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名词性从句和定语从句


名词性从句 & 定语从句

主句
The man who lives next to us sells vegetables.

后 放置于名词之_____,修饰名词的从句 先行词 1. 关系词 2. 在从句中充当成分

连接作用

The Attributive Clause 定语从句

1. 关系代词 (代替先行词 在从句中做 主语/宾语)

who 1. 指人 that whom whose(…的) 2. 指物 that which whose(…的) as

3. 指某一情况 which 不能放于句首

关系词

放于句中或句首 “正如” 2. 关系副词 (状语) when where why

Ⅰ.先行词是人的情况:
? The boy is Tom. The boy is handsome.

The boy who/that is handsome is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. The boy is smiling.

The boy who/that is smiling is Tom.
(主语)

? The man is kind. Everyone likes him.

The man (who/whom/that) everyone likes is kind. (宾语)

? This is the boy. I sit behind him.

This is the boy (who/whom/that) I sit behind. This is the boy behind whom I sit.

Ⅱ.先行词是物的情况:
The apple which/that is red is mine.

? Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat. The goat is eating her flowers. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat which/that is eating her flowers.

Do you find the pen? I wrote with it just now. Do you find the pen (which/that) I wrote with just now? Do you find the pen with which I wrote just now?

小结:
主语或宾语 3. which/that 指物,在从句中作___________ (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省)

These are the trees which/that were planted last year.
This recorder (which/that) he is using is made in Japan. Is this the library (which/that) you borrow books from? Is this the library from which you borrow books?

which 引导的特殊定语从句: which 有时 会引导一个非限制行定语从句对前面整 个句子进行补充说明。
Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe. The sun heats the earth, which makes it possible for plants to grow.

as与which引导的非限制性定语从句
两者均可引导非限制性定语从句,有时可以 互换,但下列情况多用as。 1. 当与such或the same连用时,一般用as。 e.g. Such books as you tell me about are interesting. She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 2. 关系代词引导的定语从句居句首时。 e.g. As we all know, the earth is round.

as 具有“正如,就象”之意,搭配的动词 一般是固定的 as you know /as is known (to all) as you see as we planned as we expected/ as was expected as is reported

小结:
主语或宾语 人 /物 ? that 指_________ ,在从句中作 _________________ (作宾语可省略)

A plane is a machine. It can fly. A plane is a machine that/which can fly. He is the man. I told you about him. He is the man (that/who/whom) I told you about. 不能用that 情况:
1.介词提前 2.非限制性定语从句

Is this the library from which you borrow books? from that

The man to whom I nodded is Professor Li.
to that

?在先行词为物的情况下that和which一般都可以 互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。 (1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. (2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read. (4)先行词被the only, the very, 修饰时。 This is the very book that belongs to him.

(5) 先行词既有人又有物时

Mary and her dog that were here just now disappeared all of a sudden. (6)避免重复
Who is the man that is standing there?

Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

(1) The scientist is very famous in the world. We met her yesterday.
The scientist ? we met yesterday is very famous who in the world. whom that (2) The dress is new. She is wearing it. The dress that she is wearing is new. which ?

(3) He is the kind person. I have ever worked with him. He is the kind person that I have ever worked with. who whom ?

(4) This is the best film. I have ever seen this film.
This is the best film that I have ever seen. ?

whose 引导的定语从句。
表示所属关系。相当于“…的”,后面紧跟一个 名词。注意: whose 在定语从句中既可以相当 于“…人的”,也可以相当于“…物的” . whose + 名词 =( the)名词 + of whom/which

The river (_________ whose banks are covered with trees) flows to the sea. whose The boy (__________ father died in the earthquake) worked very hard.

whose 引导的定语从句。
表示所属关系。相当于“…的”,后面紧跟一个 名词。注意: whose 在定语从句中既可以相当 于“…人的”,也可以相当于“…物的”. whose + 名词 =( the)名词 + of whom/which There are in this class 20 students, (______ are different).

A.whose backgrounds
B.the backgrounds of whom C.of whom the backgrounds D.the backgrounds of whose

关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状 语。 2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状 语。 3. why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状 语。 注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可 以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 来表示。

Where 引导的定语从句。
先行词是表示地点的名词或含有地点意义的抽 象名词,用引导定语从句。从句做状语。

This is the town where (= in which ) I spent my childhood.
The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one. I’ll show you the point where you failed.

When 引导的定语从句。
先行词是表示时间的名词,用when引导定 语从句。从句作状语。

I’ll never forget the day when (= on which ) I met you. This was the time when ( =at which ) he left for Bijing . We will put off the outing until next week, when we won’t be busy.

why引导的定语从句。
先行词是表示原因的名词,用引导定语从句。从句 作状语。 This is the reason why ( = for which ) I didn’t come here.

关系代词?

