当前位置:首页 >> 医药卫生 >>

美国癌症统计数据


CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

Cancer Statistics, 2012
Rebecca Siegel, MPH1; Deepa Naishadham, MA, MS2; Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD3

Abstract
Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,638,910 new cancer cases and 577,190 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2012. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2004-2008), overall cancer incidence rates declined slightly in men (by 0.6% per year) and were stable in women, while cancer death rates decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.6% per year in women. Over the past 10 years of available data (19992008), cancer death rates have declined by more than 1% per year in men and women of every racial/ethnic group with the exception of American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. The most rapid declines in death rates occurred among African American and Hispanic men (2.4% and 2.3% per year, respectively). Death rates continue to decline for all 4 major cancer sites (lung, colorectum, breast, and prostate), with lung cancer accounting for almost 40% of the total decline in men and breast cancer accounting for 34% of the total decline in women. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of about 1,024,400 deaths from cancer. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population, with an emphasis on those groups in the lowest socioecoC nomic bracket. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;00:000–000. V 2012 American Cancer Society.

Introduction
Cancer is a major public health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. One in 4 deaths in the United States is due to cancer. In this article, we provide the expected numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in 2012 nationally and by state, as well as an overview of current cancer statistics using data through 2008, including incidence, mortality, and survival rates and trends. We also estimate the total number of deaths averted as a result of the decline in cancer death rates since the early 1990s, and provide the reported number of cancer deaths in 2008 by age for the 5 leading cancer types.

Materials and Methods
Incidence and Mortality Data
Mortality data from 1930 to 2008 in the United States were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).1,2 There are several sources for cancer incidence data. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute reports long-term (beginning in 1973), highquality, population-based incidence data covering up to 26% of the US population. Cancer incidence rates for long-term trends (1975-2008), 5-year relative survival rates (2001-2007), and estimations of the lifetime
1

Manager, Surveillance Information, Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA; 2Epidemiologist, Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA; 3Vice President, Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

Corresponding author: Rebecca Siegel, MPH, Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, 250 Williams St, NW, Atlanta, GA 30303-1002; Rebecca.siegel@cancer.org DISCLOSURES: The authors report no conflicts of interest. We thank Carol DeSantis in Surveillance Research at the American Cancer Society for providing analytic assistance.
C V

2012 American Cancer Society, Inc. doi:10.3322/caac.20138.

Available online at http://cacancerjournal.com
VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

1

Cancer Statistics, 2012

TABLE 1. Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex, United States, 2012*
ESTIMATED NEW CASES BOTH SEXES MALE FEMALE BOTH SEXES ESTIMATED DEATHS MALE FEMALE

All Sites Oral cavity & pharynx Tongue Mouth Pharynx Other oral cavity Digestive system Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Colon? Rectum Anus, anal canal, & anorectum Liver & intrahepatic bile duct Gallbladder & other biliary Pancreas Other digestive organs Respiratory system Larynx Lung & bronchus Other respiratory organs Bones & joints Soft tissue (including heart) Skin (excluding basal & squamous) Melanoma-skin Other nonepithelial skin Breast Genital system Uterine cervix Uterine corpus Ovary Vulva Vagina & other genital, female Prostate Testis Penis & other genital, male Urinary system Urinary bladder Kidney & renal pelvis Ureter & other urinary organs Eye & orbit Brain & other nervous system Endocrine system Thyroid Other endocrine Lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Myeloma Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia Other leukemia? Other & unspecified primary sites?

1,638,910 40,250 12,770 11,620 13,510 2,350 284,680 17,460 21,320 8,070 103,170 40,290 6,230 28,720 9,810 43,920 5,690 244,180 12,360 226,160 5,660 2,890 11,280 81,240 76,250 4,990 229,060 340,650 12,170 47,130 22,280 4,490 2,680 241,740 8,590 1,570 141,140 73,510 64,770 2,860 2,610 22,910 58,980 56,460 2,520 79,190 9,060 70,130 21,700 47,150 6,050 16,060 13,780 5,430 5,830 31,000

848,170 28,540 9,040 7,030 10,790 1,680 156,760 13,950 13,020 4,380 49,920 23,500 2,250 21,370 4,480 22,090 1,800 130,270 9,840 116,470 3,960 1,600 6,110 46,890 44,250 2,640 2,190 251,900

790,740 11,710 3,730 4,590 2,720 670 127,920 3,510 8,300 3,690 53,250 16,790 3,980 7,350 5,330 21,830 3,890 113,910 2,520 109,690 1,700 1,290 5,170 34,350 32,000 2,350 226,870 88,750 12,170 47,130 22,280 4,490 2,680

577,190 7,850 2,050 1,790 2,330 1,680 142,510 15,070 10,540 1,150 51,690 780 20,550 3,200 37,390 2,140 164,770 3,650 160,340 780 1,410 3,900 12,190 9,180 3,010 39,920 58,360 4,220 8,010 15,500 950 840 28,170 360 310 29,330 14,880 13,570 880 270 13,700 2,700 1,780 920 20,130 1,190 18,940 10,710 23,540 1,440 4,580 10,200 610 6,710 45,900

301,820 5,440 1,360 1,070 1,730 1,280 80,560 12,040 6,190 610 26,470 300 13,980 1,240 18,850 880 91,110 2,880 87,750 480 790 2,050 8,210 6,060 2,150 410 28,840

275,370 2,410 690 720 600 400 61,950 3,030 4,350 540 25,220 480 6,570 1,960 18,540 1,260 73,660 770 72,590 300 620 1,850 3,980 3,120 860 39,510 29,520 4,220 8,010 15,500 950 840

241,740 8,590 1,570 97,610 55,600 40,250 1,760 1,310 12,630 14,600 13,250 1,350 43,120 4,960 38,160 12,190 26,830 3,450 9,490 7,350 3,210 3,330 15,620

43,530 17,910 24,520 1,100 1,300 10,280 44,380 43,210 1,170 36,070 4,100 31,970 9,510 20,320 2,600 6,570 6,430 2,220 2,500 15,380

28,170 360 310 19,670 10,510 8,650 510 120 7,720 1,240 780 460 10,990 670 10,320 6,020 13,500 820 2,730 5,790 370 3,790 25,150

9,660 4,370 4,920 370 150 5,980 1,460 1,000 460 9,140 520 8,620 4,690 10,040 620 1,850 4,410 240 2,920 20,750

*Rounded to the nearest 10; estimated new cases exclude basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. About 63,300 carcinoma in situ of the female breast and 55,560 melanoma in situ will be newly diagnosed in 2012. ?Estimated deaths for colon and rectum cancers are combined. ?More deaths than cases may reflect lack of specificity in recording underlying cause of death on death certificates or an undercount in the case estimate.

2

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

TABLE 2. Incidence Rates for All Cancers Combined, 2004 to 2008, and Estimated New Cases* for Selected Cancers by State, United States, 2012
STATE INCIDENCE RATE? ALL CASES FEMALE UTERINE COLON & UTERINE LUNG & MELANOMA NON-HODGKIN URINARY BREAST CERVIX RECTUM CORPUS LEUKEMIA BRONCHUS OF THE SKIN LYMPHOMA PROSTATE BLADDER

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming United States

469.2 481.0 398.3 458.4 444.0 436.9 510.7 519.0 471.7 459.0 466.9 438.9 463.0 490.4 468.1 484.6 468.4 519.2 496.7 528.4 § 509.9 494.2 484.7 481.2 471.2 458.3 480.4 464.2 505.3 509.7 412.0 494.8 479.7 477.4 472.4 483.9 473.3 503.9 517.9 468.7 441.5 466.8 446.9 402.5 494.2 456.4 484.0 498.4 482.4 447.5 472.6

26,440 3,450 220 3,640 470 ? 31,990 4,470 250 16,120 2,150 130 165,810 25,040 1,450 22,820 3,420 140 21,530 3,140 110 5,340 740 ? 2,980 460 ? 117,580 15,540 910 48,130 6,970 410 6,610 1,120 50 7,720 1,000 50 65,750 9,090 510 35,060 4,490 250 17,010 2,350 90 14,090 1,990 90 25,160 3,160 180 23,480 3,320 200 8,990 1,170 50 31,000 4,700 210 38,470 5,480 190 57,790 7,710 350 28,060 4,110 150 15,190 1,990 140 33,440 4,440 230 5,550 740 ? 9,030 1,270 60 13,780 1,770 120 8,350 1,160 ? 50,650 6,970 390 9,640 1,310 70 109,440 14,730 850 51,860 7,090 390 3,510 490 ? 66,560 8,990 400 19,210 2,630 170 21,370 3,200 130 78,340 10,290 460 6,310 870 ? 26,570 3,570 220 4,430 600 ? 35,610 4,680 270 110,470 15,050 1,080 10,620 1,480 70 4,060 560 ? 41,380 6,190 290 35,790 5,240 220 11,610 1,430 80 31,920 4,270 190 2,650 360 ? 1,638,910 226,870 12,170

