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英国文学选读问题&答案和参考资料


Prose:
Of Marriage and Single Life P17
1.Is marriage an impediment or help to one’s career development? In the easy Of Marriage and Single life, Bacon prefers marriage to single life. He thinks ―unmarried men are best friends; best masters; best servants; but not always best subjects; for they are light to run away; and almost all fugitives are of that condition‖, ―Wives are young men’s mistresses; companions for middle age; and old men’s nurses‖. I have to say his words can still be true today; I’m at his back, though many young people now choose to remain single no mater male or female. But since ―3S ladies‖ or ―overleft ladies‖ become the catch word, the female seems more terrible. Maybe because women are easier to get old but to men 30 is the gold ages of career development. For the main reasons of 3S ladies, some are high standard for husband; some are the further studying. For men, maybe they are fighting in business; maybe they are too bad to find a wife. Then we can see all the state of present marriage. Even though some say ―marriage is the tomb of love‖, I yet support marriage. Marriage and family make people more responsible and loving, make deeper love between spouses and make life more colorful. The ability to love and be loved is the most precious of gifts given to man, which should be highly treasured. Family let a man learn to care the whole unit. He has to take good care of his wife and son, love them, be responsible for them, all of which are the same to women. All these qualities are vital to anyone’s career. When you work back home, wife or husband is always the listener to you, son the warm heart to you. Spouses help each other and support each other; family is the harbor for soul. Thus it is help to one’s career development. 2.Certainly, wife and children are “a kind of discipline of humanity”。妻子儿女显然是人性的一种纪律约束 A bachelor’s 单身 life focus is but himself, so he will spend a lot of money on everything that feast his eyes without hesitation. What’s more, he is likely to have a go at any risks that make him feel exciting and fresh for being free from any burden. However, a married man always tends to think twice before making an important decision in order to prevent bringing any harm to his family. He should have the motivation to work hard to fulfill wife and children’s expectation.As a result, family let a man learn to care the whole unit. He has to take good care of his wife and son, love them, be responsible for the.A loving husband and a qualified father can contribute the greatest merit for the public to a large extent. 人的感情会移位,结婚的人对人生的态度肯定与单身之时不一样。有孩子的人更因为对孩子的爱迁移到芸芸众 生身上。结婚意味着两个人的结合,不论肉体还是精神。在无形中把不相干的两个人熔铸成合体的一个人,对 对方的关心和照顾如同自己,对对方的牵挂那是牵肠挂肚。婚姻也让两个人变得更有责任感,感情更加丰富, 对社会将会产生奇异的变化,对人生的探索产生深远的影响。单身是自由的,没有婚姻的束缚,没有孩子的牵 绊,享受生命的存在,享受一个人的独处.当孤独来临时单身的人会去找人生的知己,会碰到与之共度人生的另 一半,于是便有了婚姻。 3.Bacon prefers marriage to single life. Do you find his arguments convincing? Yes. I think Bacon’s arguments are convincing. In the demonstration process, Bacon uses the method comparison to analyze the advantages of marriage and the shortcomings of single life in order to tell us marriage is better than single life. Taking the sentence ―wives are young men’s mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men’s nurses‖ for example, it is quite convincing and reasonable. Marriage can bring happiness to people. It is the ecstasy when people pursue marriage in their youth. To a young man, on one hand, a wife needs his care and good graces. A wife is a flower and a man should pay much attention to her and give her special love. On the other hand, women are always older than men according to their mental ages. So, wives are more mature than her husband and she could make many decisions and arrangements for the family. That is why wives are young men’s mistresses. When a man in his middle age, he needs his wife to help him not only in the career but also in the family life. The middle-aged man suffers great pressure in career and he wants his wife to support the family together. Also, he could confide his troubles to his wife. So, that is the reason for having a wife in middle age. When the man grows older, his body is not so strong like before. So, he needs his wife to take care of him and do the things as ―nurses‖ for him. In addition, an old man is always like a child and he needs special attention from his wife. So, according to the reasons mentioned above, a wife is always necessary to a man and a wife always plays important and irreplaceable role in a man’s life. In addition, the argument is the conclusion according to Bacon’s long—time observation and consideration towards life. From my perspective, his arguments are convincing. I think his arguments are convincing. Bacon’s basic idea is that marriage is good to both individual and society. His analysis is taken step by step. At first, a single man thinks just to live a single life can he make some great contributions to the society. But a single person only cares about himself, he doesn’t pay attention to the future, it can be very unwise. Single life could also make a man to be serious to his freedom. On the contrary, marriage makes a man be responsible, tender, enthusiastic and warm-hearted. As the author saying: “wives are young men’s mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men’s nurses”. It means that when a man is young, wife talks about love with him, when he comes to middle age, wife always stay with him as a companion, when he becomes old, wife will take care of him till the end of time. Even though a wife marries a bad husband, marriage offers a good chance for husband to correct themselves. The whole essay’s main point is very obvious, author tells from two aspects. Firstly, he says how bad it is to be a single man. Secondly, he tells a lot of advantages of being married. Each aspect has enough proof. At Bacon’s period, his arguments may be more convincing than nowadays.

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Of Studies P18
1.We are now living in the age of “information explosion”. What lessons can we learn from Bacon’s< of studies> in our access to information? Our planet is developing forward. The fast-moving development of science and technology makes it more convenient for students to get sufficient and effective information by countless ways. That is the external condition for our study, which we can appropriately make full use of. But what we have to keep in mind is that the eternal master of study is no one but ourselves in the process of studying. Actually, I’m sure everyone clearly knows the importance and significance of reading, of studies. However, the biggest problem is that they hardly have powerful resistance to those temptations around us, such as new-style video games, latest Hollywood block-buster, Avril Ramona Lavigne’s next concert. Placed in the information current, young students are difficult to rationally deal with the flooding information. The terrible result is that they become more and more indifferent to reading books, and whenever academic assigns come , we just start up their computer and access to information on the Internet no matter how much information they can really copy and make use. What a pity! As to efficient study methods to all these information, Bacon insists on the combination of theory and practice, ―studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.‖ And in terms of books which mean for today not only paper books but also information online for example e-books, Bacon holds the view ―some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be ready wholly, and with diligence and attention‖. All the ideas can definitely give college students precious lessons to study and reading books today. When we face the flooding information, some are to be read in part; they’re just providing nothing than background which can be useful to understand and complete assignments. We cannot merely depend all on the computer instead of meditate hard on our own. Of course, practicing is quite significant today. In fact, that doesn’t mean practice should be the action out of papers; in turn, the term paper finished on one’s own is a practice of applying his knowledge to practical writing. Information around us is showing up without stopping. They are all never checked by experts, true or false. We access to them when in need. Still we have to be cautious and just view them as a reminder or brainstorm resources to help integrate our ideas to well organize the whole assignment. This is the right attitude to information and to our own study. 2.In what sense does reading make a full man? Reading makes a full man. Histories make men wise, poets, witty; the mathematics, subtle; natural philosophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend. Reading histories makes people learn lessons from the ancient time, avoid making the same mistakes and predict the development of things. People who read histories will be wiser than these who just act according to their own preferences without learning from histories. Reading poem s makes people learn the beauty of language, the beautiful classical style of art and live a poetic life. People who read poems will be wittier than these who haven’t feel the beautiful mood and pure life. Reading mathematics makes people focus on the accurate calculation, develop a scientific attitude, and form a pragmatic spirit. People who read mathematics will be more subtle to consider things from all aspects and do things from the drop carefully than these who don’t read. Reading natural philosophy makes people pursue truth, explore the unknown mystery, and practice actively. People who read natural philosophy will be deeper than these who don’t learn the theory of reflecting the truth. Reading moral makes people learn the way of harmony living, form the principle of ethical behaviors and develop correct outlooks on values. People who read moral will be graver than these who behave without correct principles and can’t deal with different relationships. Reading logic makes people master the rules of thinking, dealing with different things and exploring objective reality. People who read logic will be more contend to have clear ideas, mater the principles of objective truth than these who don’t act according to rules. Different kinds of reading materials play different roles in making a full man. People should get into different reading fields and train themselves to become a comprehensive talent. Reading will do good to one’s physical health according to some reading materials of physical training. What’s more important, reading promotes the development of logic thinking and morality. People can be called a full man on condition that they have fine quality, delicate self-cultivation and strict morality. Try to read extensively and become a full man. As far as I’m concerned, reading can make a full man, can cultivate a man, and can make a man move forward in the way he understand the view of the world, the life and the value. A full man should have a positive world view and adopt an active philosophy of life, which are usually based on a balanced knowledge structure. From Francis Bacon’s Of Studies, I know that the essay not only introduces the methods of reading books and discusses the purposes and functions of reading, but also analyzes the different attitudes of the people who are reading books. Most importantly, we can know how to be a full man from reading. Francis Bacon’s Of Studies says ―Histories make men wise, poets, witty; the mathematics, subtle; natural philosophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend.‖ That is to say, we read all kinds of books in order to have more perfect knowledge and form critical thinking which can make us be a full man by reading. . Reading can make a full man. That is to say, we should read more books which are useful and helpful for us. Reading can enlarge our knowledge in different fields. From Of Studies, studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. It means that studies can make people happy, wise, increasing knowledge. If we read all kinds of books, we are able to taste what might not happen to us in real life, and then ask ourselves what we would do in that situation. Besides, we read more books and fewer mistakes would be made by us. For that, we can learn more mistake examples from books

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so that we will make few mistakes in the future. So reading can make a man full because it can make the man taste all the emotions about the world and have a true understanding about the life. Of Studies also teach us that we should choose some book to read, but not read all the books. Some useful books should be read carefully and taken notes. Different books have different functions, the essay tells us that reading different books can bring different knowledge which we lack. The essay says that different books have different methods to read. In a word, reading books of certain field brings certain knowledge and ability we lack. Of Studies gives us the method of reading books and getting knowledge. It also tells us different books have different functions for us. So whether reading makes a full man lies in what books you read and how you read. Reading a right book can make a man more wise, more emotional and more respected.