关系副词?

when /in which we worked together 1.I’ll never forget the days______________ which 2.I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together.
3.I went to the place where/ in which I worked ten years ago.
及物动词

which 4.I went to the place _____________ I visited ten years ago.
5.This is the reason _____________________ he was late. why/ for which
及物动词

that/which 6.This is the reason _____________________ he gave.
及物动词

定语从句易犯错误
(1).先行词方面

Is this house that he used t o live in? (改为: house后加the one _________________ ) 切记:先行词不可省略
比较:Is this the house that he used to live in ? (2).从句的判断错误
that

① He lost the game; which made us sad. (改为:________) ② He has two sisters, one of them is a teacher. (改为: ________)
whom

有分号或连词时不是定语从句,是平行结构.

(3).定语从句中主谓一致: 一般应与它所指代的先行词的单复数保持主谓一致

The students who were here just now are from No.1 Senior Middle School.
比较:

He is the only one of the students who was here just now. He is one of the students who were here just now.

如果"one of +复数名词"后跟有定语从句,一般情况 下"one of"后的复数名词为先行词,但当one前有the only 修饰时,先行词则为one。

非限制性定语从句和单句的比较
1.I am reading Harry Porter, which _____is an interesting book. That made his parents 2.He failed in the exam._______ angry. which 3.He failed in the exam, _______made his parents angry. them 4.He has two sons. Both of ________ are teachers. whom are teachers. 5.He has two sons, both of ________

I. Conception Input Noun Clauses include:
Subjective Clause (主语从句),
Objective Clause (宾语从句), Predicative Clause (表语从句),

Appositive Clause (同位语从句)

noun clauses (that引导的)
主语从句
宾语从句 表语从句
That she did best in the exam pleased her parents .
I think that physics is very hard to learn . The problem is that we haven’t got in touch with them . prize excited all of us .

同位语从句 The news that our team won the first

主语从句
在复合句中作主句的主语.引导词有连词 that ,whether (that 不可省);代词有who, what ,which;副词 when ,where, how, why 等 .如 : 1._______ That he is a famous singer is known to us. (It is known to us that he is a famous singer.)

When he will go to America is not yet fixed. 2.______
(It is not yet fixed when he will go to America.)

What he said was right. 3. ______
It was right what he said. ×

用it 作形式主语的结构

(1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … 事实是… It is an honor that …非常荣幸 It is common knowledge that …是常识 (2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that S + should do 很自然… It is strange that… 奇怪的是… ( important, necessary, impossible ) (3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… 似乎… It happened that… 碰巧… (4) It + 过去分词 + 从句 It has been proved that… 已证实… It is said that… 据说…

表语从句
表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动 词之后,可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。另,常用的还有the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如:

1) The question iswhether _______ we can make good preparation in such a short time. why we can’t get the support of 2) This is ______ the people that we are behind the 3) But the fact remains ______ other classes. that 4) The reason why he is late for school is _____ he missed the early bus.

表语从句 如果句子的主语是suggestion, order, advice, proposal等名词时,后面that引导的表语从句用 “(should ) +动词原形 ” 形式 His suggestion is that we ( should )finish the work at once .

宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句, 通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或介词后。 1. 作动词的宾语 1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that可以省略), 1. I heard that be joined the army. 2. She did not know what had happened. 3. I wonder whether you can change the note. 4. He told me that he would accept my invitation. 2. 作介词的宾语 Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 3. 作形容词的宾语 I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.

引导宾语从句的that常常可以省略, 但在以下情况不能省略. 1) make, find, feel, consider这些词后面用 it作形式宾语时, that不能省略。 I find it necessary that we study English . 2) 有两个宾语从句时,第二个that不能省略。 He said (that) he would go there the next day and that his family wouldn’t go there . 3) 与动词相隔离的宾语从句,that不能省略。 The teacher tells us very often that we should study hard . 4) 宾语从句放在句首时,为了强调,that不能省略。 That he has done such a thing I can’t believe .

同位语从句
在句中起同位语的作用.一般放在名词

fact , news , idea , promise, thought , suggestion

等之后,用以说明或解释前面的名词.引导词有

连词 that ;少数情况下也可用连接副词等.如 :
1.The thought that we night success excited us.

2.The idea that they should try a second time
is worth considering.

3. You had no idea how worried I was.

2.The possibility whether Bush will win the election is worth considering. 3. I have no idea what the life will be like in 2100s.

同位语从句与定语从句的区别 1) The news that he told me is that he would go abroad. (他告诉我的消息是真的) (that引导的是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语) 2) The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him. (汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。) (同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分)

Tell the difference

1.The news that the plane would take off on time made everybody happy. 2.The news that is spreading around the airport is that a heavy storm is coming.

3.The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering. 4.The suggestion that they are considering is that students should learn something practical.

同位语从句与定语从句的区别

(1) 定语从句中的 that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作 某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的 that是连词, 只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先 行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词 性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如: 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一
个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)

2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤 姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作
任何成分)


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