2,540 290 2,700 1,590 14,370 1,750 1,730 410 260 10,200 4,090 680 640 6,030 3,200 1,680 1,330 2,280 2,350 750 2,420 2,990 5,080 2,370 1,580 3,250 470 910 1,260 680 4,630 840 9,390 4,140 350 6,020 1,780 1,670 7,330 540 2,350 420 3,240 9,700 780 330 3,250 2,770 1,080 2,730 240 143,460

590 100 820 370 4,960 600 680 170 80 2,910 1,170 220 210 1,900 1,070 540 420 630 520 300 920 1,250 1,770 910 330 1,060 150 280 330 280 1,670 260 3,730 1,390 110 2,110 470 620 2,570 200 670 140 850 2,600 290 130 1,220 1,080 330 1,040 70 47,130

630 120 960 460 5,070 730 550 140 70 3,310 1,230 180 230 1,980 1,020 560 440 670 660 240 780 930 1,700 900 360 1,010 170 300 390 240 1,460 310 2,970 1,410 120 1,810 600 610 2,340 170 700 130 920 3,530 370 110 1,020 1,050 330 1,110 80 47,150

4,440 490 3,970 2,760 18,060 2,400 2,720 800 370 17,860 6,570 860 920 9,190 5,460 2,330 1,910 4,430 3,660 1,340 4,250 4,920 8,210 3,750 2,550 5,370 700 1,230 1,930 1,130 5,990 1,090 13,620 7,950 460 10,270 3,370 2,920 10,890 860 4,270 620 6,140 14,810 880 550 5,550 4,700 2,070 4,220 330 226,160

1,090 70 1,650 570 9,250 1,470 1,290 280 80 5,450 2,150 280 400 2,460 1,450 850 610 1,370 810 480 1,420 2,190 2,700 1,130 510 1,280 320 380 510 470 2,340 560 4,700 2,360 130 3,030 750 1,290 3,470 290 1,150 170 1,640 4,020 780 220 2,150 2,140 520 1,370 150 76,250

1,000 160 1,390 680 7,460 1,000 890 220 100 4,970 1,840 230 320 2,870 1,500 800 630 1,070 930 390 1,280 1,590 2,550 1,290 540 1,460 250 440 530 350 2,160 420 4,680 2,050 160 2,920 850 950 3,510 240 1,040 200 1,440 4,750 480 160 1,700 1,600 490 1,460 110 70,130

3,860 1,050 490 160 4,390 1,520 2,400 690 23,410 6,880 3,830 1,070 3,340 1,170 850 230 540 90 17,160 5,460 7,900 1,680 740 220 1,320 380 8,950 3,030 4,320 1,690 2,640 850 1,890 630 3,200 1,080 4,040 930 1,320 520 5,190 1,200 6,180 2,000 9,450 2,830 4,520 1,320 2,330 550 4,110 1,510 1,000 270 1,240 430 1,850 610 1,260 460 7,550 2,480 1,430 380 17,090 5,460 8,010 2,100 530 170 8,560 3,160 2,560 820 3,460 1,020 11,890 4,150 810 330 4,140 1,060 700 220 4,900 1,490 15,730 3,940 1,850 420 580 210 6,860 1,620 5,060 1,670 1,540 510 4,310 1,600 480 130 241,740 73,510

*Rounded to the nearest 10; excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinomas except urinary bladder. ?Rates are per 100,000 and age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. ?Estimate is fewer than 50 cases. §Rate is not available. Note: These model-based estimates are offered as a rough guide and should be interpreted with caution. State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding and the exclusion of states with fewer than 50 cases.

VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

3

Cancer Statistics, 2012

FIGURE 1. Ten Leading Cancer Types for the Estimated New Cancer Cases and Deaths by Sex, United States, 2012.
*Estimates are rounded to the nearest 10 and exclude basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ carcinoma except urinary bladder.

probability of developing cancer (2006-2008) were obtained from SEER registries.3-7 The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) compiles and reports incidence data for 1995 onward from cancer registries that participate in the SEER program or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, covering up to 95% of the US population. State-speci?c incidence rates (2004-2008), incidence rates for trends by race/ethnicity (1999-2008), and incidence data (1995-2008) for projecting new cancer cases were obtained from NAACCR.8,9 Cancer cases were classi?ed according to the International Classi?cation of Diseases for Oncology.10 All incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 US standard population and expressed per 100,000 persons.
4
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

Cancer incidence rates in this report are delayadjusted whenever possible in order to account for anticipated future corrections to registry data due to inherent delays and errors in case reporting. Delayadjusted rates primarily affect the most recent years of data for cancers that are frequently diagnosed in outpatient settings (eg, melanoma, leukemia, and prostate) and provide a more accurate portrayal of the cancer burden in the most recent time period.11 Delayadjusted rates are available for SEER registry data and were obtained from the National Cancer Institute.12

Projected Cancer Cases and Deaths in 2012
The precise number of cancer cases diagnosed each year in the nation and in every state is unknown because cancer registration is incomplete in some states.

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

TABLE 3. Death Rates for All Cancers Combined, 2004 to 2008, and Estimated Deaths* for Selected Cancers by State, United States, 2012
DEATH RATE? ALL SITES BRAIN & OTHER LIVER & NERVOUS FEMALE COLON & INTRAHEPATIC LUNG & NON-HODGKIN SYSTEM BREAST RECTUM LEUKEMIA BILE DUCT BRONCHUS LYMPHOMA OVARY PANCREAS PROSTATE

STATE

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming United States

199.9 10,290 181.2 930 156.2 11,090 201.7 6,570 165.1 56,620 156.1 7,190 176.9 6,940 196.6 1,930 198.3 1,010 172.5 42,170 183.1 15,790 149.2 2,380 167.8 2,640 189.3 23,970 197.2 13,240 180.5 6,410 180.7 5,400 213.6 9,890 208.4 9,150 196.0 3,230 186.8 10,440 183.0 12,930 189.3 20,430 171.5 9,490 206.8 6,330 194.5 12,710 175.7 2,010 175.4 3,450 186.1 4,590 184.2 2,700 182.6 16,650 160.8 3,530 169.6 34,140 189.6 18,440 173.0 1,300 197.2 25,030 195.9 7,800 183.0 7,790 190.2 28,790 184.9 2,190 191.1 9,670 172.4 1,630 202.8 13,880 174.7 36,820 131.8 2,780 178.4 1,300 185.6 14,610 178.6 12,170 207.8 4,600 181.5 11,240 171.0 940 181.3 577,190

230 ? 300 150 1,540 230 160 50 ? 850 350 ? 90 500 320 180 150 190 210 80 230 300 530 240 140 300 60 100 140 70 340 90 740 390 ? 570 200 220 570 50 220 ? 340 900 110 ? 320 400 100 300 ? 13,700

710 980 70 80 780 1,010 420 610 4,110 5,140 510 680 480 560 120 170 80 100 2,600 3,660 1,140 1,470 140 240 170 220 1,650 2,300 850 1,160 400 590 370 510 570 890 660 900 180 260 810 940 800 1,060 1,350 1,730 600 800 440 640 900 1,120 110 170 210 360 350 510 180 220 1,340 1,600 240 350 2,420 3,090 1,290 1,530 90 130 1,750 2,250 500 720 510 670 1,950 2,460 130 170 660 830 110 160 890 1,230 2,650 3,400 250 240 80 110 1,110 1,290 800 990 280 440 690 920 60 90 39,510 51,690

390 ? 460 260 2,430 300 270 70 ? 1,760 600 80 130 990 560 290 250 350 330 120 420 500 890 440 240 550 90 150 170 100 650 140 1,430 690 60 970 310 310 1,190 100 350 70 510 1,490 160 50 570 510 160 510 ? 23,540

320 ? 440 180 2,880 270 230 70 ? 1,460 480 120 80 730 350 180 160 250 380 90 350 480 660 320 220 390 50 80 210 80 540 170 1,350 580 ? 720 240 270 880 80 300 ? 410 1,830 90 ? 440 500 110 350 ? 20,550

3,240 260 2,850 2,160 12,830 1,690 1,780 580 250 12,200 4,650 580 660 6,590 4,140 1,790 1,580 3,530 2,730 970 2,850 3,570 5,910 2,500 1,960 3,970 580 900 1,490 750 4,200 780 8,880 5,600 320 7,350 2,440 2,120 7,750 620 2,970 450 4,570 9,780 460 370 4,150 3,270 1,460 3,000 250 160,340

320 ? 400 170 2,000 250 230 60 ? 1,400 470 80 100 760 450 230 200 310 270 110 320 420 720 330 170 390 70 130 140 80 550 110 1,080 560 50 800 260 280 1,030 70 280 60 430 1,180 110 ? 450 390 160 400 ? 18,940

300 ? 330 150 1,680 250 210 50 ? 1,040 450 60 70 620 340 190 140 220 220 70 280 370 550 260 140 280 60 90 120 60 490 100 1,010 460 ? 600 180 240 810 60 220 50 330 930 90 ? 420 390 120 320 ? 15,500

600 60 720 370 3,860 490 510 120 80 2,670 970 200 190 1,580 790 390 340 530 570 200 720 910 1,370 600 370 800 130 210 340 200 1,130 240 2,420 1,130 90 1,710 420 520 1,940 130 570 100 790 2,240 210 90 990 810 220 760 70 37,390

560 ? 570 290 3,110 380 380 90 60 2,160 860 100 160 1,140 560 330 230 360 390 130 510 600 840 480 310 580 110 190 260 120 720 200 1,610 1,020 70 1,210 430 410 1,330 90 440 80 580 1,630 270 60 660 670 160 570 ? 28,170

*Rounded to the nearest 10. ?Rates are per 100,000 and age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. ?Estimate is fewer than 50 deaths. Note: State estimates may not add to US total due to rounding and the exclusion of states with fewer than 50 deaths.

VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

5

Cancer Statistics, 2012

TABLE 4. Probability (%) of Developing Invasive Cancers Within Selected Age Intervals by Sex, United States, 2006 to 2008*
BIRTH TO 39 40 TO 59 60 TO 69 70 AND OLDER BIRTH TO DEATH

All sites? Urinary bladder? Breast Colorectum Leukemia Lung & bronchus Melanoma of the skin§ Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Prostate Uterine cervix Uterine corpus

Male Female Male Female Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Female

1.45 2.15 0.02 0.01 0.49 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.14 0.03 0.03 0.15 0.27 0.13 0.09 0.01 0.15 0.07

(1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

69) 46) 5,035) 12,682) 203) 1,236) 1,258) 614) 737) 3,631) 3,285) 677) 377) 775) 1,152) 8,499) 650) 1,373)

8.68 9.10 0.38 0.12 3.76 0.92 0.73 0.22 0.15 0.91 0.76 0.63 0.56 0.45 0.32 2.63 0.27 0.77

(1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

12) 11) 266) 851) 27) 109) 137) 445) 665) 109) 132) 158) 180) 223) 313) 38) 373) 130)

16.00 10.34 0.92 0.25 3.53 1.44 1.01 0.34 0.21 2.26 1.72 0.75 0.39 0.60 0.44 6.84 0.13 0.87

(1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

6) 10) 109) 400) 28) 70) 99) 291) 482) 44) 58) 133) 256) 167) 228) 15) 771) 114)

38.27 26.68 3.71 0.98 6.58 4.32 3.95 1.24 0.81 6.69 4.91 1.94 0.82 1.77 1.41 12.54 0.18 1.24

(1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

3) 4) 27) 102) 15) 23) 25) 81) 123) 15) 20) 52) 123) 57) 71) 8) 549) 81)

44.85 38.08 3.84 1.15 12.29 5.27 4.91 1.57 1.14 7.66 6.33 2.80 1.83 2.34 1.94 16.48 0.68 2.61

(1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1 (1

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

2) 3) 26) 87) 8) 19) 20) 64) 88) 13) 16) 36) 55) 43) 51) 6) 147) 38)

*For people free of cancer at beginning of age interval. ?All sites excludes basal and squamous cell skin cancers and in situ cancers except urinary bladder. ?Includes invasive and in situ cancer cases. §Statistics for whites only.

Furthermore, the most recent year for which incidence and mortality data are available lags 3 to 4 years behind the current year due to the time required for data collection, compilation, and dissemination. Therefore, we project the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States in 2012 in order to provide an estimate of the contemporary cancer burden. The methods for projecting both new cases and deaths in 2012 have been modi?ed, so these estimates should not be compared with those from previous years. We projected the numbers of new malignant cancer cases that will be diagnosed in 2012 using a 2-step process that ?rst estimates complete incidence counts by state during years for which observed data are available, and then projects these counts 4 years ahead for the United States overall and each state individually.13 To obtain estimated counts for each state through 2008, we used a spatiotemporal model based on incidence data from 1995 through 2008 for 47 states and the District of Columbia that met NAACCR’s highquality data standard for incidence, covering about 95% of the US population.14 This method accounts for expected delays in case reporting and considers geographic variations in sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, medical settings, and cancer screening behaviors as predictors of incidence. A temporal projection method (the vector autoregressive model) was then
6
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

applied to the estimated counts to obtain the 2012 projections. For the complete details of this methodology, please refer to Zhu et al.13 To estimate the numbers of new breast carcinoma in situ (female) and melanoma in situ cases in 2012, we ?rst estimated the number of in situ cases occurring annually from 2000 through 2008 in the United States by applying the age-speci?c incidence rates in the 17 SEER areas to the corresponding US population estimates.3,15 We then projected the total number of cases in 2012 based on the annual percent change from 2000 through 2008 generated by the joinpoint regression model.16 We estimated the number of cancer deaths expected to occur in 2012 in the United States overall and in each state using the joinpoint regression model based on the actual number of cancer deaths from 1994 through 2008 at the state and national levels as reported to the NCHS.2,17 For the complete details of this methodology, please refer to Chen et al.17

Other Statistics
The estimated numbers of cancer deaths averted in men and women due to the reduction in overall cancer death rates were calculated by applying the 5-year age-speci?c cancer death rates in the peak year for age-standardized cancer death rates (1990 in men and 1991 in women) to the corresponding

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

bronchus, and colorectum will account for about half of all newly diagnosed cancers; prostate cancer alone will account for 29% (241,740) of incident cases. The 3 most commonly diagnosed types of cancer among women in 2012 will be breast, lung and bronchus, and colorectum, accounting for about half of the estimated cancer cases in women. Breast cancer alone is expected to account for 29% (226,870) of all new cancer cases among women.

Expected Numbers of Cancer Deaths
Table 1 also shows the expected numbers of deaths from cancer projected for 2012. It is estimated that 577,190 Americans will die from cancer this year, corresponding to more than 1,500 deaths per day. Cancers of the lung and bronchus, prostate, and colorectum in men and cancers of the lung and bronchus, breast, and colorectum in women continue to be the most common causes of cancer death. These 4 cancers account for almost half of the total cancer deaths among men and women (Fig. 1). In 2012, lung cancer is expected to account for 26% of all female cancer deaths and 29% of all male cancer deaths. Table 3 provides the estimated numbers of cancer deaths in 2012 by state for selected cancers.

FIGURE 2. Trends in Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Sex, United States, 1975 to 2008.
Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Incidence rates are adjusted for delays in reporting.

age-speci?c populations in subsequent years through 2008 to obtain the number of expected deaths in each calendar year if the death rates had not decreased. We then summed the difference between the numbers of expected and observed deaths in each age group and calendar year for men and women separately.

Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer
The lifetime probability of being diagnosed with an invasive cancer is higher for men (45%) than for women (38%) (Table 4). However, because of the earlier median age at diagnosis for breast cancer compared with other major cancers, women have a slightly higher probability of developing cancer before age 60 years. These estimates are based on the average experience of the general population and may over- or underestimate individual risk because of differences in exposure (eg, smoking history) and/ or genetic susceptibility.

Selected Findings
Expected Numbers of New Cancer Cases
Table 1 presents the estimated numbers of new cases of invasive cancer expected among men and women in the United States in 2012. The overall estimate of more than 1.6 million new cases does not include carcinoma in situ of any site except the urinary bladder, nor does it include basal cell and squamous cell cancers of the skin. About 63,300 cases of breast carcinoma in situ and 55,560 cases of melanoma in situ are expected to be newly diagnosed in 2012. The estimated numbers of new cancer cases by state for selected cancers are shown in Table 2. Figure 1 indicates the most common cancers expected to occur in men and women in 2012. Among men, cancers of the prostate, lung and

Trends in Cancer Incidence
Figures 2 to 5 depict long-term trends in cancer incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for selected cancers by sex. Table 5 shows incidence (delay-adjusted) and mortality trends for all cancers combined and for the 4 most common cancer sites based on joinpoint regression analysis. Joinpoint is a tool used to describe and quantify trends by ?tting observed rates to lines connected at ‘‘joinpoints’’ where trends change in direction or magnitude.16,18
VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

7

Cancer Statistics, 2012

FIGURE 3. Trends in Incidence Rates for Selected Cancers by Sex, United States, 1975 to 2008.
Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population and adjusted for delays in reporting. *Liver includes intrahepatic bile duct.

