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高三英语上册units 7-8学案


高中三年级英语学案 Units 7-8 (B3)
【知识网络】
一、重点词汇与短语 1.admit vt.承认;准许??进入(使用)vi.容许;承认 admit sb.(sth.)into/to sth.允许某人(物)进入 sb. be admitted to school (hospital)接受某人入学(院) admit sth./doing sth./that clause 承认?? 2.occupy vt.使忙碌;使从事;占有 The table is already occupied. The company occupies the entire building. He is occupied in repairing farm tools. be occupied in doing sth./with sth=be busy doing sth./with sth. occupy oneself in doing sth./with sth.忙于(做某事) 3. anyway adv.无论如何;即使如此 I’m going anyway, no matter what you say. It’s too late now, anyway(anyhow). Anyway (Anyhow), you can try, even if there’s not much chance of success. 4. stick vt.使停止;阻塞;刺;伸出;粘贴 He stuck his fork into a big piece of meat. Don’t stick your head out of the window of the car. A nail stuck in the tyre of my car. Our car got stuck in the mud. stick to 坚持 stick out 伸出??stick on 贴住 5.acquire vt.学到;获得 acquisition n.获得;得到 The company has acquired shares in a rival business. She acquired an American accent while living in New York. acquire a habit of smoking 养成抽烟的习惯 acpuire a bad reputation 得到坏的名声 6. instruct vt.教;指导;指示 instruct sb. in sth.教导某人某事 instruct sb. to do sth.命令某人干某事 follow the instruction 遵从指示 I am instructed to inform you that the minister is not willing to make a statement. 7. take a risk/take risks 冒险 We ought not to take risks. You are taking a big risk driving so fast. at risk 处于危险之中;at the risk of 冒??的危险

8. fall behind 落后于;拖欠 The illness caused him to fall behind the rest of the class. He always falls behind when we’re going uphill. Make sure not to fall behind with your rent, please. 二、词义辨析 1. wage, income, pay, salary, wages 辨析 income:收入、收益、进款(统称) ; pay:薪水,工资;最普通用语,特指海陆军人及其他在政府部门工作的人的薪水; salary:薪水;指从事脑力劳动的劳动者,如事务员、记者、教师、牧师等的薪水; wages:(复)工资;指劳动者的工资,通常指给予短期工作者的报酬; fee:手续费,薪金;指付给律师、医师或其他专业人员的酬金、学费等。 2. wealthy, rich 与 well off wealthy 富的;一般指财势上的“富裕” ,常指拥有大量财产的人,有时也指拥有其他东 西,此时与 rich 通用;rich 丰富的,富有的,可指钱财,也可指物质上、精神上的其他东西, 主语可以是人,也可以是物;well off 富裕的;指人的富裕,但程度不如 wealthy,通常指“小 康的富足” 。 三、重点句型 1.It’s twice the size of Tiny Tim. 它是 Tiny Tim 的两倍大。 倍数表达法,参见前面 units 5-6 内容。 2.Much good may it do you! 愿圣诞赐福于你! 本句是一倒装句型,it 指圣诞节。May 用来表示愿望。祝愿、祈求等,通常用倒装句表 达。 如: May you all be happy! 愿你们都快乐幸福。 May you succeed! 祝你成功! Long live China! 中国万岁! 3.We’ll toast to the New Year with a glass of bisho wine. 让我们一起喝一杯加香料的果子酒,以贺新年。 toast to 祝酒,干杯。如: Ladies and gentlemen, I’d like to propose a toast to the bride and groom. 女士们,先生们,我提议为新娘和新郎干杯。 4.It takes patience to learn a language. 学习语言需要耐心 take 在此处相当于 ask for, require 等,常用作 It takes…to do sth . 四、语法复习 1.状语 (一)状语的定义 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。 (二)状语的表现形式