Poems:
Hamlet P8
1.Why is sleep so frightening, according to Hamlet, since it can “end” the heartache and the thousand natural shocks”? Nobody can predict what he will dream of after he falls asleep.Death means the end of life, you may go to or unknown world and you can’t comeback,. If he dies, Hamlet 's can't realize his will. Though ―sleep‖ can end the heartache and the thousand natural shocks, it is a state of mind. Hamlet didn’t know at all. He is frightened by the possible suffering in the long ―dream‖. He can’t predict what will happen in the sleep, may be good may be evil. 2.Why would people rather bear all the sufferings of the world instead of choosing death to get rid of them, according to Hamlet? Death is so mysterious that nobody knows what death will bring to us. Maybe bitter sufferings, great pains, heartbreaking stories…Because people hold the same idea "to grunt and sweat under a weary life, but that the dread of something after death-the undiscover’d country, form whose bourn no traveler returns-puzzle the will, and make us rather bear those ills we have than fly to others that we know not of?‖People also are frightened by the myths in another world after death. 3.What, after all, makes people lose their determination to take action? Please explain in relation to the so-called hesitation of Hamlet. Conscience and over-considerations. He wants to revenge, but doesn’t know how. He wants to kill his uncle, but finds it too risky. He lives in despair and wants to commit suicide. However, he knows if he dies, nobody will comfort his father’s ghost. He is in face of great dilemma. They don’t know the result after their taking the action. Such as Hamlet, he doesn’t know what would happen if he kills his uncle or kills himself . So Hamlet was hesitated.

Sonnet 18 P13
1.How does the poet answer the question he puts forth in the first line? (Page 14) The poet opens with a question that is addressed to the beloved, "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" This question is comparing ―thee‖ to the summer time of the year. It is during this time when the flowers are blooming, trees are full of leaves, the weather is warm, and it is generally considered as an enjoyable time during the year. The following eleven lines in the poem are also dedicated to similar comparisons between the beloved and summer days. In lines 2 and 3, the speaker explains what mainly separates the young woman from the summer's day: she is "more lovely and more temperate." (Line 2) Summer days are sometimes shaken by "rough winds" (line3) which happens and is not always as welcoming as the woman. However in line 4, the poet gives the feeling again that the summer months are often too short by saying, "And summer lease hath too short a date." In the summer days, the sun, "the eye of heaven" (line 5), often shines "too hot," or too dim, "his gold complexion dimmed" (line 6) as "every fair from fair sometime declines." (Line 7) The final portion of the sonnet tells how the beloved differs from the summer in various aspects. Her beauty will be one that lasts forever, "Thy eternal summer shall not fade." (Line 9), and never end or die. At last two lines, the poet explains how the beloved's beauty will accomplish this everlasting life unlike summer days. And it is because her beauty is kept alive in this poem, which will last forever. It will live "as long as men can breathe or eyes can see." (Line 13) the poem is outwardly a simple statement of praise about the beauty of the beloved woman and perhaps summer to the speaker is sometimes too unpleasant with the extremes of windiness and heat that go along with it. However, the beloved in the poem is always mild and temperate by her nature and nothing at all like the summer. At last, the poet starts to praise that the beloved is so great and awing that she is to live forever in this sonnet. The beloved is so great that the speaker will even go as far as to say that, "So long as men breathe, or eyes can see, so long lives this and this gives life to thee.‖(line 13、14) that the beloved is deserving to live on forever. 2. What makes the poet think that “thou” can be more beautiful than summer and immortal? At the very beginning, the poet puts forth a question: ―Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?‖ Then he gives an answer: ―Thou art more lovely and more temperate.‖ On the one hand, ―Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, and summer’s lease hath all too short a date;‖ on the other hand, ―Sometime too hot the heaven shines, and often is his gold complexion dimmed.‖ So from the above two aspects the poet thinks that ―thou‖ can be more beautiful than summer. In addition, ―And every fair from fair sometime declines, by chance, or nature’s changing course untrimmed.‖ Compared with immortal, ―But thy eternal summer shall not fade, nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st, nor shall death brag thou wand’rest in his shade, when in eternal lines to times thou grow’st.‖ Therefore, the poet draws a conclusion: ―So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, so long lives this, and this gives life to thee.‖ In this poem, the poet makes ―thou‖ more beautiful than summer and immortal because of his beautiful lines. So in this case, ―thou‖ in the poem can be regarded as female because love can beauty eternal. Or ―thou‖ can be referred to male, for friendship can make beauty everlasting. Even ―thou‖ can be abstract ―love‖ or ―beauty‖ which will become eternal in the wonderful poem.
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The Flea

P23

1. Why does the poet say that "this cannot be said a sin, or shame, or loss of maidenhead"? The speaker tells his beloved to look at the flea before them and to note "how little" is that thing that she denies him. For the flea, he says, has sucked first his blood, then her blood, so that now, inside the flea, they are mingled; and that mingling cannot be called "sin, or shame, or loss of maidenhead." The flea has joined them together in a way that, "alas, is more than we would do." 2. What do you think is the addressee's parents' attitude toward the poet's wooing? The addressee's parents' attitudes are against him. (...Though parents grudge...) 3. What is the real purpose of the poet to say that in killing the flea "thou" are actually killing three lives? He compares the killing of the flea to murder. It would be ―three sins in killing three‖ (l. 18) since he and his lover would be killed within the flea if she were to follow her natural tendency to dispose of the insect. He even states that the act of killing the flea would be ―sacrilege‖. This is a term that is generally applied to acts that go against religion. If the lover denies the fact that their blood, and therefore their lives, are contained within the flea, it is similar to committing an irreligious act. This would seem to make the reverse, to acknowledge their closeness within the flea, compatible with religion. To acknowledge this closeness is also to acknowledge that it is allowable, which could lead to the conclusion that Donne wishes his lover to arrive at: she should give in to his desires because there is nothing wrong with the intimate mingling of two people.

The Lamb

P48

1.Does this poem describe a lamb or the mind of the child who is speaking to the lamb? What is the relation of the lamb and the child to the God? The poem describes the mind of the child who is speaking to the lamb so as to show the gentleness and tenderness of the lamb. The lamb is the symbol of the child to the God. It shows the love of God that he creates the lamb and Jesus is often called the lamb of the God. So the poet not only appreciates the kindness of the lamb but also praises the mysterious power which can create the lamb. In this poem, God, Jesus and the lamb are combined together. (Reference:上帝创造自然中体现的慈爱;耶稣是上帝的羔羊;温良和自我牺牲精神;上帝彰显的慈爱:对羔羊、对孩子的关爱) 2.What does the lamb stand for? Line 20: When you read the word "lamb," always first think: symbol of Jesus Christ ("the Lamb of God"). As the tradition holds, animals such as lambs were sacrificed to God or gods in general until God offered his Son, Jesus Christ – his lamb – as the final sacrifice for the sins of mankind. In line 20, Blake references a version of Christianity that states that God created Jesus (Protestant version vs. the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity). In any case, you don’t need to know all the theology, just that it’s a reference to Jesus and an allusion to Christianity. Blake asks whether God, who created Jesus, also created the Tiger. Also, don’t forget that "The Lamb" is the title of another poem by Blake, from the Songs of Innocence; the two poems are often read together.

The Tiger P50
1. Why does the poet mention the Lamb? Do you think both the Lamb and the Tiger can illuminate each other? The Tyger is corresponding to The Lamb. Both the poems show the poet’s exploration, understanding and plaint of the mysterious creation. In this poem, the author implies that the Tiger is created by God as well as the Lamb. So either the Tiger or the Lamb is essential to God. I think both the Lamb and the Tiger can illuminate each other. Although the Lamb can represent the kind ―innocent society‖, it will be lack of enough motivation to make progress. While the Tiger will cause social misery, unrest or even disruption, but it can make people release their creativity. So the poet believes that the Tiger is the symbol of strength and courage. And he also praises its passion, desire and all the lofty beauty. 2.What is the symbolic meaning of the tiger? What idea does the poet want to express? The symbol of the Tyger is one of the two central mysteries of the poem (the other being the Tyger’s creator). It is unclear what it exactly symbolizes, but scholars have hypothesized that the Tyger could be inspiration, the divine, artistic creation, history, the sublime (the big, mysterious, powerful and sometimes scary. Read more on this in the "Themes and Quotes" section), or vision itself. Really, the list is almost infinite. The point is, the Tyger is important, and Blake’s poem barely limits the possibilities The tiger is the embodiment of God's power in creation: the animal is terrifying in its beauty, strength, complexity and vitality. The poem is divided into six parts. In the first part, the author imagined that he met a terrible tiger on a dark night and was frightened by its awful eyesight. There are creations and creators. How great the creator is that he could create such an awful creation like tiger! In the second part, the author continues to ask, where comes the eyesight like fire, sea or sky? The following two parts, the author describes the creator as a smith. He creates the tiger. What behind the questions is the frightening and respect of the author to the creator. In the fifth part, the author changes his tone and asks when the stars throw down their spears, why they are not happy? The last part is as same as the first part, the creator is too mysterious to understand. The tiger shows its outstanding energy. It’s the vitality which the author thinks highly of. The key sentence of the poem is "Did he who made the Lamb make thee?" It challenges the one-track religious views of the 18’s century. The view only concluded that god create the lame, he is so kind a father. But it didn’t know god also create the tough tiger. He can also be very serious. The god is someone who can’t be truly understood by human beings.

