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Chapter 2(1) the Development of English Vocabulary.ppt


Chapter 2

?Key

to Questions and Tasks:

1. The Indo-European Language Family is one of the most important language families in the world. It is made up of mos

t of the languages of Europe, the Near East and India. English belongs to this family and the other members of the IndoEuropean Language family have different degrees of influence on English vocabulary. A knowledge of the Indo-European Language Family will help us understand English words better and use them more appropriately.

2. The Indo-European languages

IndoIranian Baltic Slavic ArmanianAlbanian Celtic Hellenic Italic Russi Lithu an, anian

German

Perti an

Iran

Serbia n

Irish Scottis h

Latin Italian French Spanis h

German

English Dutch

Hin di

Polis Latvi h an Serb oCroat ian

Cauca sian

Gaelic

Danish

Albani an

Welsh Cornis h

Greek

Arma nian

Portug uese

Icelandi c

Pictish

Romani an Swedis h

Norweg an

Slove nian

Gothic
Breton Frisian

6. Words of Greek or Latin origin: Course, human, event, necessary, people, dissolve, political, connected, assume, separate, equal, station, nature, entitle, decent, respect, opinion, requires, declare, causes, impel, separation 8. Eventful (Latin + English) hydroplane (Greek + Latin) falsehood (Latin + English) pacifist (Latin + Greek) saxophone (German + Greek) heirloom (French + English) joss house (Portuguese + English) television (Greek + Latin)

9. Early Borrowing: judgement, courage, chair, empire, garage, chaise, jealous, state, servant, gender Late Borrowing: amateur, fiance, garage, debut, chez, routine, genre, morale, ballet 11. Allegro(f) alto(i) andante(j) crescendo(b) diminuendo(g) forte(e) largo(d) piano(h) pianoforte(a) soprano(c) 12. Cherub(Hebrew) chipmunk(North India) chocolate(Mexican) coolie(Hindi) cotton(Arabic) jubilee(Greek) lasso(Spanish) loot(Hindi) Sabbath(Greek) shampoo(Hindi) snorkel(German) tamale(American-Spanish) tepee(American-India) tulip(Turkish) voodoo(African) kibitze(German) wok(Chinese) sauerbraten(German)

13. a.alligator b. loco c. rodeo d. bonanza e. igloo f. blitzkrieg g. wigwarm h. canoe I. hurricane j. boomerang k. poncho 15. There are three major modes of modern vocabulary development:creation, semantics change and borrowing. 1) Creation refers to the formation of new words by using the existing materials, namely roots, affixes and other elements. 2) Semantic change means an old form which takes on a new meaning. 3) Borrowing is to take in words from other languages.

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Supplementary Reading Material:
In southeastern U.S., storm leaves many people homeless, helpless, angry

I’m Steve Ember with IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. Building after building under water. Refugees in shelters. Thousands of others unsure where to go. Appeals for help. Anarchy . Bodies in streets. This is what one of America's historic cities was reduced to this week by a powerful storm, Katrina. Officials want everyone still left in New Orleans, Louisiana, to leave for now. The mayor of New Orleans says thousands may be dead. Hurricane Katrina also caused death and destruction in

parts of Mississippi and Alabama along the Gulf of Mexico. Federal officials reported Friday that more than one million five hundred thousand homes and businesses remained without electric power. New Orleans is famous for its wild Mardi Gras celebrations and night life in the French Quarter. Yet the city of nearly five hundred thousand people was built below sea level. New Orleans has depended on levees防洪堤, dams made of earth, to control floods from the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain. Katrina struck on Monday. New Orleans avoided a direct hit. But two of the levees failed the next day. Most of the city was flooded. Helicopters

dropped huge sandbags to fill the breaks. But the water had no place to go. Pumping stations had no power. America faces one of the worst natural events in its history. President Bush says the recovery will take years. Congress returned from a summer holiday to approve a request for ten thousand five hundred million dollars in emergency spending. The Bush administration is expected to ask for more in the weeks to come. People were told to leave the path of the storm. But some would not or could not. Many of those worst affected by Katrina are poor and black. African-American leaders and others were angry that government aid did not arrive faster.

President Bush visited some of the damaged areas on Friday. He said the way officials reacted to the crisis was unacceptable. The economic effects of Katrina are being felt across the United States. About one-fourth of the oil produced nationwide comes from the Gulf of Mexico. New Orleans is also a major port for foreign oil and other shipping trade. Energy officials say the storm has cut oil production by ninety percent and natural gas production by almost eighty percent. Some oil and gas operations have restarted in the Gulf. But the full amount of the damage has not yet been reported.

The president approved a release of oil from emergency supplies. But the storm also closed processing centers that make oil into fuel. The Energy Department says the nation has lost about ten percent of its gasoline supply. Some fuel stations have no more gasoline. American drivers have been urged to use less fuel. Oil and gasoline prices were already high before the storm. Now many people are angry at what they see as attempts to profit from Katrina. IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English was written by Nancy Steinbach. I’m Steve Ember

Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者事竟成。 No pains,no gains. 不劳则无获 Time and tide wait for no man 时不待人 Strike while the iron is hot 趁热打铁 It's never too late to mend 亡羊补牢 There is no smoke without fire 无风不起浪 Kill two birds with one stone 一箭双雕

East or west,home is best 走东串西,还是家里好 Equal pay for equal work 同工同酬 Put the cart before the horse 本末倒置 Pride goes before a fall 骄兵必败 Reading makes a full man 读书使人完善 Knowledge is power

Practice makes perfect 熟能生巧 All roads lead to Rome 条条大道通罗马 Don′t judge a person by the clothes he wears 不能以貌取人 Don′t count your chickens before they are hatched 切莫过于乐观 Learn to walk before you run 循序渐进 It′s easy to be wise after the event. 事后诸葛亮

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