Ruined by growing up. The charges against comic books in the 1950's—that they were participating factors in juvenile delinquency, that they were, in general, a corrupting influence, glorifying crime and depravity—can only, in all fairness, be answered: "But of course. Why else read them?" Comic books, first of all, are junk. To accuse them of being what they are is to make no accusation at all: there is no such thing as uncorrupt junk or moral junk or educational junk—though attempts at the latter have, from time to time, been foisted upon us. Bui education is not the purpose of junk (which is one reason why half-hearted attempts to bring reality or literature to comic books invariably look embarrassing.) Junk is there to entertain on the basest, most compromised of levels. It finds the lowest common denominator and proceeds from there. A good many readers, when challenged, will say defiantly: "I know it's junk, but I like it." Which is the whole point about junk. It is there to be nothing else but liked. Junk is a second-class citizen of the arts, a status of which we and it are constantly aware. There are certain privileges inherent in second-class citizenship. Irresponsibility is one. Not being taken seriously is another. Junk can get away with doing or saying anything because, by its very appearance, it is already in disgrace. What critics of comic books dismiss is the more positive side of junk, their underground antisocial influence. Children are bombarded with hard work, labeled education. They rise at the same time or earlier than their parents, start work without office chatter, go till noon without coffee breaks, have waxed milk for lunch, then back at the desk until three o'clock. And always at someone else's convenience. It should come as no surprise, then, that within this shifting hodgepodge of external pressures, children, simply to stay sane, must go underground. Have a place to hide where they cannot be got at by grownups. A relief zone. And the basic sustenance for this relief was, in my day, comic books. With them we were able to roam free, disguised in costume, committing the greatest of feats—and the worst of sins. And, in every instance, getting away with them. For a little while, at least, it was our show. For a little while, at least, we were the bosses. Psychically renewed, we could then return aboveground and put up with another couple of days of victimization.

7. Both authors would most likely agree that comic books (A) impair social development (B) could benefit from self-regulation (C) have no educational value (D) are obtained too easily (E) are garishly amusing 8. In line 4, "question" most nearly means (A) matter (B) request (C) objection (D) possibility (E) doubt 9. The author of Passage I criticizes those who would "make a sharp distinction" (line 11) because the author believes that (A) the best educators are also entertainers of a sort. (B) without entertainment little learning takes place (C) entertainment and learning are closely interrelated (D) reading comic books may inspire children to create their own comic works (E) effective textbooks often adopt certain humorous techniques 10. In lines 18-22, the three sentences beginning with "They" primarily serve to (A) lament students' lack of interest in traditional learning (B) condemn those who profit, by pandering to children (C) enumerate the failings of the educational system (D) indicate ways in which children are shortchanged (E) specify how comic books might be improved

11. In response to the claim made in lines 24-27 of Passage, 1 ("I have. ... reason"), the author of Passage 2 would most likely assert that (A) adolescents tend to be passionate about their dislikes as well as their likes (B) comic books are not intended to provide lifelong entertainment (C) collectible pop-culture items are now displayed in museums (D) the sentimental value of comic books cannot be logically explained (E) many adults eagerly read and collect comic books 12. The argument from Passage 2 that best refutes the statement in lines 27-29 of Passage 1 ("In . . . it") is that comic books (A) do not cost much compared to other amusements (B) openly acknowledge their true purpose (C) help children cope with the stresses of their world (D) cannot, be appreciated by someone who lacks a sense of humor (E) have never been proven to distract children from homework 13. In line 40, quotation marks are used to (A) underscore a traditional definition (B) set off a specialized term (C) attribute a novel concept (D) mock a flawed hypothesis (E) support a challenging assertion 14. It can be inferred that the author of Passage 2 considers "attempts at the latter" (line 52) to have been (A) unpolished products (B) unpopular changes (C) misunderstood creations (D) ill-conceived failures (E) foolish imitations

15. In line 57, "compromised" most nearly means (A) settled (B) endangered (C) combined (D) reconciled (E) degraded 16. In lines 68-87 ("What.. . victimization"), the author of Passage 2 argues that the fantasy world of comic books (A) taps into the repressed fears of every child (B) fails to stand up to extended critical scrutiny (C) appeals to adults who cultivate childlike wonder (D) has a therapeutic effect on young readers (E) inspires many children to learn to write well

17. The author of Passage 1 would most likely regard lines 81-83, Passage 2 ("With . . . them"), as evidence of the (A) students' inability to read demanding fiction (B) schools' failure to monitor student activities (C) need to combine education with entertainment (D) hackneyed narratives found in comic books (E) potentially harmful influence of comic books 18. Compared to the tone of Passage 2, that of Passage I is more (A) conversational (B) facetious (C) severe (D) sarcastic (E) analytical

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