According to data from the SEER 13 cancer registries, incidence rates in the most recent 5 years (2004-2008) decreased in males by 0.6% per year and were stable in females (Table 5). Incidence rates decreased for all 4 major cancer sites except the female breast, for which rates remained relatively stable from 2005 to 2008 after decreasing by 2% per year from 1999 to 2005. Lung cancer incidence rates in women began declining in the late 1990s, more than a decade after the decline began in men.6 Differences in lung cancer incidence patterns between men and women (Fig. 3) re?ect historical differences in tobacco use; cigarette smoking prevalence peaked about 20 years later in women than in men.19 Recent rapid declines in colorectal cancer incidence rates have largely been attributed to increases in screening that can detect and remove precancerous polyps.20-22 Although joinpoint trend analysis shows that the incidence rate for prostate cancer declined steadily by 1.9% per year from 2000 to 2008, it is important to realize that annual rates ?uctuate widely from year to
8
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

year (Fig. 3), likely re?ecting variation in the prevalence of prostate-speci?c antigen testing for the detection of prostate cancer. For example, in the SEER 13 areas, the delay-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rate increased from 152.8 (per 100,000) in 2005 to 162.8 in 2006, then dropped from 165.9 in 2007 to 151.8 in 2008.12

Trends in Cancer Mortality
Based on the most recent 5 years of mortality data (2004-2008), the overall cancer death rate decreased by 1.8% per year in males and by 1.6% per year in females. These declines have been consistent since 2001/2002 and are larger in magnitude than those occurring in the previous decade (Table 5). Death rates peaked in men in 1990 (279.8 per 100,000) and in women in 1991 (175.3 per 100,000). Between 1990/1991 and 2008, cancer death rates decreased 22.9% in men and 15.3% in women. Death rates continue to decrease for the 4 major cancer sites: lung and bronchus, colorectum,

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

FIGURE 4. Trends in Death Rates Among Males for Selected Cancers, United States, 1930 to 2008.
Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Due to changes in International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, numerator information has changed over time. Rates for cancers of the lung and bronchus, colorectum, and liver are affected by these changes.

FIGURE 5. Trends in Death Rates Among Females for Selected Cancers, United States, 1930 to 2008.
Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Due to changes in International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, numerator information has changed over time. Rates for cancers of the uterus, ovary, lung and bronchus, and colorectum are affected by these changes. *Uterus includes uterine cervix and uterine corpus.
VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

9

Cancer Statistics, 2012

TABLE 5. Trends in Cancer Incidence (Delay-Adjusted) and Death Rates for Selected Cancers by Sex, United States, 1992 to 2008
TREND 1 YEARS APC TREND 2 YEARS APC TREND 3 YEARS APC TREND 4 YEARS APC 2004-2008 AAPC

All cancers Incidence Male and female Male Female Death Male and female Male Female Lung & bronchus Incidence Male Female Death Male Female Colorectum Incidence Male Female Death Male Female Female breast Incidence Death Prostate Incidence Death

1992-1994 1992-1994 1992-1998 1992-2001 1992-2001 1992-2002

?3.2* ?5.6* 0.8* ?1.0* ?1.4* ?0.7* ?1.9* 0.7 ?1.9* 0.6*

1994-1999 1994-2008 1998-2006 2001-2008 2001-2008 2002-2008

0.4 ?0.6* ?0.5* ?1.6* ?1.8* ?1.6*

1999-2005 2006-2008

?0.8* 1.1

2005-2008

0.1

?0.1 ?0.6* 0.3 ?1.6* ?1.8* ?1.6* ?1.9* ?0.3* ?2.6* ?0.9*

1992-2008 1992-1997 1992-2005 1992-2002

1997-2008 2005-2008 2002-2008

?0.3* ?2.8* ?0.9* ?2.6* ?2.0* ?2.3* ?2.1* 1.1 ?1.7* ?1.9* ?2.3*

1992-1995 1992-1995 1992-2002 1992-2001 1992-1999 1992-1995 1992-1995 1992-1994

?2.6* ?1.8* ?2.0* ?1.7* 1.3* ?1.2* ?11.1* ?1.3

1995-1998 1995-1998 2002-2005 2001-2005 1999-2005 1995-1998 1995-2000 1994-2008

1.5 1.9 ?4.0* ?3.6* ?2.0* ?3.6* 2.0 ?3.7*

1998-2008 1998-2008 2005-2008 2005-2008 2005-2008 1998-2003 2000-2008

?2.6* ?2.0* ?2.7* ?2.5* 0.3 ?2.3* ?1.9* ?3.7*

2003-2008

APC indicates annual percent change based on incidence (delay-adjusted) and mortality rates age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population; AAPC, average annual percent change. *The APC or AAPC is significantly different from 0 (P < .05). Note: Trends analyzed by the Joinpoint Regression Program, version 3.5.0, allowing up to 3 joinpoints. Incidence trends based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 13 areas.

breast, and prostate (Figs. 4 and 5). Among men, reductions in death rates for lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers account for 78% of the total decrease in the cancer death rate, with lung cancer alone accounting for almost 40% of the decrease. Among women, reductions in death rates for breast and colorectal cancers account for 56% of the total decrease, with breast cancer accounting for 34% of the decrease in women. The decrease in lung cancer death rates among men since 1990 is due to the reduction in tobacco use over the past 50 years,23 while the decrease in death rates for female breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer largely re?ects improvements in early detection and/or treatment.20,24,25 Figure 6 shows the total number of cancer deaths avoided since death rates began to decrease in 1991 in men and in 1992 in women. About 1,024,400
10
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

cancer deaths (732,900 in men and 291,500 in women) were averted from 1991/1992 through 2008 as a result of 18 years of consistent declines in cancer death rates.

Recorded Number of Deaths From Cancer in 2008
A total of 565,469 cancer deaths were recorded in the United States in 2008, the most recent year for which actual data are available. Cancer is the second leading cause of death following heart disease, accounting for 23% of all deaths. From 2007 to 2008, the age-standardized cancer death rate decreased 1.5%, from 178.4 (per 100,000) to 175.8. Table 6 presents the numbers of deaths from all cancers combined and from the 5 most common cancer types for each 20-year age group. Leukemia is

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

FIGURE 6. Total Number of Cancer Deaths Averted From 1991 to 2008 in Men and From 1992 to 2008 in Women.
The blue line represents the actual number of cancer deaths recorded in each year, and the red line represents the expected number of cancer deaths if cancer mortality rates had remained at their peak (1990 in men and 1991 in women).

the most common cause of cancer death among males aged younger than 40 years, while lung cancer ranks ?rst among those aged 40 years and older. Among females, leukemia is the leading cause of cancer death among children and adolescents (those aged younger than 20 years), breast cancer ranks ?rst among women ages 20 to 59 years, and lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in those aged 60 years and older.

Regional Variations in Cancer Rates
Tables 7 and 8 depict cancer incidence and death rates for selected cancers by state. Lung cancer shows the largest geographic variation in cancer occurrence by far, re?ecting the large historical and continuing differences in smoking prevalence among states.23 For example, lung cancer incidence rates in Kentucky, which has highest smoking prevalence, are almost 4-fold higher than

those in Utah, which has the lowest smoking prevalence. In contrast, state variations for other cancer sites are smaller in both absolute and proportionate terms. For example, the breast cancer incidence rate in Connecticut, which has the highest rate (136.2 per 100,000), is only 28% higher than that in Arizona, which has the lowest rate (106.7 per 100,000). For cancers that can be detected by screening or other testing practices, such as those of the prostate, female breast, and colorectum, state variation in incidence rates re?ects differences in the use of screening tests or detection practices in addition to differences in disease occurrence.

Cancer Occurrence by Race/Ethnicity
Cancer incidence and death rates vary considerably among racial and ethnic groups (Table 9). For all cancer sites combined, African American men have a
VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

11

Cancer Statistics, 2012

TABLE 6. Reported Deaths for the 5 Leading Cancers by Age and Sex, United States, 2008
ALL AGES <20 20 TO 39 MALE ALL SITES 295,259 ALL SITES 1,130 ALL SITES 4,169 ALL SITES 54,458 ALL SITES 153,631 ALL SITES 81,865 40 TO 59 60 TO 79 !80

Lung & bronchus 88,541 Prostate 28,472 Colorectum 26,935 Pancreas 17,515 Leukemia 12,711

Leukemia 316 Brain & ONS 290 Bones & joints 99 Soft tissue 87 Other endocrine system 79

Leukemia 616 Brain & ONS 499 Colorectum 433 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 317 Lung & bronchus 272
FEMALE

Lung & bronchus 15,212 Colorectum 5,516 Liver & bile duct 4,244 Pancreas 3,709 Esophagus 2,586

Lung & bronchus 52,755 Colorectum 13,381 Prostate 11,957 Pancreas 9,578 Esophagus 6,140

Lung & bronchus 20,288 Prostate 15,214 Colorectum 7,593 Urinary bladder 4,338 Pancreas 4,131

ALL SITES 270,210

ALL SITES 909

ALL SITES 4,530

ALL SITES 49,828

ALL SITES 127,190

ALL SITES 87,750

Lung & bronchus 70,051 Breast 40,589 Colorectum 25,924 Pancreas 17,721 Ovary 14,362

Leukemia 282 Brain & ONS 243 Bones & joints 83 Other endocrine system 78 Soft tissue 73

Breast 1,064 Uterine cervix 411 Colorectum 383 Leukemia 362 Brain & ONS 305

Breast 11,492 Lung & bronchus 10,980 Colorectum 4,077 Ovary 3,125 Pancreas 2,437

Lung & bronchus 39,770 Breast 17,051 Colorectum 10,291 Pancreas 8,545 Ovary 7,117

Lung & bronchus 19,063 Colorectum 11,167 Breast 10,981 Pancreas 6,648 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 4,109

ONS indicates other nervous system. Note: Deaths within each age group do not sum to all ages combined due to the inclusion of unknown ages. ‘‘Other and unspecified malignant neoplasm’’ is excluded from cause of death ranking order.