(1)副词及副词性词组 Light travels most quickly.光传播得最快。 Factories and buildings are seen here and there.到处都能见到工厂和建筑物。 (2)介词短语 He has lived in the city for ten years.他在那座城市住了 10 年了。 In spite of the difficulties, we went on with our work.尽管有困难,但是我们仍继续工作。 (3)不定式(短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.他因通过高考而感到自 豪。 The box is too heavy for me to lift.这个箱子太重,我抬不起。 (4)分词(短语) He is in the room making a model plane.他在房间里做一架飞机模型。 Not knowing what to do, he decided to ask the teacher for advice.他不知道怎么办好, 就去问 老师。 Encouraged by the teacher, I made up my mind to learn English well.在老师的鼓励下,我决 心把英语学好。 (5)名词(短语) Wait a minute.等一下。 Would you please come this way?请这边走。 I go to school every day.我每天去上学。 (6)从句 Once you begin, you must continue.一旦开始,你就得继续下去。 It is very difficult to live where there is little water.在没有多少水的地方,生活是十分艰难 的。 I must work harder in order that I may catch up with the others.为了赶上其他人, 我必须更努 力学习。 (三)状语的种类 状语按照内容可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、方式、程度伴随 情况等。 (1)时间状语 How about meeting again at six?六点再见面怎样? When it rains, I usually go to school by bus.下雨天,我通常乘公共汽车去上学。 (2)原因状语 Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.由于下雨,她昨晚没有去参加 舞会。 Since you are very busy, I won’t trouble you.既然你很忙,我就不打扰你了。 (3)条件状语 I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.如果不下雨,我将到那里去。 As (So) long as you work hard, you can make rapid progress in English.只要你努力,你就可 以在英语方面取得很快的进步。 (4)地点状语

Mr. Smith lives on the third floor.史密斯先生住在 3 楼。 Where there is water, there is life.有水的地方,就有生命。 (5)方式状语 She put the eggs into the basket with great care.她小心地把鸡蛋放在蓝子里。 He has greatly improved his spoken English by this means.他用这种方式极大地改善了他的 英语口语。 (6)伴随状语 She came in with a dictionary in her hand.她进来时手拿着一本字典。 The teacher came in, followed by a group of students.老师走了进来,后面跟着一群学生。 (7)目的状语 In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.为了赶上其他人,我必须更努力学 习。 I went there to see a friend of mine.我去那里看我的一个朋友。 Bring it close so that I may see it better.把它拿近些,以便我看得更清楚些。 (8)结果状语 He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.他累极了,立刻就睡着了。 He is so good a teacher that the students love respect him.他是一位很好的老师, 学生们都敬 爱他。 (9)让步状语 She works very hard though she is old.虽然她年纪大了,但她仍然十分努力工作。 No matter when you come, you are warmly welcome.不管你什么时候来,都欢迎。 (10)程度状语 They were greatly moved to hear the hero’s story.听了英雄的故事,他们深受感动。 I quite agree with you.我完全同意你的意见。 (11)比较状语 I am taller than he is.我比他高。 The more I speak English, the better I?ll be.我越多讲英语,就讲得越好。 注:副词修饰动词时放在行为动词之后或动词的宾语之后,修饰形容词或副词时放在被 修饰词之前。 如: They study hard.他们学习努力。 (修饰动词) He was very sad.他非常伤心。 (修饰形容词) She speaks English quite well.她英语讲得很好。 (修饰副词) We go to school on foot.我们步行上学。 (介词短语,修饰动词) (四)状语的位置 英语中状语的位置比较灵活。影响状语位置的因素很多,如强调的程度、句子的平衡及 状语本身的长短等都可以影响状语的位置。 (1)修饰谓语的状语通常放在谓语(及宾语)之后。 He walked very quickly.他走得很快。 I saw him the other day.几天前我见过他。 The match was put off because of rain.比赛因下雨而推迟。

(2)修饰谓语动词的状语有时不止一个,主要归纳为下面几种情况。 ①如果有多个时间状语或地点状语,我们一般把单位小的放在单位大的前面,这和汉语 的次序正好相反。 如: We are going to meet him at the airport at two o’clock this afternoon.我们将于今天下午两点 到机场迎接他。 ②如果句中既有时间状语,又有地点状语,则地点状语通常放在时间状语之前。 如: I?ll meet you at the theatre at six ? thirty.我六点半在剧院跟你见面。 I studied English at the university for five years.我在这所大学学了 5 年英语。 ③方式状语的位置一般放在时间、地点状语之前;如果地点状语较短,则放在地点状语 之后。 如: The lady sat down and ate greedily before others.那女子坐下,然后在众人面前狼吞虎咽地 吃了起来。 Susan got there on foot yesterday.苏姗昨天步行到那里。 (3)表示频度的副词像 offten, usually, always, sometimes, seldom, never, ever, rarely, generally, constantly 等,通常要放在主动词的前面;如果谓语部分含有情态助动词、基本助 动词或动词 be,就要放在这些动词之后。 如: He is always busy.他总是很忙。 I usually go to work at eight in the morning.我通常上午 8 点上班。 We often meet at the bus station.我们常常在公共汽车站碰面。 I shall never forget that day.我永远不会忘记那一天。 (4)不定式短语作目的状语,通常放在句末,有时为了强调也可放在句首;不定式短 语作结果状语则通常放在动词后面, 如: Most countries use these satellites to send and receive messages.大多数国家利用这些卫星发 送和接收消息。 The Englishman will move back in order to keep a certain distance away.英国人则会后退, 以 保持一定的距离。 To make this news certain, he carried out a thorough investigation after the meeting.为了证实 这一消息,他会后进行了彻底的调查。 Two years later, her father disappeared, never to be heard from again.两年之后,她父亲失踪 了,再也没听到他的音信。 (5)? ing 分词短语作方式、伴随状语常放在被修饰的动词之后;作时间、原因状语等 常放在句首;作结果、目的状语常位于句末。 如: They are now at breakfast, talking about the plan for their trip.他们正在吃早餐,谈论着旅行 计划。

In Arab countries, you eat using the fingers of your right hand.在阿拉伯国家,人们用右手手 指吃饭。 Having been separated from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found anywhere else in the world.由于与别的大陆已分离了几百万年, 澳大利亚 有许多动植物是世界其他地方所没有的。 The fish can eat a person in two minutes, leaving only the bones.这种鱼两分钟内就可以把 一个人吃掉,只剩下骨头。 2.虚拟语气(Ⅰ) (一)语气的定义和种类 (1)语气的定义 语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 (2)语气的种类 ①陈述语气 表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。 如: We are not ready.我们没准备好。 Did it rain all day yesterday?昨天下了一天雨吗? What a fine day it is!多好的天气啊! ②祈使语气 表示说话人的建议、请求、邀请、命令等。 如: Be careful!小心! Don’t forget to close the window.别忘了关窗。 Open the door, please.请打开门。 ③虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。 如: I were you, I should study English.如果我是你,我就学英语了。 I wish you could go with me.但愿你能同我们一起去。 May you succeed!祝您成功! (二)虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句,一类是虚拟条件句。如果假设的情况是有可能发生 的, 就是真实条件句。 在这种真实条件句中的谓语用陈述语气。 如: If it doesn?t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park.如果明天不下雨,我们就去公园。 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。 如: If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it.如果他昨天见到你,他会问 你这件事的。 (事实上他昨天没见到你,因此也未能问你这件事。 )在含有虚拟条件句的复合 句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。 (1)表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果

If I were you, I should (would, could, might) tell him the truth. 要是我是你,我就会(可能)对他说实话。 If he had time, he would (could, might) go with you.如果他有时间, 他就会 (可能) 和你去。 If my brother were here, everything would be all right.要是我哥哥在这儿, 一切都没问题了。 (2)表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果 If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t (couldn’t) have failed in the exam. 如果你按照我的建议去做,你一定不会(不可能考试不及格) 。 If I had had the money last week, I should (would, could, might) have bought a car. 如果上星期有了这笔钱,我就会(可能)买 1 辆车。 She would(could,might) have telephoned you immediately, if she had won the game. 如果她比赛赢了,她就会(可能)给你打电话。 If you had come a few minutes earlier,you would(could,might) have met the famous singer. 如果你早来几分钟的话,你就会(可能会)见到那个著名的歌唱家。 (3)表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果 If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should (would, could, might) go to see my grandmother. 如果明天是星期天,我就(可能)去看望我奶奶。 If it were to snow this evening,they would not go out.如果今晚下雪,他们将不出去了。 If it should rain, the crops would(could, might) be saved. 假如天下雨,庄稼就一定(有可能)得救。 (4)主、从句的动作发生时间不一致的情况 有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间不一致,这时动词的形式要根据它所 表示的时间加以调整。 If you had listened to the doctor,you would be all right now.如果你当初听了医生的话,身体 现在就好了。(从句动作指过去,主句动作指现在) If you had practised speaking English more, you would be able to speak it fluently. 如果你多练习讲英语,现在就能讲得很流利了。 ①省略连词 if 在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有 were,had 或 should,可以把 if 省略,而把这几个 词放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装。如: Should he come(If he should come), tell him to ring me up. 他要是来了,让他给我打个电话。 Were I you(If I were you),I would not do it.我要是你,就不做这事。 Had he been more careful(If he had been more careful), such mistakes could have been avoided.如果他细心些,这些错误本来是可以避免的。 在虚拟条件句中,省略连词的倒装形式,其句首不能用助动词的缩略否定式。如我们可 以说: Were it not for the expense, I would go to Paris. 但不能说: Weren’t it for the expense,I would go to Paris. ②用介词短语代替条件状语从句 有时假设的情况并不用条件从句表示出来,而是通过介词短语来表示。

如: Without air(If there were no air), there would be no living things. 如果没有空气的话,就不会有生物了。 But for your help(If it hadn’t been for your help)I couldn?t have done it. 要是没有你的帮助,我就不可能完成这件事。 假设的情况有时可以通过上下文或其他方式表现出来。如: I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone there with them. (If I hadn’t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them. )我那天很忙, 否则, 我就和他们一起去那儿了。 (如 果我那天不忙的话,我就??) I would have finished the work, but I have been ill.(If I hadn’t been ill, I would have finished the work.)我本来该完成这项工作的,但我生病了。 (如果我没生病的话,我就会完成??) (5)省去条件从句或主句 表示虚拟敢的主名或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍可以推知。 ①省去条件从句 You could have washed your clothes yourself.你本可以自己洗衣服的。 (省去了“If you had wanted to” ) (事实是:你自己没洗衣服,因为你不想洗。 ) ②省去主句(常用以表示愿望) If my grandmother were with me!如果我的祖母与我在一起多好啊! (事实是:祖母已不在 世。 ) If only she had not left!如果她没走就好了!(事实是:她已经走了。 ) If only the wind would stop!风要是停了该多好!(事实是:风停的可能性很小。 )

【考点透视 考例精析】
[考例 1] I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise ______. A.going on B.goes on C.went on D.to go on [解析] A 本题考查 with+宾语+宾语补足语构成的复合结构,区分非谓语动词作宾补的 区别,准确把握句子结构是解题关键,B 不符语法,C 表已做,D 表还未做,A 表正进行。 [考例 2] ----Will $200 _________? ----I’m afraid not. We need at least 50 more dollars. A.count B. satisfy C.fit D.do [解析] D 本题考查动词词义辨析。count 数数,satisfy 使满足,fit 合适,do 意为“可行, 行” 。故选择 do。 [考例 3] Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park _______ she was bitten on the leg by a lion. A.when B.while C.since D.once [解析] A 本题考查连词用法,稍加分析题干便知,主句动作与从句动作哪个在先,最后 不难判断应该选 when,相当于 at that time,“这时”或“就在这里” 。 [考例 4] In dealing with public relations, we should make every effort to prevent the ______ in personality. A.contact B.contrast C.connection D.conflict

[解析] D 本题考查词义辨析。contact 接触,联系,交际,交往;contrast 对比,对照; connection 联系,关系;conflict 争论,冲突,抵触,斗争。根据题意应选 D 项。

【基础演练】
一、据首字母(汉语提示)填词,完成句子。 1.He set high ____ __(规范) of behavior for his pupils. 2.We should have a good ____ __(问心无愧). 3.The teahcer c___ ___ his hands to make the pupils quiet. 4.The president _ ____(亲自) answered her letter. 5.One of his ____ __(抱负) is to study abroad. 6.What is his real ____ __(动机)? 7.Mr. Chen i ___ ___ us in maths. 8.Where did you study last a____ __ year. 9.The new law will come into o___ ___ next month. 10.He has made a speech a__ ____ to the occasion. 二、单项选择 1. All the parts of these washing machines are ______, so that it is very convenient to replace them. A.normalized B.modernized C. mechanized D.standardized 2.The trade agreement helped to strengthen the ______ between the two countries. A.dependence B.derivation C.bond D. bearing 3.Though her father did not like the young man, she married him ______. A. anybody B. anyhow C. anyone D.anywhere 4.Mary is ______ a translation of a French novel. A.engaged with B.busy in C.absorbed to D.occupied with 5.This ticket ______ one person to the show. A. promises B.enters C.admits D. includes 6.Because Edgar was convinced of the accuracy of this fact, he ______ his opinion. A.stuck at B.strove for C.stuck to D.stood for 7.I ______ their method of making the machine. A.adopted B.voted C.elected D. commended 8.Once a decision has been made, all of us should _______ it. A.direct to B.stick to C.lead to D.refer to 9.If people keep polluting the rivers, no fish there will survive ______. A.at all cost B.for a long while C. in the long run D. by no means 10.It was only with the help of the local guide _______. A.we the mountain climber rescued B.that the mountain climber was rescued C.when the mountain climber was rescued D.then the mountain climber was rescued

【能力拓展】

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项中,选出最佳选项。 Central Park Outside among the trees, watch the wildlife both the human and animal varieties. Call (212) 360-3465 or (212)360-2726 for daily events and tours. Central Park stretches from “59th to 110th” Sts, and from “5th Ave. to Central Park West.” Empire State Building This is among the most striking buildings in the city, the nation, even the world. The observation deck (瞭望台) on the 86th floor is open to the general public, offering a wonderful view of the city. On the second floor you?ll find the New York Skyride, a simulated (模拟的) helicopter ride over Manhattan. 5th Ave. at 34th St. Midtown/ (212)736-3100. Intrepid Sea ? Air ? Space Museum Five blocks west of Time Square, this museum has hundreds of air, deep ? sea and space exhibits. Walk the flight deck of the 900 ? foot ? long aircraft carrier Intrepid, see dozens of old and modern aircraft and ride the Intrepid Navy Flight Simulator. Pier 86. W. “46th St. and 12th” Ave./(212)245-0072. Madison Square Garden If it?s big, it probably happens at the Garden. Check out sporting events, concerts and much more. Tours are available.“ 7th Ave. btwn. 31th” and 33th Sts, Midtown/(212)465-6741. 1.The New York Sky ride is for______ . A.sightseeing B.flight training C.model plane sports D. city transportation 2.If a visitor is interested in music, he will probably go to ______ . A. Central Park B. Empire State Building C.Intrepid Sea Air Space Museum D.Madison Square Garden 3.What is the purpose of these texts? A.To provide information of living in New York. B.To provide directions of city traffic in New York. C.To give visitors a guide to New York. D.To give a brief introduction to the history of New York.

参考答案
高三部分 Units 7~8 (B3) 基础演练 一、 1. standards 2. conscience 3. clapped 4. personally 5. ambition 6. motivation 7.instructs 8.academic 9.operation 10.appropriate 二、1.D 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.C 6.C 7.A 8.B 9.C 10.B 能力拓展 参考答案及解析:

1.A 2.D 根据文章最后材料。 3.C 为的是向来到纽约城市的人们介绍这座城市。


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