Auld Lang Syne P55
1.What does “cup o' kindness” imply? Auld Lang Syne (old long since)by Robert Burns is a narrative poem praising for friendship. From the title and the first
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section we can easily get it, especially from the words ―acquaintance‖, ―forgot‖, ―brought to min'‖. After reading the whole poem, we will know ―cup o' kindness‖ here should imply the friendship between Robert Burns and his friend that he is now together with. ―Cup o' kindness‖ is showed in the second and the last section, which are both their reunion occasion. The people in the poem used to be friends and are old now; they are gathering to honor their friendship and memorize their happy childhood and adolescence. After the first ―cup o' kindness‖, the author starts to recall their joyful life: they has run in the brae, picked up the fine gowans, wandered a long and weary journey, paddled in the stream all the day. But all the nice memory has been the history ―Sin' auld lang syne.‖ And they are best affection and friendship for them two. Then again comes to the present gathering, there is one more ―cup o' kindness‖ to imply that how much the author really worships the friendship and wish for it forever. ―And we'll take a cup o' kindness yet, For auld lang syne.‖

I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud P57
1.What is the relation between the poet and nature as described in the poem? <Reference>Theme of Man and the Natural World: Wordsworth is the granddaddy of all nature poets, and he’s in top form in "I wandered lonely as a Cloud." In her journal entry about the day in question, Wordsworth's sister Dorothy wrote about their surprise at finding so many daffodils in such a strange place, next to a lake and under some trees. "How’d those get there?" she wondered, even guessing that maybe the seeds floated across the lake. The event is one of the minor miracles that nature produces all the time, as anyone who has seen the documentary Planet Earth or the Disney movie Earth knows. Wordsworth’s nature is full of life and vitality. He appreciates its wildness and unpredictability, but he humanizes the landscape and fits it to his own mind. Theme of Happiness "I wandered lonely as a Cloud" is a poem that just makes you feel good about life. It says that even when you are by yourself and lonely and missing your friends, you can use your imagination to fine new friends in the world around you. As John Milton famously wrote, "The mind is its own place, and in itself, can make heaven of Hell, and a hell of Heaven." The speaker of this poem makes a heaven out of a windy day and a bunch of daffodils. His happiness does not last forever – he’s not that unrealistic – but the daffodils give him a little boost of joy whenever he needs it, like recharging his batteries. Theme of Spirituality The 19th century Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle coined the phrase "natural supernaturalism," which has been used by later critics to describe how the Romantic poets, and especially Wordsworth, viewed the natural world as a spiritual realm. The idea is that Heaven comes down to earth and is viewed as part of the world. This poem illustrates the principle of natural supernaturalism. The daffodils are like angels and twinkling stars, and the "bliss" of heaven occurs in speaker’s imagination. He uses Christian ideas and images to make an ode to nature without any reference to God. Theme of Memory and the Past "I wandered lonely as a Cloud" is almost like a simpler version of "Tintern Abbey," one of Wordsworth’s other most famous works. In both poems, the memory of beautiful things serves as a comfort to the speaker even after the experience of viewing them has ended. He can always draw on his imagination to reproduce the joy of the event and to remember the spiritual wisdom that it provided. In the case of "I wandered lonely as a Cloud," we do not realize just how far in the future the speaker’s perspective is located until the fourth stanza, when he describes just how often the daffodils have comforted him. 2.Do you think nature can have healing effect on mind? I think nature can have healing effect on mind, but the precondition is that the nature should be peaceful and earthly. Let’s imagine a scene. At the very beginning, we felt a little sad. Then, we place ourselves at a peaceful and clean lake. We sit on the comfortable and green grass. There are several wild flowers on the grass. Some little birds are walking near us with chirp. We can breathe the smell of the earth. When we are watching it glistening in the sunshine, there may be a smile on our face again. Nobody will be not touched in this condition unless there is something wrong with his mind. It is just like a picture. Or it is just like a clean bracing and ethereal melody. We can close our eyes to listen to it without any distracting thoughts. It always can comfort our hearts, and we will not feel that desperate. Every time I feel not happy I will listen to a piece of piano music. That makes me good, all my fidgeting will go away from me. Sometimes I will reflect where the problem is. Peaceful music is just like the nature. Both they can give me a kind of feeling like mother. Do not be scared at all. Sometimes I suppose if the criminal can live in the nature and experience it, they will not do that evil. In another hand, those artists maybe can not create the works. As the author said, a host of golden daffodils beside the lake, beneath the trees, fluttering and dancing in the breeze. The memory made him excited and brought his lonely heart happiness. If a writer does not watch any beautiful scenery, I believe he or she can’t be a good writer. Peaceful nature is a place people can release themselves and remove the unhappiness. In this circumstance, the writer digs their inspiration. Yes, I think so. Some people may think that our nature has been highly polluted by our human beings. And it won’t have any effects on us. The others may think the nature has bad influence on our bodies because of the contamination. But I think nature must have a lot of healing effect on mind. As the development of the society, people may meet more and more difficulties, and it may lead to more stress. For example, when a person has worked for a long time, it is hard for him to do more. He would like to spend sometime travelling to somewhere. The place is best to be beautiful, clean, comfortable, with clear sky and green grass. People can breathe the fresh air there. When he lies on the grass and watches the sky, he may forget all the stress on work. The only thing he can do is to enjoy the charming scenery and great nature.
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Nature also can affect people when they are ill especially serious disease. The patient may feel their life meaningless. At that time, their families will take them to a remote place. They may also let the patient have a pet. During the feeding period, the patient may feel that a life is so difficult to bring up. He will heal the spirit to live. Different people have different ideas. I can’t say that nature doesn’t have mischief, but in my opinion, its good effects are more.

Ode to the West Wind P78
1.In what way is the West Wind both a destroyer and a preserver? West wind is the destroyer as it is turbulent and strong and destroys the wide spread vegetation. It is a destroyer of the old, decaying and valueless things (such as dead leaves), blowing over the land, drives away the dead leaves. Shelly shows the irony of the wind that acts in a contradictory manner.(use and Describe the words that show the potential strength and use effective language)It is the preserver as it brings life to the dead atmosphere, it spreads the seeds and they lie two inches beneath the ground and eventually sprout into seedlings. 2.What is the relation between the West Wind and the poet? In "Ode to the West Wind," Nature is grander and more powerful than man can hope to be. The natural world is especially powerful because it contains elements like the West Wind and the Spring Wind, which can travel invisibly across the globe, affecting every cloud, leaf, and wave as they go. Man may be able to increase his status by allowing Nature to channel itself through him. The speaker of the poem appeals to the West Wind to infuse 灌输, ( 影响) him with a new spirit and a new power to spread his ideas. 3.As “the trumpet of prophecy”, what does the west wind predict in physical reality? How do you understand it symbolically? As the speaker of "Ode to the West Wind" feels himself waning and decaying, he begs the wind to use him as an instrument, inhabit him, distribute his ideas, or prophesy through his mouth. He hopes to transform himself by uniting his own spirit with the larger "Spirit" of the West Wind and of Nature itself. The speaker wishes that the wind could affect him the way it does leaves and clouds and waves. Because it can’t, he asks the wind to play him like an instrument, bringing out his sadness in its own musical lament. Maybe the wind can even help him to send his ideas all over the world; even if they’re not powerful in their own right, his ideas might inspire others. The sad music that the wind will play on him will become a prophecy. The West Wind of autumn brings on a cold, barren period of winter, but isn’t winter always followed by a spring?

Novels:
The Canterbury Tales
1.How is the setting of the tales described? With such a setting, could you predict the general tone of the tales? Early spring. General tone: happy, easy, lively, humorous. 2.Character of the Knight? The knight displays many traits which make him seem almost too good to be true, and a true gentleman that rarely exists in reality. The knight holds four main admirable traits, making him the most liked traveler in "The Canterbury Tales," and also amplying the doubt of his realism. From the characters impressive introduction, it is clear that this man is the most valued and honorable traveler among the group. This perfect gentleman holds a love of ideals that are often not displayed by people. First and foremost, he believes in the ideals of chivalry, and always stays true to its principles. He also feels that one should be honest, truthful and faithful, which many people are not all of these ideals. The knight thinks one should only do what is right, and what will gain him honor and reputation. This character also believes in freedom and generosity towards all, and displays this ideal repeatedly throughout the novel. And lastly, the knight also strongly feels that any proper person should display courtesy and elegance at all times. Another aspect of this character's life which makes him seem too prestigious to be truthful is his impressive military career. He fought in the holy war, The knight obviously held a very respectable reputation, and was treated with much honor and respect. He was a perfect gentleman, showing kindness and understanding to everyone he came in contact with. The knight was extremely well-mannered, always being on his best behavior. His appearance was the "finishing touch," adding honor and integrity to his courageous and gentle spirit. This main character was clothed still in his armor, wearing a tunic of harsh cloth and his coat of mail is rust-stained, clearly showing remaining signs of past battles.

The Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe P33
1.What do you think of Crusoe’s way of marking time? Why is it important for him to keep track of time? A good way. He doesn’t want to forget time. For a civilized man, time is precious. 2.From this excerpt, what do you find admirable in Robinson Crusoe? Strong-minded, careful, capable, persevering, optimistic, ambitious, self-reliant, clever, practical, adventurous, patient, rational, sympathetic, hardworking, imaginative, energetic, courageous, amiable (kind-hearted). First of all, he is adventurous. Unlike common people, Robinson is eager to take adventures. So he is brave under most circumstances and curious about new things. Even when he was left in a deserted island, he was not afraid of what he was confronted with. What’s more, during the time he lived in the island, Robinson was faced with lots of difficulties. However, he has overcome all of them with strong will and firm determination. And he tries his best to survive and takes an optimistic attitude towards life. Instead of despair, Robinson is full of passion in such a harsh situation. He never gets frustrated by failures and always perseveres in making efforts to create a new life. Besides, Robinson pays much attention to details. For example, when he wants to find a place for his settlement, he has taken many aspects into consideration, such as security, convenience, and sunshine. Also, he makes a list of specific figures on which he can
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base his construction. In this sense, Robinson is careful and considerate. To sum up, Robinson is not only brave and adventurous but also wise and thoughtful. When he has difficulties, he spares no efforts to overcome them and try his best solve the factual problems. What impressed me most is his optimism and perseverance. All the good qualities in Robinson Crusoe are admirable and he shows us a positive attitude towards life. Confronting such an adversity, Robinson showed his amazing willpower and staunch life-force. He also showed people how to deal with adversity in life. Under such an adverse circumstance, he overcame various difficulties and created splendor of his life. ~If he or she does not make a plan for the future, he may not get out of the adversity. Take Robinson as an example, he made a series of plans about his food, his bullets, his powder and his daily work. He believed that he would starve or be attacked when he had not those things. So he ate very cannily. And he tried to train the sheep so that he did not waste so many bullets to shoot them. The truth proved that it was wise for him to do so. ~Robinson always thought of some new ideas when he was faced with some difficulties. If he did do everything with fixed rule, he would not create the necessities that he needed in his life. Owing to his ability to bring forth new ideas, he solved many problems. And those ideas helped him overcome the adversity.~ Robinson had been perseverant for twenty-eight years, and was saved finally.

Pride and Prejudice P65
1.Do you agree with the statement “it is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife”? What’s the relationship between money and marriage? I do not agree with the statement. I think it is wrong to get married for money and position, but at the same time it is idiot to do not consider money and position. In this novel, we can see the hero Darcy proposed marriage to Eliza but failed every time. Because Eliza has prejudice on Darcy and hated his pride actually. This kind of pride is a reaction from position’s differences. Unless the pride disappears, it will be possible that they could get married. Then Eliza observed Darcy’s doing, especially found his changing on his pride. She removed her prejudice and got married with Darcy. From the distinct attitudes to Darcy, It’s not difficult to find Eliza maintained women should pursue their right of personality independence and fairness. And this attitude reflected Austen’s view of marriage as well. Therefore, she maintained that we can not get married for money and see marriage as a game. She stressed the significance of ideal marriage, and love is the cornerstone. Through this novel Jane Austen tried to tell people must take some action and reflect, then there will be hope. Because respection is not native, we can only get it from our action and reflection. Here, we can easily discover author thought women should have self respect and be independent. What women want is not just money, they also need the respect and right. Marriage is not a trade. It is impossible that I give you money, then you will marry me. There is a third thing——love. If two people love each other, they will not break up because of how much money he own. In my point of view, I think this statement is partial. This is only a truth acknowledged by a few families in the neighborhood of Long bourn. The opening sentence is ironically stated and has a subtle, unstated meaning. In its declaration that a wealthy bachelor must be looking for a wife, it hides just beneath its surface the real truth : A single woman, especially the one not in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a (wealthy) husband. We see in Jane Austen’s society, eighteenth and nineteenth century, marriage is the status all the women strive to achieve, while money plays a important role in marriage. It was extremely sensible and common to take a prospective partner's financial situation and status into consideration, especially for people of a less fortunate background or inheritance. Marriage was considered to be the only way, for women in particular, to live a comfortable life, free of financial worries. If a woman never got married, because of lacking money or looks, she would go and live with a married sister or brother. If she did not have any brothers or sisters to live with, she would become a governess. 2.What do you think of Mrs. Bennet? How can you characterize her? Mrs. Bennet’s mind was less difficult to understand. She was a woman of poor understanding, little information and uncertain temper. When she was discontented, she imagined herself nervous. The business of her life was to get her daughters married, the solace of her life was visiting and news. We can see from these examples. ―…for Mrs. Long…all about it.‖: from this sentences we can see that her important source of information is neighboring women’s gossip. (she was a woman of poor information) ―Is he married or single?‖: For a future son-in-law, this is the most important qualification which Mrs. B didn’t mention. From this we can see she pay a great attention on money. ―…four or five thousand (pounds of income) a year. What a fine thing for our girls! ‖: Her thoughts skipped quickly and wildly: maybe was thinking already of a big house, beautiful garden, expensive clothes, etc.) ―How so? how can it affect them?‖: pretended to be na?ve by using apparently innocent questions so as to tease / make fun of her. When Mr. Bennet said;―... or you may send them by themselves which perhaps will be still better; for, as you are as handsome as any of them, Mr. Bingley might like you the best of the party‖: This was said in obvious irony, but the irony was completely missed by his wife / beyond her understanding. She took it for his sincere praise of her beauty. But in eighteenth and nineteenth century, she had no idea but had to crazy about these things. Because in Britain at that time only the eldest son had the privilege of inheriting his father’s possessions. Younger sons and daughters who are used to luxurious lives have no choice but marry a man or woman in possession of a large fortune to continue their comfortable lives. Thus, we can see that getting married is a way to become wealthier, particularly for women without many possessions. Jane Austen told us that money and possession determined everything, including marriage and love in her century.
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Mrs Bennet is a woman who cares for nothing more than to have her daughters married off. A reference from the last chapter book which supports this statement is "Happy for all her maternal feelings was the day on which Mrs. Bennet got rid of her two most deserving daughters." I also see that Mrs Bennet is extremely fickle and changes her mind quickly. In the course of the book we see two examples of this, the first one is in the beginning of the book after the foolish Mr. Collins chooses to marry Jane instead of Elizabeth. "...and the man whom she could not bear speak of the day before was now high in her good graces" Another example is when Mrs Bennet called Mr. Darcy a "disagreeable man" while discussing the Nether field Ball with their friends, the Lucas’s and later on in the last few chapters of the book called him "such a charming man! -so handsome! - so tall!" after hearing the news that her daughter, Elizabeth, was to marry him. Mrs Bennet is a woman who thrives on gossip. It is almost all she cares about. Even the guidance of her daughters is not on the top of her priority list, and this bad decision is shown to us by the flirtatious daughter that is Lydia. What she doesn't realize is how the 18th century society looks down upon her. She is quite unaware of her class and is downright silly. In her eyes Lydia, the shallow and insensitive daughter of the five is her favorite because of her liveliness and good humor. Lydia marries Wickham who at first is a charmer having all the good qualities a man should have: good looks, humor, liveliness and is instantly accepted into the society. However, later it will be found out that Wickham is insinuating and sly. And yet, when Mrs Bennet finds out that Lydia is marrying him, she is absolutely ecstatic and her main focus is on the dress that Lydia will wear on her wedding. These are the most obvious points of Mrs Bennet. 3.What makes Elizabeth feel so grateful to Darcy? How does Darcy respond to her.( P71) Elizabeth’s sister Lydia has always been frivolous and she runs away with Wayne , who is poor and hypocritical. This behavior is not recognized at that time which destroys the Bennet’s reputation. The whole family feels ashamed, especially Elizabeth. Although Lydia has the plan to marry Wayne, Wayne, as a playboy, considers everything as a game. Elizabeth is so worried with her poor sister, so she decides to leave her hometown to find her sister. Fortunately, Darcy gives a helping hand. He finds them and tries his best to convince Lydia to come back. Faced with Wayne’s greedy, he doesn’t flinch. He pays the debts for Wayne and gives Lydia a large amount of money. In order to help them, he also buys an official post for Wayne. Besides these, Darcy is also very gentle, he doesn’t expose Wayne so as to protect the whole family’s reputation. He does everything for Elizabeth, he doesn’t want her to be harmed. Darcy is proud at the beginning, which makes Elizabeth hate him so much, but after he has done so many things, Elizabeth’s prejudice is eliminated and she feels so grateful to Darcy. Darcy feels sorry at the beginning. He is also surprised and excited. Originally, Darcy doesn’t want Elizabeth to know everything. He doesn’t help her sister for certain purpose. Generally, he is delighted that Elizabeth is not so indifferent to him as before. He has never wanted to get her gratitude, but this time he feels hopeful. He tells Elizabeth that all his done was for her only, because it’s only her in his heart. He shows his affections to her again which makes Elizabeth so embarrassed. Darcy also apologizes for his pride in the past time. Now, they have cleared up the misunderstanding. It’s a turning point of their emotional journey.

Jane Eyre P88
1. What is Jane Eyre’s view of love as reflected in the excerpt? When we connect death with life, we’ll find our life requiring more cherishment---love your life and love the people (be kind to others). Jane listened to the call of her inner world. Once caught it, she pursued it-- she fell in love with her master bravely. She cherished everything around her: the people, the plant, the animal and the whole nature. Besides Mr. Rochester, she was kind to her friends, her cousins, her students and the servants, even to the dog and the moorland. To her hostile enemy, Jane gave the same mercy: Mrs. Reed, her daughters and son, the evil mad woman of Mr. Rochester. Jane was totally a speaker of the author Charlotte: what can we do before the hardness of life, including death? Charlotte learned to have (and maybe decided to love). The love consisted of two passions: the deep feeling to the human and the thankful cherishment of being. With constant sufferings in life, which were believed to be unbearable for most of us, Charlotte struggled to live her noble life, taking her responsibility in family and society, starving friendship and pursuing her career. 2.Why does Jane Eyre decide to stay with Mr. Rochester? Jane Eyre decides to stay with Mr. Rochester because she deeply loves him. In fact, during the time when Jane Eyre lives in Thorn field a year ago, she falls in love with Mr. Rochester. She is attracted by Mr. Rochester’s charms. Later she leaves him because she loves him; she could not be Rochester’s mistress. She wants a sense of complete love. However when Jane hears that her lover Rochester becomes disabled, she desperately comes back to accompany Mr. Rochester. She decides to stay with Mr. Rochester because she always loves Rochester, the love never changes. Just as in this excerpt Jane says ―But if you wish me to love you, could you but see how much I do love you, you would be proud and content. All my heart is yours, sir: it belongs to you; and with you it would remain, were fate to exile the rest of me from your presence for ever‖. For one thing, now Jane wants to accompany Rochester because she wants to soothe him. She wants to use her love to soothe Rochester; she wants to live with Rochester till the end of her life no matter how Rochester looks, how much he possesses. She loves Rochester deeply in her heart. As we all can see that Rochester loses his eyesight and strength as Rochester says in this excerpt, he is no better than the old lightning-struck tree. She knows the Mr. Rochester’s sufferings, and she knows Rochester’s love to her always never disappears. Now she wants to comfort Rochester. She says Rochester is no ruin, he is green and vigorous. She can not let her lover live alone in his rest time of life. For another, under this circumstance (Rochester’s wife is dead and he is also suffers a lot.), Jane thinks the love between
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Rochester and her is liberty and equal. As indicates in the whole book, we can find that Jane always pursues the equal and free love. Now she needs not to be a mistress and she doesn’t need to look up to Rochester. She can gain a completed love which she is always looking forward to achieve. She can be Rochester’s wife legally and morally. So she can stay with Rochester honestly. In a word, Jane decides to stay with Mr. Rochester because she loves him deeply. It is love that leads Jane’s decision to stay with Rochester. 3.What kind of relationship between Jane Eyre and Mr. Rochester does the last paragraph of the excerpt suggest? The last paragraph of this excerpt describes a scene of Jane and Mr. Rochester’s subtle movements for expressing their love. ―Then he stretched his hand out to be led. I took that dear hand, held it a moment to my lips, then let it pass around my shoulder: being so much a lower of stature than he, I served both for his prop and guide, we enter the wood, and wended homeward.‖ From just all these words, we may easily see the sincere love and forgiveness and support to Mr. Rochester. All the way, Jane holds the unchangeable views of respect, of love, of freedom and of equality, no matter when she is his governess or she refuses to his marriage or now she is his wife. In the past she and Rochester, She of course knows their great disparity of social status, a rich village manor owner and a low-grade governess. Nevertheless, there exists all along a standpoint in her mind, they were born equal. Jane’s love is invariably loyal and faithful to Rochester by rejecting John River’s proposal. When he has terribly suffered the fire, she still accepts him, which is really a vowed love. Rochester as well expresses his deep love to Jane. This was her perfect love view, an equal love, a hundred-percent love, a respected love, a self-giving love. Now they are equal spouses in status and also economy and love. For this moment Jane holds him to homeward, acting as both his prop and guide, which does not only means to guide his walk but also means she will support him and is willing to guide him to the happy life, no more his previous cold life. She hopes in the future they can carry each other as now.

Great Expectations P100
1.Magwitch the “the convict” takes the risk of being “hanged” when comes back to London to see Pip. How do you evaluate this meeting? First, to Pip it is a surprising meeting which happens so suddenly. Pip always regards Miss Havisham as his sponsor who gives money to him and he struggles for Estella. So when he meets Magwitch, he is very surprised. He never thinks that it was a convict who donates money for him to be the gentleman in the upper class. He can not receive this result. He can hardly imagine that it is the convict who helps him to be a member of the upper class. Then it is an unwilling meeting to Pip. According to this excerpt, we can see that when Magwitch eagerly wants to hang with Pip, Pip escapes several times. In Pip’s heart, Magwitch is just the man who he saves when he was only a young boy. Now, Pip is a gentle man with a lot of money and lives as the noblemen. He looks down upon Magwitch. So when he meets Magwitch, he feels anxious, dispirited and even abhorrent. As we can see in the following narrations ―All the truth of my position came flashing on me; and its disappointment, dangers, disgrace, consequences of all kinds, rushed in such a multitude that I was borne down by them and had to struggle for every breath I drew‖. To him, the meeting is just like a disaster. To Magwitch it is a willing meeting which he has been looking forwards to for a long period of time. As from this excerpt, we can see that Magwitch is very excited and passionate to see Pip to whom he gives money to cultivate him as a gentleman. From the conversations between Pip and him, we can see that Magwitch works hard just for making money for Pip. As he knows the boy he subsidizes has been a very successful man in his mind. It seems that he is also a successful man as he crates Pip. He desperately wants to meet Pip and wants to hang with him for several times. So when he meets Pip, he shows his excitement, pleasure and proud as the text depicts, ―Yes, Pip, dear boy, I’ve made a gentleman on you! It’s me wot has done it!‖ So even when Magwitch knows that he will die soon, he comes a long way to see Pip. He regards himself as Pip’s second father and he prepares a lot to see Pip, his ―son‖. To him, it is a meaningful meeting. He comes to meet the great gentleman he creates with his own hands. He is happy, excited and proud. 2. What’s the meaning of “gentleman” in the contest of the novel? In Victorian era, the essence of a gentleman is that he comes from a pure gens, or is perfectly bred, after that, gentleness and sympathy, or kind disposition and fine imagination. However, in Great Expectations, the word ―gentleman‖ has a derogatory meaning. The author uses a method called allegory to tell readers something. The main protagonist and narrator Pip once was a poor, but sympathetic and warm-hearted boy. He was simple and innocent. He dreamed of being a blacksmith like his brother-in-law Joe and owes his living with his own hands. But after he met Estella, he couldn’t help but fell in love with her. However Estella despised him for his being poor. So he wanted to be a gentleman for sake of Estella. Then he got an inheritance from someone to finance him being a gentleman. Finally he becomes a gentleman, but his virtue disappeared. In his bid to be a gentleman transformed him to be miserable and unkind person. Although at that time he was wealthy, well-groomed and well-educated, he was a man with a fragile heart and powerful conscience. He was selfish and cool-hearted to his poor old friends. When Joe came to London to see him, he was unwilling and reluctant to meet him and was cruel to him. He was numb by his high social status and wealth then. Also he was not really happy at all. Here we can see the meaning of ―gentleman‖ in the contest. Pip’s definition of gentleman was narrowed by the influence of Miss Havisham and Estella who see social status, high education and material wealth as the essential components of being a gentleman. In my opinion, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens challenged the predominant concept of being a gentleman in the
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Victorian Era by implicating that a gentleman can be judged not on their affiliation, social status or material wealth but rather by their character and personal accomplishments. In this novel there are two different characteristics between the poor Pip and the gentleman Pip. So it is the title ―Gentleman‖ that changes Pip from good to bad. The author wants to uncover some social problems by this. He wanted to criticize the dirty capitalism and the dark society, in this world people like to pretend to be gentlemen. 3.Character of Pip? As a character, Pip’s two most important traits are his immature, romantic idealism and his innately good conscience. On the one hand, Pip has a deep desire to improve himself and attain any possible advancement, whether educational, moral, or social. His longing to marry Estella and join the upper classes stems from the same idealistic desire as his longing to learn to read and his fear of being punished for bad behavior: once he understands ideas like poverty, ignorance, and immorality, On the other hand, Pip is at heart a very generous and sympathetic young man, a fact that can be witnessed in his numerous acts of kindness throughout the book (helping Magwitch, secretly buying Herbert’s way into business, etc.) and his essential love for all those who love him. Pip’s main line of development in the novel may be seen as the process of learning to place his innate sense of kindness and conscience above his immature idealism. Not long after meeting Miss Havisham and Estella, Pip’s desire for advancement largely overshadows his basic goodness. After receiving his mysterious fortune, his idealistic wishes seem to have been justified, and he gives himself over to a gentlemanly life of idleness. But the discovery that the wretched Magwitch, not the wealthy Miss Havisham, is his secret benefactor shatters Pip’s oversimplified sense of his world’s hierarchy. The fact that he comes to admire Magwitch while losing Estella to the brutish nobleman Drummle ultimately forces him to realize that one’s social position is not the most important quality one possesses, and that his behavior as a gentleman has caused him to hurt the people who care about him most. Once he has learned these lessons, Pip matures into the man who narrates the novel, completing the bildungsroman.

Araby P171
2.Chief qualities of the boy’s character? The boy is a natural character with which to begin a book because he possesses so many qualities attractive to readers. First, he is sensitive — sensitive enough to experience a wide range of feelings in spite of his tender age, including apparently contradictory combinations like fear and longing (at the end of the story's first paragraph), anger and puzzlement (while falling asleep), and, especially, "a sensation of freedom" in response t o his mentor's passing that surprises him and us. "I found it strange," the narrator says, "that neither I nor the day seemed in a mourning mood." Second, he is intelligent — and not merely in the conventional sense of the word. Sure, he is brainy enough to absorb much of the arcane information shared with him by the priest. (It makes sense that he has grown into the articulate storyteller who shares the tale of Father Flynn's influence upon him.) But the protagonist of "The Sisters" also possesses an intuitive understanding of how other human beings feel, think, and act — emotional intelligence, you might call it. It is no surprise that a boy so sensitive, so intelligent, would find himself somewhat alienated from others — cut off, fundamentally, from his family and peers. He appears to lack altogether a connection with his uncle, much less Old Cotter, and it is said that he rarely plays "with young lads of his own age." Even when he is in the company of his aunt and the priest's sisters near story's end, the reader's main sense of the boy is that he is alone. The school boy, in the story 'Araby", is the narrator of the story. He has not yet attained majority and is by nature bashful. He lived alone with his auntie and uncle and knew a few play-mates with whom he played in the street. Mangan's sister was perhaps only girl who lived in his neighborhood. He started appreciating her figure and dress without actually realizing that he had grown to like her. Being preadolescent person he had not become conscious that such a passion is just natural and it does not call for apology or regrets.If he had expressed his noble feeling of love for the girl he might have been able to overcome his bashfulness. Once he hesitated in expressing his sentiments, he developed an inhibition with the result that he was never able to make his feelings known to her. He went worshipping her silently. By chance, she happened to talk to him, he felt confused and did not know how to express himself. His desire to visit Araby became an obsession for him and he made up his mind to go to the market at the earliest and bring a gift for her. The hour that he reached Araby, was not at all fit for purchasing something really worthwhile. He experienced a sort of bitterness even worse than defeat. Being a lonely person, he is in search of a kindred soul. But lacking self-confidence he is not able to win her, as any other person without inhibition could have done so easily.The boy in the story is so bashful and inept in his relation with Mangan's sister only. He was quite a sociable boy in his own way and was good at studies. His auntie and uncle never discovered any oddity about him. He certainly proved quite helpful when he accompanied his aunt on her shopping trips. After his missed venture with Araby he lost interest in his studies. His teacher stared feeling concerned about him. But he did not know the real reason for this lack of interest in his studies. He is a hardworking and responsible boy and is capable of changing his attitude in keeping with the changing conditions. His unrequited love has proved disappointing experience for him, but certainly it would have made him wiser and more practical in future.

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参考资料: Unit 1
Chaucer ---The Canterbury Tales 1.Symbol: Springtime The pilgrimage begins in the spring, "whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote / The droghte of March hath perced to the roote" (General Prologue 1 – 2). Since this is the beginning of the poem, and the beginning of the pilgrimage (which itself is the beginning of repentance), it's likely that springtime here is a symbol of beginnings. And the beginning of things is exactly what the poem emphasizes in its description of springtime, talking about how the wind spreads the seeds that peek their heads above the soil as they begin to grow into crops, and how birds begin their mating season. This brings us to another thing that springtime symbolizes: sexuality. You see it in the way April is piercing March "to the roote" with his showers, watering things and causing them to grow in the same way a penis "waters" the ovum and causes it to grow. In its masterful opening, the poem links springtime and sex in the way that they both cause new life to begin. The poem might start this way in order to remind us how pilgrimages are also a start of new beginnings. See, the idea of a pilgrimage is that you start on a journey of repentance, beginning a new life, one free from sin. In the beginning of the poem, then, the springtime is a symbol of the new beginnings and the creation of new lives the pilgrims are about to undertake. 2.Allegory 寓言: Pilgrimage from London to Canterbury It's probable that the pilgrims' journey from London to Canterbury represents another journey that was very important to a medieval person: the journey from Earth to Heaven. As the journey begins, we have a sinful group of pilgrims, many of whom are hiding various vices and dirty secrets. Their pilgrimage is meant to be a journey of repentance, so that by the time they reach Canterbury, they will be fully cleansed of these sins. Thus, in this allegory, the tavern 客栈 represents the sinful life on Earth, while Canterbury represents the sin-free life in heaven all people are trying to reach 3. Social significance of the poem The Canterbury Tales is more than a mere collection of true-to-life pictures. Taking the stand of the rising bourgeoisie, Chaucer affirms men and women’s right to pursue their happiness on earth and opposes the dogma of asceticism preached by the church. As a forerunner of humanism, he praised man’s energy, intellect, quick wit and love of life. His tales expose and satirize the evils of the time, as the degeneration of the noble, the heartlessness of judge and so on. With especially formidable force Chaucer attacks the corruption of the church.

Unit 2
Shakespeare----Hamlet
哈姆雷特是莎士比亚精心塑造的人文主义者的形象,他对人自身、对人类的明天满怀热爱和信心,有着无比的智 慧,人文主义教育使他胸怀远大抱负但突破其来的巨变,使他遭受了那样多的不快,他无忧无虑、明朗爽快的性 格发生了变化。他渴望用进步的人文主义思想改造社会,却又觉重任难当,难以施为。踌躇难决之下,他苦思 焦虑,性格一变而为忧虑沉闷,更因复仇的证据不足,一时也找不复仇的时机,无法贸然行动,这使得他优柔 寡断,但他采取的一系列措施无不表现了他的机智勇敢、镇定缜密以及超人的智慧。Shakespeare's Hamlet is the best shape in the image of humanism, full of love and confidence in the future of mankind. He used to have immense wisdom and humanist education in mind forms his ambitious. But after he suffered overnight tremendous changes, his open and forthright character changed. He was looking forward to using the idea of humanism to change the social progress, but he felt he couldn’t deserve it. Monologue of a strong sense of guilt reflects his pain and contradictory state of mind. Also some of his steps taken to assassinate his uncle show his ingenuity, courageous, calm careful and superhuman knowledge. 1. Themes: Madness Madness – both real and feigned – is at the heart of the play. Hamlet's "antic disposition" has famously sparked a scholarly debate: Does Hamlet truly go "mad" or is it all an act? An impossible mystery, it's one of many unanswered questions raised by the play. Nevertheless, the complexity and sheer ambiguity of Hamlet's mental state and erratic behavior is compelling and seems to speak to the play's overall atmosphere of uncertainty and doubt. Ophelia's clear descent into madness (and subsequent drowning) is somewhat of a different issue. Critics tend to agree that Ophelia seemingly cracks under the strain of Hamlet's abuse and the weight of patriarchal forces, which has important implications for the play's portrayal of "Gender" and "Sex." Revenge Hamlet gears up to be a traditional bloody revenge play – and then it stops. The bulk of the play deals not with Hamlet's ultimately successful vengeance on his father's murderer, but with Hamlet's inner struggle to take action. The play concludes with a bloodbath that's typical of revenge tragedy, but Hamlet's infamous delay sets it apart from anything that's come before it. Hamlet is also notable for the way it weaves together three revenge plots, all of which involve sons seeking vengeance for their fathers' murders. Ultimately, the play calls into question the validity and usefulness of revenge. Mortality Hamlet's musings on suicide, especially the "to be or not to be" speech, are legendary and continue to direct discussions
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of the value of life and the mystery of death. But Hamlet himself never commits suicide. It is Ophelia, who never mentions the possibility of taking her own life, who drowns, seemingly as a result of some combination of madness and despair. Death threads its way through the entirety of Hamlet, from the opening scene's confrontation with a dead man's ghost to the bloodbath of the final scene, which leaves almost every main character dead. Hamlet constantly contemplates death from many angles. He is both seduced and repelled by the idea of suicide, but, in the famous gravedigger scene, he is also fascinated by the physical reality of death. In a way, Hamlet can be viewed as extended dialogue between Hamlet and death. Religion Hamlet is not necessarily a play about "religion" but it does register many of religious ideologies and spiritual anxieties of the 16th century. Here we're talking about the effects of the Protestant Reformation, and Christian ideas about "Mortality" and the afterlife, all of which have major implications for the play's portrayal of the ghost. Hamlet is also interesting for the way it weaves together Christian attitudes toward murder, suicide, and revenge, which don't necessarily square with the basic tenets we typically find in the "Genre" of Revenge Tragedy. Lies and Deceit Hamlet, more than almost any character in literature, hates deception and craves honesty. It is one of the brilliant ironies of the play that Hamlet, an absolutist in his quest for truth, is trapped in a seamy political world where deception is a necessary part of life and political "spin" rules the day. This contrast, fascinating to the audience, is a torment to Hamlet. Deception is necessary for and used by every character in Hamlet, for every purpose ranging from love to parenting to regicide. Art and Culture Literary critics consider Hamlet to be one of Shakespeare's most "self-reflexive" plays, which is to say that Hamlet self-consciously refers to the workings of the theater and also draws the audien...

Sonnet 18
莎士比亚诗歌的两个主题:时光不饶人,青春和美丽是短暂的;只有诗歌才有力量使美丽与爱情永存。 (theme: 只有文学可与时间抗衡) Change, Fate, and Eternity However much it might look he’s praising a beloved, this poet is definitely more concerned with tooting his own horn. Really, you could sum up the poem like this: "Dear Beloved: You’re better than a summer’s day. But only because I can make you eternal by writing about you. Love, Shakespeare." That message is why images and symbols of time, decay, and eternity are all over this poem. Whether or not we think the beloved is actually made immortal (or just more immortal than the summer’s day) is up in the air, but it’s certainly what the speaker wants you to think. Line 4: This is where the speaker starts pointing to how short summer feels. Using personification and metaphor, the speaker suggests that summer has taken out a lease on the weather, which must be returned at the end of the summer. Summer is treated like a home-renter, while the weather is treated like a real-estate property. Lines 7-8: These lines give us the problem (everything’s going to fade away) that the poet is going to work against. Lines 9-12: These lines are full of all sorts of figurative language, all pointing to how the speaker is going to save the beloved from the fate of fading away. The beloved’s life is described in a metaphor as a "summer," and then his or her beauty is described in another metaphor as a commodity than can be owned or owed. Death is then personified, as the overseer of the shade (a metaphor itself for an afterlife). Finally the "lines to time" are a metaphor for poetry, which will ultimately save the beloved, and "eternal" is a parallel with "eternal summer" in line 9. Lines 13-14: What’s so interesting about these lines is that it’s hard to tell whether the speaker is using figurative language or not. Does he actually mean that the poem is alive, and that it will keep the beloved alive? Well, it depends what we mean by "alive." If we read alive scientifically, as in breathing and thinking, well then alive is definitely a metaphor. But if we read it as describing a continued existence of some kind, well then maybe he does mean it literally, since surely the poem and the beloved exist for us in some sense. Sonnet 18 deals with the conventional theme that natural beauty will surely be knocked out with the passing of time and that only art (poetry) can bring eternity to the one the poet loves and eulogizes.

Unit 3
Of single life and marriage (注意看书上的 p16―赏析‖) 主题思想是:结婚有家庭拖累,影响社会服务;单身有个人自由,能给社会做贡献。显然这是 45 岁结婚、15 年后离婚、没有子女的培根本人的真情实感。文章只字未提家庭的天伦之乐,夫妻之爱,父子母女之情。讲的 只是个人与社会的关系。这也可以说是培根人生经历的特点、优点与缺点的反映。 下面可以看作培根的格言。也可以说是生前的夙愿与终身的遗憾。Wives are young men’s mistresses; companions for middle age; and old men’s nurses. 妻子是青年人的夫人,中年人的伴侣,老年人的护士。 2 男大当婚,女大当嫁,这是一个有趣的话题。 培根从为公众服务及个人品质等多方面将结婚和单身生活进行了比较和分析,分别列举了结婚与单身对人的不 同影响。在培根看来,有妻儿之人可以说是对命运之神付出了抵押品,因为家庭难免拖累事业。所以,最能为 公众献身的人应当是不被家室所累的人,因为他们能在感情和财产方面与公众联姻,馈赠公众。而单身者可以 是最好的朋友、最好的主人、最好的仆从,却总难成为最好的公民,因为他们随时可以逃避。总的来说,重视 婚姻和家庭能够使人具有责任感,充满爱心。培根进而立论:好的风俗能教化出坚贞严肃的男子汉。―妻子是年 轻时的情人,中年时的伴侣,老年时的保姆‖。总之,什么时候结婚都是好事。文章最后还专门对―坏男配好妻‖
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现象发表了高见。在培根的随笔中,这是难得的语言诙谐的一段。 Of studies (注意看书上的 p16―赏析‖) 1. 修辞手段,如排比 parallelism、省略 omission 和类比 analogy 以及语言节奏的文体效果进行了分析,指出这些 修辞手段的综合运用使语言简洁易懂,气势充沛,重点突出,论述深刻。同时,我们发现有些修辞手段提供的节奏是 作者表达思想不可多得的重要载体 carrier,因此,对作品进行文体分析时不应忽视语言节奏产生的效果。(语言风 格和文体修辞入手) 如: Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.--- 排比 parallelism、 1 省略 omission 2 Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. 3 else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.---- 明喻 .simile 4 文章最后一段---类比 analogy,stond or impediment in the wit,类比为 diseases of the body Unit 5

Defoe《鲁宾逊漂流记》
The themes of Robinson's Crusoe a. man's struggles against nature b. glorification of the bourgeois men who has the courage and will to face hardship and determination to improve his livelihood. c. Glorification of labor (Robinson lives on his own hands) The style of Robinson's Crusoe a. realistic style, true to life, in details b. smooth, simple, colloquial language c. long sentences are loose; short sentences are plain, easy to understand d. presents facts in order, the meaning is clear 主要人物性格特征: 鲁宾逊是一个充满劳动热情的人,伟大的人,坚毅的人。孤身一人在这荒无人烟的孤岛上生活了 27 年。面对人 生困境,鲁宾逊的所作所为,显示了一个硬汉子的坚毅性格与英雄本色,体现了资产阶级上升时期的创造精神 和开拓精神,他敢于同恶劣的环境作斗争。鲁宾逊又是个资产者和殖民者,因此具有剥削掠夺的本性。 strong-minded, careful, capable, persevering, optimistic, ambitious, self-reliant, clever, practical, adventurous, patient, rational, sympathetic, hardworking, imaginative, energetic, courageous, amiable (kind-hearted) ―星期五‖本是个野人,是勤劳、对人真诚的人,被鲁宾逊从土著人手中解救并教化后,又成了他忠实的仆人和 朋友,成了―文明人‖的奴隶。 In Robinson Crusoe, Defoe traces the growth of Robinson from a na? and artless (simple, innocent) youth into a ve shrewd and hardened (strong-minded) man, tempered by numerous trials in his eventful life. The realistic account of the successful struggle of Robinson single-handedly against the hostile nature forms the best part of the novel. Robinson is here a real hero: a typical eighteenth-century English middle-class man, with a great capacity for work, inexhaustible energy, courage, patience and persistence in overcoming obstacles, in struggling against the hostile natural environment. He is the very prototype of the empire builder, the pioneer colonist.

Unit6
William Blake In The Tyger Blake points to the contrast between these two animals: the tiger is fierce, active, predatory, while The Lamb is meek, vulnerable and harmless. In the first stanza Blake, as in The Tyger, asks questions, and these are again directed to the animal, although the reader has less difficulty guessing the answer, which the poet in any case gives in the second stanza. The picture of The Lamb's feeding "by the stream and o'er the mead" (=meadow) is a beautiful one, which suggests God's kindness in creation, and has an echo of similar descriptions in the Old Testament book of Psalms (especially Psalm 23, "The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want") and the parables of Jesus. In the second stanza, Blake reminds The Lamb, and us, that the God who made The Lamb, also is like The Lamb. As well as becoming a child (like the speaker of the poem) Jesus became known as The Lamb of God: Jesus was crucified during the Feast of the Passover (celebrating the Jews' escape from Egypt) when lambs were slaughtered in the temple at Jerusalem. This was believed to take away the sins of the people who took part in the feast. So when Jesus was killed, for the sins of all people, according to the Christian faith, He came to be called The Lamb of God. Although this is an image mainly of meekness and self-sacrifice, in the last book of the Bible (Revelation) Jesus appears as a Lamb with divine powers, who defeats the Anti-Christ and saves mankind. Blake's poem seems to be mainly about God's love shown in his care for The Lamb and the child and about the apparent paradox, that God became both child and Lamb in coming, as Jesus, into the world. The Tyger and The Lamb go well together, because in them, Blake examines different, almost opposite or contradictory, ideas about the natural world, its creatures and their Creator. The Tyger Theme of Religion You can’t get away from religion in "The Tyger." In Blake’s day, religious individuals and their institutions held great sway over people, far more than they do now in Europe. Questioning God’s absolute supremacy was pretty rare, and
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was all but political suicide. Blake, on the other hand, has no problem questioning God, or dabbling in religious arenas that don’t automatically assume that the Christian God is actually alpha and omega ("the beginning and the end" of the Greek alphabet). Thus, Blake questions who "could" create the Tyger, casting aside the notion that such a being is omnipotent (all-powerful). He also challenges he who "dares" forge the Tyger, and contain ("frame") its "fearful symmetry." Blake is not afraid of religious visions, since this poem is full of them, but he's not interested in simply rehashing the Christian doctrine. Rather, he interacts with Christian religion by challenging its assumptions. Theme of Awe and Amazement Closely related to the theme of religion, awe and amazement are what the divine or sublime inspire. The sublime is a specific term that used to mean more than it does today. Now, you can say a bowl of ice cream is "just sublime," but back in the day (say, late 18th century England), people would have no idea what you meant. To them, the sublime is (typically) big, scary, mysterious, awe-inspiring, and, yes, amazing. You could get published writing a book about how "The Tyger" is about the sublime – Fearful Symmetry is in fact the title of one of the most influential books about Blake's poetry. The sublime is big and unable to be "framed." It’s scary and "fearful," full of "deadly terrors." It’s mysterious, lurking in the "forests of the night," forcing you to put thirteen question marks in your poem. It is awe-inspiring and amazing. Thus, "The Tyger" is in part about the fact that it is mysterious. It is about the awe and amazement that such mystery and sublimity inspires. Theme of Literature and Writing When a piece of literature is about literature in general, things can get a little tricky. What it means for a poem to be about poetry is that its content somehow reflects on the process or craft of its creation. Take, for example, a song about writing a song: "Ohhhh, it’s so hard to write a soooong, about how much I loooooove yooouu, oooh ooh," etc. It’s a song about writing a song. In the same way, any poem could be about the process of writing a poem or artistic creation in general. In one way, "The Tyger" is a poem about writing a certain kind of poetry. Blake is very interested in visionary poetry, the kind that communicates deep truths about the universe, often concerning the divine or a higher power. Knowing anything about these subjects is really hard, so "The Tyger" can be read as a poem about how hard it is. If we think of the Tyger as the divine or as the knowledge of the divine, and the creator ("he") as a poet, then the poem is about the speaker questioning how a poet could ever "frame" or possess the knowledge of the divine, let alone write about it in a poem. The Sick Rose 两个四行诗节押韵形式为 ABCB,这种简短的二节拍诗行给人一种不详、恐惧的感觉。 在这首诗中,玫瑰是一种美丽的自然事物,受到了虫子的侵害,她也可以是一种文学意义上的玫瑰,也就是传 统意义上爱情的象征。虫子的形象类似于《圣经》中的毒蛇,同时也可以暗指阴茎像。虫子生活在大地上,它 代表着死亡与衰退。这里的床不但象征了自然中的花床,同时也象征着爱人的床,玫瑰病了,这将意味着爱人 也病了,然而玫瑰对此却一无所知。当然实际上的玫瑰是不可能知道自己病了,所以象征的重点就自然是指爱 情并不知道它已经出了问题。 因为虫子的破坏一方面看不见的, 另一方面是因为它是晚上偷偷地来到了床上。 ―深 红色的欢乐‖不仅指性的快乐, 而且指性的羞耻。 因此玫瑰对于爱情欢乐的态度也就被我们文化中富于爱情的羞 耻和隐秘所破坏。 在这首诗中也暗含了人类本性中的阴暗面, 以及由此而来的死亡主题。 玫瑰被很多因素所破坏——―看不见的虫 子‖和―狂吼的暴风雨‖, 面对这些力量, 玫瑰显得无能为力。 ―深红色的欢乐‖或许是和人类的死亡所紧密联系的, 指对于血的渴望。很多学者也认为这里的玫瑰指的是诗人居住的那条街上的―玫瑰‖共和党,―看不见的虫子‖指 在晚上在―狂吼的暴风雨‖中透过墙壁传来的喧哗声——如果―它发现了你的床,就回破坏你的生活‖。 这首诗也指工业革命期间的英格兰,它正在被迅速发展的工业革命所破 ―深红色的欢乐‖也可指爱情与激情。 同时这首诗也指所有的美都会遭到破坏,或者其自身也有破坏力。这提醒了我们所有的事物都有其两面性,爱 情是欢乐的同时也是痛苦的,所有的生命都会走向死亡。 这首诗的另外一个解释就是,诗歌运用花园作生活和某种关系的隐喻。全诗给人的感觉是,连个人曾今充满了 爱情,但是现在爱情已经―病了‖,―虫子‖就是一个非常好的隐喻。 花园是美丽与和平的象征,这和两个爱人的关系极为相似。但是,在花园中总会有虫子伺机破坏美丽的爱情, 这在现实中往往也是确实存在的。在两情相悦时,这种隐喻可以解释为相爱的一方对另一方的背叛与欺骗所带 来的痛苦与心碎。 William Wordsworth I wandered lonely as a Cloud Still concerned in 1815, he attached a note to the poem in his first Collected Works. "The subject of these stanzas," he asserted, "is rather an elementary feeling and simple impression [...] upon the imaginative faculty, than an exertion of it" (qtd. in Stillinger 539). Nevertheless, in the preface to the 1815 collection Wordsworth not only argues that the imagination is ruled by "sublime consciousness" (Stillinger 486), but he also places "I Wandered" among poems categorized by "Imagination." Indeed, many critics ignore Wordsworth's comments on the poem and instead read it as representing a moment in nature of spiritual insight that recurs during a later imaginative re-creation (Joplin 68-69, Stallknecht 81-82, Hartman 5). More precisely, though, "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" dramatizes an experience of the sublime in its first three stanzas, which the poet recollects and re-experiences as a "spot of time" in the last stanza.

Unit 7
Pride and prejudice Pride and Prejudice Theme of Love
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Mr. Darcy’s first declaration of love for Elizabeth is a perfect illustration of how love functions in this novel: "You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you [despite your awful family and your socially inferior position]." There are many obstacles on the road to love in Pride and Prejudice, not the least of which are …pride and prejudice. But Jane Austen pens a happy ending, showing us that there’s something about love that enables it to overcome all the pride and prejudice that society throws in its way. Pride and Prejudice Theme of Marriage In the world of Pride and Prejudice, marriage is a necessity (for women at least) – and a good marriage is like winning the lottery. Notice that we didn’t mention the l-word (that would be "love"). Marriage is celebrated in Pride and Prejudice as a goal in and of itself. Part of what makes Elizabeth, the protagonist, such an interesting character is her refusal to view marriage in those terms. Other characters show us alternate reasons for marrying: practicality, infatuation, etc. Pride and Prejudice Theme of Society and Class In Pride and Prejudice Austen satirizes the distinction between middle-class and the upper class society during her time, suggesting that character is more important than connections, and that love will overcome such boundaries. However, Austen makes almost no mention of the working class, and certainly does not delve into their lives or aspirations in any meaningful way. Within the middle and upper class world, however, she does suggest these class boundaries are artificial constructions Pride and Prejudice Theme of Women and Femininity Although Pride and Prejudice begins with the anonymous figure of a rich, single man, the novel is actually concerned with the plight of the poor, single woman. So far as the novel makes a conscious statement about womanhood, it argues that poor, single women have an extremely limited range of choices: poverty or marriage. Pride and Prejudice offers us a look into this rather intensely feminine world of courting, marriage decisions, and social realities. Pride and Prejudice Theme of Women and Femininity Although Pride and Prejudice begins with the anonymous figure of a rich, single man, the novel is actually concerned with the plight of the poor, single woman. So far as the novel makes a conscious statement about womanhood, it argues that poor, single women have an extremely limited range of choices: poverty or marriage. Pride and Prejudice offers us a look into this rather intensely feminine world of courting, marriage decisions, and social realities. Pride and Prejudice Theme of Pride Pride in Pride and Prejudice can also be understood as self-respect – pride is your understanding of yourself and your position in society. It’s not necessarily a bad attribute, although it functions as a pretty significant obstacle to true love. In contrast, vanity is concern for how others view you, and it’s considered a bad attribute. Pride is the simple recognition of your superior talents, education, or position in life; this can be a healthy thing if it does not lead to haughtiness. But pride that leads to a superiority complex is seen as a direct precursor to vanity. Pride and Prejudice Theme of Foolishness and Folly In Pride and Prejudice, there are the truly foolish characters, and then there’s Elizabeth and Darcy. Their comic misunderstandings show their courtship to be a long chain of mixed signals. Their foolishness and folly delay their happiness, but at the same time teach them valuable lessons about themselves and about each other. Pride and Prejudice Theme of Identity Pride and Prejudice raises some terrifying questions about how well we know ourselves. Elizabeth and Darcy, in particular, undergo some important revelations. Elizabeth, who prides herself on being an awesome judge of character, messes up at least three times. Mr. Darcy, who prides himself on being a good guy, realizes that he was blind to quite a few of his faults (i.e., pride). Pride and Prejudice Theme of Family We all have families that embarrass us to some extent, but the Bennet family takes it to a whole new level, creating many, many problems for the two eldest Bennet daughters. But like them, love them, or hate them, you can’t escape family in Pride and Prejudice. Worse, your family irrevocably reflects upon you; if your sister runs off with a scoundrel, society will hold you in less esteem. Conversely, if your sister marries well, society will hold you in better esteem. Family in Pride and Prejudice, therefore, affects your opportunities and life chances in a very real way 中心思想 There are three main themes in the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. These themes are Love and Marriage, Good breeding and Social rank, and Moral belief and Behavior. These themes are present throughout the entire novel; they are the underlying motif of the story. It is widely recognized that these themes were the reason for Austen writing this book, she wanted to show and preserve how the upper classes lived in the Napoleonic era. She also wanted to; criticize how and why people married in those times, how the upper classes related to everyone else and how the values of Napoleonic English society shaped their society. Maybe her most ardent viewpoint is on the theme of Love and marriage. Pride and prejudice is, first and formost, a novel about surmounting obstacles and achieving romantic happiness. Themes :in the novel ,three kinds of attitude towards marriage are presented for manifestation: merely for material wealth and social position, merely for physical attraction, for true love with a consideration of the partner's personal merit as well as his economical and social status. what Austen tries to say is that it is wrong to marry without consideration of economic conditions Symbols of Pride and Prejudice/傲慢与偏见的人物象征意义 Pride and Prejudice is remarkably free of explicit symbolism, which perhaps has something to do with the novel’s reliance on dialogue over description. Nevertheless, Pemberley, Darcy’s estate, sits at the center of the novel, literally
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and figuratively, as a geographic symbol of the man who owns it. Elizabeth visits it at a time when her feelings toward Darcy are beginning to warm; she is enchanted by its beauty and charm, and by the picturesque countryside, just as she will be charmed, increasingly, by the gifts of its owner. Austen makes the connection explicit when she describes the stream that flows beside the mansion. ―In front,‖ she writes, ―a stream of some natural importance was swelled into greater, but without any artificial appearance.‖ Darcy possesses a ―natural importance‖ that is ―swelled‖ by his arrogance, but which coexists with a genuine honesty and lack of ―artificial appearance.‖ Like the stream, he is neither ―formal, nor falsely adorned.‖ Pemberley even offers a symbol-within-a-symbol for their budding romance: when Elizabeth encounters Darcy on the estate, she is crossing a small bridge, suggesting the broad gulf of misunderstanding and class prejudice that lies between them—and the bridge that their love will build across it. 人物分析 Elizabeth: Elizabeth is the main character of the novel, and the story traces her changing impressions of other characters throughout the narrative. While at first she finds Wickham charming and Darcy proud, in the end she realizes that she has been blind and prejudiced, and that Darcy is the true gentleman while Wickham is not. About Elizabeth, Jane Austen wrote in a letter, "I must confess that I think her as delightful a creature as ever appeared in print, and how I shall be able to tolerate those who do not like her at least I do not know." Jane: Jane is the eldest Bennet daughter and is considered quite pretty by all. Her seeming indifference to Bingley initially drives him away from her (with the help of Darcy), but in the end the two are married. Elizabeth often wishes she could be as good and happy as Jane is, as Jane never thinks badly of anyone. Mr. Bennet: Mr. Bennet is the husband of Mrs. Bennet and the father of Elizabeth, Jane, Mary, Kitty and Lydia. He is the master of Longbourn. He has a sarcastic humor, and believes his two eldest daughters sensible, while he finds his wife and younger daughters silly. Mrs. Bennet : Mrs. Bennet is the wife of Mr. Bennet and the mother of Elizabeth, Jane, Mary, Kitty and Lydia. Her main goal is to get her daughters married, and her only joys come from visiting and gossip. She often embarrasses Elizabeth and Jane, as she is not as sensible as her husband is. She is mean, eager to marry her daughters to rich young men.

Darcy has helped her sister and saved the face of her family. He is early condemned as proud in the novel, and indeed his behavior seems to suggest it, but after Elizabeth's refusal of him, he takes her reproofs to heart and tries to change. Elizabeth realizes that some of what had been seen as pride was rather shyness and realizes what a gentleman he is, and in the end, people's opinions of him are changing.

Unit 8
Shelly 雪莱 Ode To The West Wind Shelley was an idealist and most of his nature poems are about the need for revolution and a desire to break the status quo. Ode To The West Wind is no different. Here Shelley sees the west wind as a symbol of revolution, of a new world order that would replace the old one. He identifies with the wind in that he knows that just as the west wind spells the arrival of the new year, similarly his poetic ideas will usher in a new world order and change the present world for the better. The poem has a note of despair when he says: 'I fall upon the thorns of life, I bleed' But soon enough he gains his composure and towards the end he's filled with hope and optimism which is expressed beautifully in the last two lines: 'When winter comes, can spring be far behind?' Ode to the West Wind Theme of Man and the Natural World In "Ode to the West Wind," Nature is grander and more powerful than man can hope to be. The natural world is especially powerful because it contains elements like the West Wind and the Spring Wind, which can travel invisibly across the globe, affecting every cloud, leaf, and wave as they go. Man may be able to increase his status by allowing Nature to channel itself through him. Ode to the West Wind Theme of Transformation As the speaker of "Ode to the West Wind" feels himself waning and decaying, he begs the wind to use him as an instrument, inhabit him, distribute his ideas, or prophesy through his mouth. He hopes to transform himself by uniting his own spirit with the larger "Spirit" of the West Wind and of Nature itself. Ode to the West Wind Theme of Mortality The West Wind in Shelley’s ode is depicted as an autumnal wind, preparing the world for winter. As a result, the poem is filled with images of death and decay, reminders of both natural and human mortality. The speaker hopes that the death of one world will be inevitably followed by a new rebirth and a new spring, but the poem leaves this rebirth uncertain. Ode to the West Wind Theme of Language and Communication At the end of "Ode to the West Wind," the speaker betrays his deepest concern: the fate of his ideas. He hopes that his words and thoughts will be spread throughout the world. He’s not sure of the quality of his thinking, but at least it can provide a starting point for other thinkers. Ode to the West Wind Summary The speaker of the poem appeals to the West Wind to infuse him with a new spirit and a new power to spread his ideas. In order to invoke the West Wind, he lists a series of things the wind has done that illustrate its power: driving away the autumn leaves, placing seeds in the earth, bringing thunderstorms and the cyclical "death" of the natural world, and

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stirring up the seas and oceans. The speaker wishes that the wind could affect him the way it does leaves and clouds and waves. Because it can’t, he asks the wind to play him like an instrument, bringing out his sadness in its own musical lament. Maybe the wind can even help him to send his ideas all over the world; even if they’re not powerful in their own right, his ideas might inspire others. The sad music that the wind will play on him will become a prophecy. The West Wind of autumn brings on a cold, barren period of winter, but isn’t winter always followed by a spring?

Unit 10 Great Expectation
Character: Pip There are really two Pips in Great Expectations: Pip the narrator and Pip the character—the voice telling the story and the person acting it out. Dickens takes great care to distinguish the two Pips, imbuing the voice of Pip the narrator with perspective and maturity while also imparting how Pip the character feels about what is happening to him as it actually happens. This skillfully executed distinction is perhaps best observed early in the book, when Pip the character is a child; here, Pip the narrator gently pokes fun at his younger self, but also enables us to see and feel the story through his eyes….见前面 Theme Ambition and Self-Improvement: The moral theme of Great Expectations is quite simple: affection, loyalty, and conscience are more important than social advancement, wealth, and class. Crime, Guilt, and Innocence: The theme of crime, guilt, and innocence is explored throughout the novel largely through the characters of the convicts and the criminal lawyer Jaggers. Magwitch, for instance, frightens Pip at first simply because he is a convict, and Pip feels guilty for helping him because he is afraid of the police. By the end of the book, however, Pip has discovered Magwitch’s inner nobility, and is able to disregard his external status as a criminal. Prompted by his conscience, he helps Magwitch to evade the law and the police. As Pip has learned to trust his conscience and to value Magwitch’s inner character, he has replaced an external standard of value with an internal one.

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