15% higher incidence rate and a 33% higher death rate than white men, whereas African American women have a 6% lower incidence rate but a 16% higher death rate than white women. For the speci?c cancer sites listed in Table 9, incidence and death rates are consistently higher in African Americans than in whites except for cancers of the breast (incidence) and lung (incidence and mortality) among women, and kidney (mortality) among both men and women. Factors known to contribute to racial disparities in mortality vary by cancer site and include differences in exposure to underlying risk factors (eg, historical smoking prevalence for lung cancer), access to high-quality screening (breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers), and timely diagnosis and treatment for many cancers.26 The higher breast cancer incidence rate noted among white women is thought to re?ect a combination
12
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

of factors that affect both diagnosis (more prevalent mammography use in white women) and underlying disease occurrence (increased prevalence of risk factors in white women, such as later age at ?rst birth and greater use of menopausal hormone therapy).27 Cancer incidence and death rates are lower in other racial and ethnic groups than in whites and African Americans for all cancer sites combined and for the 4 most common cancer sites. However, incidence and death rates for cancers related to infectious agents, such as those of the uterine cervix, stomach, and liver, are generally higher in minority populations than in whites. Stomach and liver cancer incidence and death rates are twice as high in Asian Americans/Paci?c Islanders as in whites, re?ecting an increased prevalence of chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis B and C viruses in this population.28 Kidney cancer incidence

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

TABLE 7. Incidence Rates for Selected Cancers by State, United States, 2004 to 2008
ALL CANCERS STATE MALE FEMALE BREAST FEMALE COLORECTUM MALE FEMALE LUNG & BRONCHUS MALE FEMALE NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA MALE FEMALE PROSTATE MALE URINARY BLADDER MALE FEMALE

Alabama* Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia? Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana* Maine Maryland? Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi* Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada? New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas* Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming United States

579.9 531.4 447.5 556.4 512.8 498.2 590.0 614.3 573.2 531.2 571.9 503.7 532.0 577.0 544.0 563.7 556.4 612.1 618.1 612.7 533.1 588.6 582.8 573.1 608.1 547.1 518.7 559.7 507.6 576.3 595.1 467.4 580.9 576.6 559.3 551.1 566.3 531.6 586.6 603.1 569.1 515.1 558.0 529.9 476.2 552.6 542.1 552.5 581.9 555.8 517.6 553.0

391.1 441.0 360.6 385.6 396.9 393.5 458.5 446.9 398.3 402.6 395.7 393.3 408.7 433.8 418.6 431.4 420.6 456.4 409.9 468.1 411.6 459.2 432.7 421.1 392.1 418.8 410.9 425.4 404.1 455.7 453.8 369.5 438.4 412.5 417.1 421.2 428.0 431.5 449.4 464.5 396.9 386.8 404.6 388.5 344.7 453.2 396.9 434.8 441.2 430.9 391.2 416.5

117.2 130.4 106.7 109.0 122.4 122.3 136.2 126.6 126.7 113.6 119.2 122.4 116.5 123.9 115.1 122.5 124.4 120.5 118.2 128.9 123.4 133.4 120.3 126.4 112.8 120.6 120.0 125.0 111.7 132.2 129.7 110.5 124.3 123.3 124.2 119.8 125.6 130.3 124.8 132.5 119.9 117.4 117.2 113.7 109.5 130.1 124.2 129.8 112.6 123.4 114.6 121.2

61.3 55.1 43.4 56.2 51.2 48.4 57.4 59.6 54.1 51.9 55.7 59.7 46.5 63.9 59.5 61.3 57.9 66.7 66.0 58.3 52.4 56.8 54.6 53.7 64.7 59.7 51.2 65.2 51.2 54.3 60.6 46.2 56.7 55.8 66.4 58.5 56.8 50.0 61.4 59.0 55.6 55.8 57.4 54.4 42.2 46.7 52.3 49.5 64.7 53.2 51.2 55.7

42.0 45.5 32.5 41.4 38.6 37.0 42.9 42.6 43.7 39.3 40.0 39.8 37.8 46.5 44.2 47.1 41.7 47.4 44.7 46.0 39.3 42.0 41.6 41.1 45.7 43.1 39.3 46.9 41.1 41.4 44.4 35.5 43.0 39.9 44.5 43.6 42.7 38.7 46.0 44.8 41.0 40.9 42.2 37.8 31.2 41.5 39.5 37.4 47.4 41.0 39.6 41.4

106.8 85.3 63.9 109.2 63.3 57.6 80.2 94.4 80.3 85.1 97.3 70.5 66.8 89.9 99.8 88.0 85.0 130.1 105.8 97.2 80.0 82.4 89.1 67.6 117.2 101.3 72.8 82.3 79.0 82.2 76.7 54.5 77.3 101.6 72.5 94.9 103.2 76.0 88.4 90.8 97.9 76.3 108.7 82.3 34.1 81.9 88.0 73.4 115.0 78.1 59.5 84.4

54.1 64.8 48.2 61.0 45.7 45.0 60.0 69.5 45.3 59.0 54.5 40.7 49.0 59.8 63.6 55.3 53.6 79.5 58.6 66.6 57.4 64.1 61.8 49.6 56.0 63.8 58.2 52.0 66.8 62.2 56.7 39.4 54.8 57.8 46.2 60.0 65.6 59.8 57.6 63.2 53.4 46.6 60.7 49.9 22.3 62.1 54.3 58.3 73.2 54.3 48.1 55.7

19.8 22.3 18.0 21.7 22.8 22.0 26.3 24.3 22.7 21.7 21.7 20.3 22.5 24.2 23.0 26.4 23.9 24.7 24.0 26.0 20.5 24.6 25.1 26.9 21.6 22.1 22.2 24.4 20.4 23.1 25.6 18.5 25.5 22.7 23.1 23.2 23.0 24.2 24.9 24.4 20.5 20.3 22.1 22.3 23.4 23.7 21.2 26.5 23.9 28.3 22.4 23.4

13.8 18.2 13.3 15.4 15.6 15.8 17.9 17.0 12.8 15.3 14.5 12.4 17.1 16.3 17.0 18.4 17.6 17.3 17.1 18.6 14.2 16.6 18.3 18.1 14.2 16.0 15.5 17.5 15.7 17.3 17.7 14.4 17.5 15.6 17.4 16.2 17.7 16.3 17.6 17.5 14.1 16.7 16.1 15.8 16.0 17.4 14.2 17.7 17.3 20.1 14.8 16.3

160.8 141.5 122.9 156.4 146.5 156.3 162.1 181.7 187.9 137.3 167.4 132.1 162.5 157.7 132.7 141.7 158.1 139.8 172.0 163.3 157.0 160.8 169.4 184.2 174.1 131.8 160.7 157.2 135.5 154.8 171.0 137.6 166.9 158.8 169.5 146.0 151.8 149.2 155.8 155.1 165.5 158.5 142.2 143.3 173.7 152.1 159.4 157.9 140.4 150.9 166.2 152.9

32.8 39.4 32.5 32.8 34.3 32.1 47.6 44.4 24.4 35.9 33.1 26.2 36.6 40.1 36.7 42.1 37.0 40.1 35.0 48.2 33.0 45.6 41.7 40.7 31.3 35.8 36.3 37.2 37.6 46.0 46.7 25.9 42.5 37.1 40.8 39.0 35.8 38.7 45.1 53.1 30.9 34.0 34.4 29.4 28.7 43.8 34.0 39.7 40.0 38.7 41.4 37.6

7.6 8.6 8.6 8.4 8.1 8.3 12.3 11.9 7.7 9.1 8.0 6.4 9.2 10.2 9.2 8.9 9.3 10.1 8.4 13.5 9.7 12.7 10.7 9.7 7.3 8.4 9.7 9.1 10.6 13.2 12.2 7.0 11.0 9.1 9.9 9.6 8.7 10.0 11.0 13.4 7.8 7.9 8.3 7.0 5.8 13.1 8.4 9.5 11.1 10.0 10.1 9.4

Rates are per 100,000 and age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. *Due to the effect of large migrations of populations on this state as a result of Hurricane Katrina in September 2005, statistics exclude cases diagnosed from July through December in 2005. ?This state is not included in the overall US rates because its registry did not achieve high-quality data standards for one or more years during 2004 to 2008 according to the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) data quality indicators.

VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

13

Cancer Statistics, 2012

TABLE 8. Death Rates for Selected Cancers by State, United States, 2004 to 2008
ALL CANCERS STATE MALE FEMALE BREAST FEMALE COLON & RECTUM MALE FEMALE LUNG & BRONCHUS MALE FEMALE NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA MALE FEMALE PANCREAS MALE FEMALE PROSTATE MALE

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming United States

262.0 212.4 186.7 254.9 197.4 187.3 216.4 238.5 260.4 209.4 237.1 186.2 197.9 233.3 247.3 224.7 224.7 271.2 268.1 243.4 229.7 227.3 231.1 208.8 276.1 242.0 208.1 217.1 214.7 223.4 218.5 193.0 204.6 241.4 212.8 246.5 245.4 217.7 235.6 234.4 245.7 214.2 261.1 217.8 158.3 214.2 232.7 211.9 257.1 222.8 199.4 223.0

158.7 157.2 132.4 164.1 143.4 135.7 152.5 167.5 161.1 143.9 149.5 120.7 145.7 162.0 164.8 151.7 151.3 175.1 168.6 164.7 159.7 156.0 162.1 147.6 161.4 162.7 153.0 147.2 163.0 159.1 160.6 136.8 148.0 155.5 146.0 165.5 161.5 158.7 161.1 155.0 153.9 142.7 164.0 145.1 112.4 155.5 155.5 155.7 174.0 154.3 150.7 153.2

24.5 21.7 21.0 24.0 22.5 20.5 23.2 24.3 27.6 21.9 23.2 17.8 21.2 24.7 24.0 22.1 23.1 23.5 26.8 21.5 25.6 22.3 24.4 21.6 25.5 25.4 20.7 22.0 23.5 22.8 26.5 21.5 23.1 24.4 22.3 25.9 24.1 22.5 24.8 22.2 24.3 21.8 24.5 22.6 22.1 21.7 25.1 22.4 23.9 22.1 22.1 23.5

23.6 21.5 17.5 23.2 18.4 18.3 18.1 20.8 23.0 18.7 20.7 18.8 15.9 23.2 23.1 21.3 21.8 24.4 25.8 20.9 22.6 20.1 20.6 18.2 25.2 22.1 17.5 22.9 21.3 20.5 22.6 19.6 20.2 20.4 22.2 23.3 23.3 19.0 22.7 20.6 20.9 20.5 22.7 20.7 14.6 20.2 21.0 18.2 24.4 19.4 19.9 20.7

15.2 13.5 11.9 15.6 13.3 13.3 13.8 15.0 18.1 13.3 14.3 10.7 13.8 16.2 15.6 15.5 14.5 17.0 16.3 15.4 15.0 14.4 15.1 13.0 16.6 15.0 13.9 15.6 16.4 13.9 16.0 13.4 14.5 14.2 14.3 16.0 14.9 14.1 15.8 13.5 14.6 14.3 15.6 13.4 10.2 15.0 14.4 13.1 16.9 13.6 14.6 14.5

90.3 62.3 52.1 93.2 50.3 46.1 58.5 73.7 68.6 65.1 78.9 51.8 52.0 69.9 82.8 70.0 71.8 103.0 87.8 75.6 67.4 64.0 71.5 57.0 98.9 83.1 59.5 64.1 62.7 63.4 59.7 45.5 56.6 81.1 59.3 78.5 84.0 62.9 69.9 69.0 81.7 65.4 93.9 65.7 29.5 62.5 73.0 59.7 89.1 61.4 52.5 67.4

41.0 46.3 33.9 47.4 33.9 32.3 39.1 50.3 35.1 40.1 38.9 27.4 34.9 42.0 47.2 39.3 40.9 56.1 45.0 47.3 42.2 42.7 43.9 37.3 43.3 46.4 42.4 35.9 50.0 43.7 39.1 29.5 36.4 41.9 35.4 45.0 46.8 44.3 40.3 43.4 39.9 36.3 47.2 36.9 16.9 43.2 41.3 43.2 50.8 39.2 38.2 40.1

8.5 7.7 7.7 8.6 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0 8.8 8.0 8.0 7.2 8.2 9.1 9.9 9.2 9.7 9.3 9.3 9.3 8.1 8.7 9.2 9.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 9.0 6.8 8.3 8.5 6.6 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.5 9.2 9.1 9.4 9.1 7.8 8.7 9.3 8.2 7.8 7.7 8.3 8.9 9.6 9.5 8.1 8.6

5.5 5.1 4.9 5.2 5.1 4.7 5.4 5.1 3.2 5.0 4.8 4.4 5.8 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.5 6.0 5.5 6.0 5.0 5.4 6.2 5.4 4.6 5.5 5.6 5.9 4.9 5.1 5.7 4.8 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.6 5.7 5.9 5.9 4.8 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.2 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.7 6.5 5.9 6.3 5.4

12.9 11.9 11.4 12.7 11.8 11.2 14.4 12.1 16.1 11.9 12.8 12.9 11.6 13.2 12.9 12.1 12.7 12.3 14.0 12.7 12.8 13.2 13.6 11.8 13.6 12.9 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.8 13.3 11.5 12.6 12.5 12.4 13.1 11.8 12.3 13.5 12.3 12.6 11.2 12.8 11.8 9.7 11.5 13.1 12.1 11.7 12.8 12.4 12.5

9.4 10.4 7.8 9.5 9.3 8.8 10.1 9.8 10.1 8.6 8.8 9.4 10.2 10.1 9.5 8.8 9.4 9.3 10.9 10.0 10.5 10.3 9.9 9.3 9.6 9.5 9.3 8.7 10.0 11.0 9.9 9.3 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.7 8.7 10.3 9.8 8.7 9.5 9.2 9.4 8.6 7.9 9.6 9.9 9.8 7.6 9.7 10.4 9.4

29.9 22.5 20.6 26.2 23.6 24.3 25.7 26.7 41.7 20.3 28.6 16.8 27.3 26.1 25.2 25.1 22.2 25.6 28.6 25.0 27.5 24.1 23.6 25.1 31.7 23.1 28.0 24.9 24.5 25.1 23.4 24.6 23.0 27.0 25.9 26.3 23.9 26.0 24.5 23.8 28.5 24.4 26.3 22.6 25.6 24.3 26.3 25.2 21.6 26.7 22.7 24.4

Rates are per 100,000 and age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

and death rates are the highest among American Indians/Alaska Natives; the higher prevalence of obesity and smoking in this population may contribute to this disparity.29
14
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

Cancer incidence rates can only be adjusted for delayed reporting in whites and African Americans because the long-term incidence data required for delay adjustment are not available for other racial and

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

TABLE 9. Incidence and Death Rates by Site, Race, and Ethnicity, United States, 2004 to 2008
WHITE AFRICAN AMERICAN ASIAN AMERICAN OR PACIFIC ISLANDER AMERICAN INDIAN OR ALASKA NATIVE* HISPANIC/LATINO?

Incidence All sites Male Female Breast (female) Colorectum Male Female Kidney & renal pelvis Male Female Liver & bile duct Male Female Lung & bronchus Male Female Prostate Stomach Male Female Uterine cervix 545.0 420.8 122.3 54.6 40.3 20.8 10.9 8.6 2.9 83.7 57.2 142.8 8.5 4.0 7.7 626.2 394.2 116.1 66.9 49.7 22.6 11.7 14.1 4.0 102.7 51.4 230.8 16.4 8.2 10.6 Mortality All sites Male Female Breast (female) Colorectum Male Female Kidney & renal pelvis Male Female Liver & bile duct Male Female Lung & bronchus Male Female Prostate Stomach Male Female Uterine cervix 222.0 152.8 22.8 20.1 14.0 6.0 2.7 7.2 3.0 66.9 41.2 22.4 4.5 2.3 2.2 295.3 177.7 32.0 30.5 20.4 6.0 2.6 11.5 3.9 85.4 38.8 54.9 10.7 5.0 4.3 134.7 94.1 12.2 13.3 9.9 2.6 1.2 14.7 6.3 36.7 18.5 10.5 9.2 5.4 2.1 190.0 138.4 17.2 19.8 14.0 8.9 4.1 11.9 6.7 50.5 33.9 20.7 8.5 3.9 3.4 149.1 101.5 15.1 15.5 10.3 5.2 2.3 11.6 5.2 31.9 14.3 18.5 7.7 4.5 3.1 332.4 284.0 84.9 42.4 32.7 9.9 4.9 21.7 8.2 49.8 28.1 79.7 16.8 9.4 7.4 427.8 362.1 89.2 51.5 41.5 27.4 16.8 15.8 7.6 71.0 51.7 101.2 13.9 6.8 9.8 423.4 333.5 92.3 48.6 34.2 19.4 11.2 17.0 6.4 46.8 27.0 126.7 13.8 8.4 12.2

Rates are per 100,000 population and age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. Race and ethnicity categories are not mutually exclusive of Hispanic origin. *Data based on Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Areas. ?Mortality rates exclude deaths from the District of Columbia and North Dakota due to unreliable Hispanic origin data for 1 or more years.

ethnic groups. During the past 10 years of data (19992008), while incidence rates (unadjusted for delayed reporting) declined by 1% or more per year among men of all racial/ethnic groups, among women only slight declines (0.4% per year) occurred in whites and Hispanics (Table 10). In contrast, cancer death rates

declined by 1% or more per year among men and women of all races/ethnicities except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates remained stable. Notably, the largest declines in death rates occurred among men of African American (2.4% per year) and Hispanic (2.3% per year) heritage.
VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

15

Cancer Statistics, 2012

TABLE 10. Ten-Year Trends in Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates by Race/Ethnicity, United States, 1999 to 2008
1999-2008 AAPC INCIDENCE MALE FEMALE MORTALITY MALE FEMALE

All races/ethnicities White African American Asian American/Pacific Islander American Indian/Alaska Native? Hispanic?

?1.0* ?1.0* ?1.3* ?1.5* ?1.1* ?1.5*

?0.4* ?0.4* ?0.1 0.1 ?0.3 ?0.4*

?1.8* ?1.7* ?2.4* ?1.6* ?0.4 ?2.3*

?1.3* ?1.3* ?1.5* ?1.1* ?0.4 ?1.4*

AAPC indicates average annual percent change. *AAPC is statistically significant (P < .05). ?Data based on Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Areas. ?Excludes deaths from the District of Columbia, Minnesota, New Hampshire, and North Dakota due to unreliable Hispanic origin data for some years. Notes: Trends analyzed by the Joinpoint Regression Program, version 3.5.0, allowing up to 2 joinpoints. Incidence trends based on the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) data. Race and ethnicity categories are not mutually exclusive of Hispanic origin.

Relative survival rates cannot be calculated for some minority populations because accurate life expectancies are not available. However, based on cause-speci?c survival rates of cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2007 in SEER areas of the United States, all minority male populations have a greater probability of dying from cancer within 5 years of diagnosis than whites.6 Among women, African Americans have the lowest 5year cancer-speci?c survival, followed by American Indians/Alaska Natives, Hispanics, whites, and Asian Americans/Paci?c Islanders.6 For all 4 major cancer sites (prostate, female breast, lung and bronchus, and colorectum), minority populations are generally more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be diagnosed at a distant stage of disease.32

Cancer in Children
Cancer is the second most common cause of death among children ages 1 to 14 years in the United States, surpassed only by accidents; 1,284 children died from cancer in 2008. Leukemia accounts for one-third of all cancers diagnosed in children (ages 0 to 14 years), 78% of which are acute lymphocytic leukemias.6 Cancers of the brain and other nervous system are the second most common cancer type (27%), followed by soft tissue sarcomas (7%, half of which are rhabdomyosarcoma), neuroblastoma (7%), renal (Wilms) tumors (5%), and Hodgkin and nonHodgkin lymphomas (4% each).6 From 2004 to 2008, the overall incidence rate for cancer in children aged 14 years and younger increased slightly by 0.5% per year, a trend that has been consistent since 1975. The death rate for childhood cancer has decreased by more than half over the past 3 decades, from 4.9 (per 100,000) in 1975 to 2.2 in 2008.2 Table 12 provides trends in survival rates for the most common childhood cancers. The 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers combined improved from 58% for children diagnosed between 1975 and 1977 to 83% for those diagnosed between 2001 and 2007.6 The substantial progress for all of the major childhood cancers re?ects both improvements in treatment and high levels of participation in clinical trials.

Cancer Survival
Compared with whites, African American men and women have poorer survival once cancer is diagnosed. The 5-year relative survival is lower in African Americans than in whites for every stage of diagnosis for nearly every type of cancer (Fig. 7). These disparities may result from inequalities in access to and receipt of quality health care and/or from differences in comorbidities. As shown in Figure 8, African Americans are less likely than whites to be diagnosed with cancer at a localized stage, when the disease may be more easily and successfully treated. The extent to which factors other than stage at diagnosis contribute to the overall survival differential is unclear.30 However, some studies suggest that African Americans who receive cancer treatment and medical care similar to that of whites experience similar outcomes.31 There have been notable improvements since 1975 in the relative 5-year survival rates for most cancers for both whites and African Americans (Table 11). Increases in survival rates over time re?ect a combination of earlier diagnosis and improvements in treatment. Cancers of the lung and pancreas have shown little improvement in survival over the past 30 years.
16
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

FIGURE 7. Five-Year Relative Survival Rates for Selected Cancers by Race and Stage at Diagnosis, United States, 2001 to 2007.
*The standard error of the survival rate is between 5 and 10 percentage points. ?The survival rate for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder is 97% for All Races and Whites and 92% for African Americans.

Limitations
The projected numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths should be interpreted cautiously because these estimates are model-based and may vary considerably from year to year for reasons other than changes in cancer occurrence. For instance,

estimates are invariably affected by changes in method, which occur regularly as modeling techniques improve over time and cancer registration becomes more complete. Indeed, new methods were used for projecting both incident cases and deaths in 2012. In addition, not all changes in cancer trends
VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

17

Cancer Statistics, 2012

FIGURE 8. Stage Distribution of Selected Cancers by Race, United States, 2001 to 2007.
*The proportions of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder are 51%, 51%, and 38% in All Races, Whites, and African Americans, respectively. Stage categories do not sum to 100% because sufficient information is not available to assign a stage to all cancer cases.

can be captured by modeling techniques. For these reasons, we discourage the use of these estimates to track year-to-year changes in cancer occurrence and death. The data sources used for tracking cancer trends are age-standardized or age-speci?c cancer death rates from the NCHS and cancer incidence rates from SEER or NPCR. Nevertheless, the
18
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

American Cancer Society projections of the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the current cancer burden in the United States. Errors in reporting race/ethnicity in medical records and on death certi?cates may result in underestimates of cancer incidence and mortality rates in nonwhite

CA CANCER J CLIN 2012;00:000–000

and non-African American populations. It is also important to note that cancer data in the United States are primarily reported for broad racial and

ethnic minority groups that are not homogenous, and thus important differences in the cancer burden within racial/ethnic subgroups are often masked. n

TABLE 11. Trends in 5-Year Relative Survival Rates* (%) by Race and Year of Diagnosis, United States, 1975 to 2007
ALL RACES 1975 TO 1977 1987 TO 1989 2001 TO 2007 1975 TO 1977 WHITE 1987 TO 1989 2001 TO 2007 1975 TO 1977 AFRICAN AMERICAN 1987 TO 1989 2001 TO 2007

All cancers combined Brain & other nervous system Breast (female) Colon Esophagus Hodgkin lymphoma Kidney & renal pelvis Larynx Leukemia Liver & bile duct Lung & bronchus Melanoma of the skin Myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Oral cavity Ovary Pancreas Prostate Rectum Stomach Testis Thyroid Urinary bladder Uterine cervix Uterine corpus

49 22 75 51 5 72 50 66 34 3 12 82 25 47 53 36 2 68 48 15 83 92 73 69 87

56 29 84 60 10 79 57 66 43 5 13 88 28 51 54 38 4 83 58 20 95 95 79 70 83

67. ? 35. ? 90. ? 65. ? 19. ? 86. ? 71. ? 63. ? 57. ? 15. ? 16. ? 93. ? 41. ? 70. ? 63. ? 44. ? 6. ? 100. ? 68. ? 27. ? 96. ? 97. ? 80. ? 69 83. ?

50 22 76 51 6 72 50 67 35 3 12 82 25 47 54 35 3 69 48 14 83 92 74 70 88

57 28 85 61 11 80 57 67 44 6 13 88 27 52 56 38 3 85 59 19 95 94 80 73 84

69. ? 34. ? 91. ? 67. ? 20. ? 88. ? 71. ? 65 57. ? 15. ? 17. ? 93. ? 42. ? 71. ? 65. ? 43. ? 6. ? 100. ? 69. ? 26. ? 97. ? 98. ? 81. ? 70 85. ?

39 25 62 45 3 70 49 59 33 2 11 58. ? 30 48 36 42 2 61 45 16 73. ,§ ? 90 50 65 60

43 31 71 53 7 72 55 56 36 3 11 79. ? 30 46 34 34 6 72 52 19 88. ? 92 63 57 57

59. ? 40. ? 77. ? 55. ? 13. ? 81. ? 68. ? 52. 50. ? 10. ? 13. ? 73. ? 41. ? 62. ? 45. ? 36. 4. ? 98. ? 61. ? 27. ? 86. 95. 64. ? 61. 61.

*Survival rates are adjusted for normal life expectancy and are based on cases diagnosed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 areas from 1975 to 1977, 1987 to 1989, and 2001 to 2007 and followed through 2008. ?The difference in rates between 1975 to 1977 and 2001 to 2007 is statistically significant (P < .05). ?The standard error of the survival rate is between 5 and 10 percentage points. §Survival rate is for 1978 to 1980.

TABLE 12. Trends in 5-Year Relative Survival Rates* (%) for Children Under Age 15 Years, United States, 1975 to 2007
YEAR OF DIAGNOSIS 1975 TO 1977 1978 TO 1980 1981 TO 1983 1984 TO 1986 1987 TO 1989 1990 TO 1992 1993 TO 1995 1996 TO 2000 2001 TO 2007

All cancers combined Acute lymphocytic leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia Bone & joint Brain & other nervous system Hodgkin lymphoma Neuroblastoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Soft tissue Wilms tumor

58 58 19 50. ? 57 81 53 43 61 73

63 66 26 48 58 87 57 53 75 79

67 71 27. ? 57. ? 56 88 55 67 69 87

68 73 31. ? 57. ? 62 91 53 70 73 91

72 78 37. ? 67. ? 64 87 63 71 66 92

76 83 42 67 65 97 76 77 80 92

77 84 42. ? 74 71 95 67 81 77 92

79 87 52 68 74 96 68 86 74 93

83? 91? 64? 79? 75? 96? 73? 86? 82? 90?

*Survival rates are adjusted for normal life expectancy and are based on follow-up of patients through 2008. ?The difference in rates between 1975 to 1977 and 2001 to 2007 is statistically significant (P < .05). ?The standard error of the survival rate is between 5 and 10 percentage points.

VOLUME 00 _ NUMBER 0 _ MONTH/MONTH 2012

19

Cancer Statistics, 2012

References
1. National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics. US Mortality Volumes 1930-1959, US Mortality Data 1960-1968. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011. 2. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Mortality-All COD, Aggregated With State, Total US (1969-2008) hKatrina/Rita Population Adjustmenti. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; 2011. Released September 2011; underlying mortality data provided by National Center for Health Statistics 2011. 3. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence-SEER 17 Regs Public Use, Nov. 2010 Sub (2000-2008)-Linked to County Attributes-Total US, 1969-2008 Counties. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; 2011. 4. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence-SEER 13 Regs Public Use, Nov. 2010 Sub (1992-2008)-Linked to County Attributes-Total US, 1969-2008 Counties. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; 2011. 5. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence-SEER 9 Regs Public Use, Nov. 2010 Sub (1973-2008)-Linked to County Attributes-Total US, 1969-2008 Counties. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; 2011, based on November 2010 SEER data submission. 6. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 19752008. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2011. 7. DevCan: Probability of Developing or Dying of Cancer Software, Version 6.6.0. Bethesda, MD: Statistical Research and Applications Branch, National Cancer Institute; 2011. 8. CiNA?(2011). Cancer Incidence Rates in North America. Available at: http://www. cancer-rates.info/naaccr. Accessed September 15, 2011.

9. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) Incidence-CiNA Analytic File, 1995-2008, for Expanded Races, custom file with county, ACS Facts & Figures projection project, North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; 2011. 10. Fritz A, Percy C, Jack A, et al, eds. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000. 11. Clegg LX, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN, Fay MP, Hankey BF. Impact of reporting delay and reporting error on cancer incidence rates and trends. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94: 1537-1545. 12. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Query Systems: Delay-Adjusted SEER Incidence Rates. Available at: http://surveillance. cancer.gov/delay/canques.html. Accessed September 15, 2011. 13. Zhu L, Pickle LW, Naishadham D, et al. Predicting US and state-level cancer counts for the current calendar year: Part II-evaluation of spatio-temporal projection methods for incidence. Cancer. In press. 14. Pickle LW, Hao Y, Jemal A, et al. A new method of estimating United States and state-level cancer incidence counts for the current calendar year. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:30-42. 15. US Census Bureau. Available at: http:// www.census.gov. Accessed September 15, 2011. 16. Joinpoint Regression Program, Version 3.5.0. Bethesda, MD: Statistical Research and Applications Branch, National Cancer Institute; 2011. 17. Chen HS, Portier K, Ghosh K, et al. Predicting US and state-level cancer counts for the current calendar year: Part I-evaluation of temporal projection methods for mortality. Cancer. In press. 18. Kim HJ, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med. 2000;19:335-351. 19. Weiss W. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer trends. A light at the end of the tunnel? Chest. 1997;111:1414-1416. 20. Edwards BK, Ward E, Kohler BA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions

(risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates. Cancer. 2010;116: 544-573. 21. Cress RD, Morris C, Ellison GL, Goodman MT. Secular changes in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite, stage at diagnosis, and race/ethnicity, 1992-2001. Cancer. 2006; 107(suppl 5):1142-1152. 22. Phillips KA, Liang SY, Ladabaum U, et al. Trends in colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Med Care. 2007; 45:160-167. 23. Jemal A, Thun MJ, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100: 1672-1694. 24. Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, et al. Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1784-1792. 25. Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, et al. Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer mortality decline. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19: 175-181. 26. Ward E, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, et al. Cancer disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004;54: 78-93. 27. Ghafoor A, Jemal A, Ward E, Cokkinides V, Smith R, Thun M. Trends in breast cancer by race and ethnicity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53:342-355. 28. Parkin DM. The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002. Int J Cancer. 2006;118: 3030-3044. 29. Espey DK, Wu XC, Swan J, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2004, featuring cancer in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Cancer. 2007; 110:2119-2152. 30. Ghafoor A, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, et al. Cancer statistics for African Americans. CA Cancer J Clin. 2002;52:326-341. 31. Bach PB, Schrag D, Brawley OW, Galaznik A, Yakren S, Begg CB. Survival of blacks and whites after a cancer diagnosis. JAMA. 2002;287:2106-2113. 32. Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Area Socioeconomic Variations in US Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Stage, Treatment, and Survival, 1975-1999. NCI Cancer Surveillance Monograph Series, No. 4. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2003.

20

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians


相关文章:
CA Cancer J Clin:2010年美国癌症统计报告
各细分学科影响因子 TOP10 查询) 的著名学术刊物 CA:A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 上,美国癌症学会(American Canc er Society)公布了美国癌症的最新统计数据。...
美国癌症排名
Levin 教授,创造了“neuor-oncology”一词,曾担任美国神经肿瘤学会(SNO) 第一...美国癌症统计数据 暂无评价 20页 免费 2015年美国癌症中心排名 3页 免费 ...
美国癌症死亡率下降25% 精准预警防患于未然
美国癌症死亡率下降25% 精准预警防患于未然_军事/政治_人文社科_专业资料。兆龙移民 www.zhaolong.net 美国癌症死亡率下降 25% 精准预警防患于未 然...
美国顶尖医生谈癌症
美国顶尖医生谈癌症 细读全文,发现此文能教给我们...不是你们癌症病人。 据统计,替代疗法治愈癌症的几率...这里有个非常有趣的数据。当然,普通人根本得不到...
美国十大癌症及肿瘤治疗医院介绍
根据悦安健康引述美国时代杂志的最新排名数据,美国目前排名前十癌症治疗医院分别为...流行病学 及统计的优势,成立神经肿瘤中心,旨在通过多学科的协作,最大限度的提高...
中美癌症治疗差距,迈德瑞专业解读
统计数据显示:我国恶性肿瘤的 年发病率为 286/10 万,一生中有 22%的概率...前列腺癌:在美国,前列腺癌幸存患者接近 280 万,即每 5 例癌症幸存患者中就有...
在美国,癌症病人的平均生存年限(即从确诊为癌症到死亡...
美国,癌症病人的平均生存年限(即从确诊为癌症到死亡的年限)是7年,而在亚洲,癌症病人的平均生存年限只有4年。因此,美国在延长癌症病人生命方面的医疗水平要高于...
美国癌症死亡率逆袭全球下降
美国癌症死亡率逆袭全球下降_基础医学_医药卫生_专业资料。今日推荐 78份文档 不小心又胖了 胖女人必看 健康减肥10种吃不胖的食物 吃哪些食物不发胖 在家全套瑜伽...
美国癌症协会(ACS)公布防癌指南
美国癌症协会(ACS)公布防癌指南_预防医学_医药卫生_专业资料。美国癌症协会(ACS)...另外,统计发现超重和肥胖的前列腺癌患者治疗效果不佳。 9.胃癌: 为全球第 4 ...
在美国,癌症病人的平均生存年限(即从确诊为癌症到死亡...
美国,癌症病人的平均生存年限(即从确诊为癌症到死亡的年限)是7年,而在亚洲,癌症病人的平均生存年限只有4年。因此,美国在延长癌症病人生命方面的医疗水平要高于...
更多相关标签: