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飞行器概论 Glossary-(英文版)-免费


A AAGW Air-to-Air Guided Weapon, a dogfight weapon.

ACWS Automatic Command to Line of Sight.
Active homing Missiles Ca1TY a power source to illuminate the target.
Actuator

A device, either linear or rotary, for moving the fInS or jetavator of a missile. Can be hydraulic, pneumatic (hot or cold gas) or electrical.

Aerodynamic centre The point on lifting surface about which there is no change in overturning moment with change in lift. Aerofoil section .' The crosssectional shape of a wing designed to produce lift but little drag.
AHGW

Anti-Helicopter GW.

Airframe The components which make up the structure of the missile including wings and control surfaces.
AtCM
Air Launched Cruise Missile. AOA

Area of Authority. ARM Anti-Radar Missile. ASGW
Air –to-Surface Guided Weapons.

ASPJ Airborne Self Protection Jammer. ATGW Anti-Tank Guided Weapon.
Autopilot

There is no universally agreed definition of an autopilot, but usually it is understood to mean a system for controlling the flight path of a missile, either by moving aerodynamic surfaces or by thrust vector control. Accelerometers and gyroscopes are used to measure the actual flight path through electronic circuitry. The whole makes a closed loop system. (Not all missiles use autopilots.) Autopilot -Lateral autopilot An autopilot for controlling the lateral acceleration or 'g' of a missile. A cartesian missile, if it uses an autopilot at all, would usually use two: one for controlling the 'g' in the pitch plane and another for controlling the 'g' in the yaw plane. AUW
All-Up Weight,

AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System.

B Ballistic missile Missile which follows a near ballistic or free fall path.

Ballistic trajectory Path followed by a body moving under gravity only.
Bar

Pressure unit approximately equal to atmospheric pressure at sea level.
Beacon

Flare, flash tube, or radio transmitter at the rear of a missile.
Beetle tank An early Gennan guided weapon in the fonn of a crawling bomb. Bipropellant SeDarate fuel and oxidant ( oxidiser). Black Chaff Chaff optimised to absorb EMR. Blast A destructive wave produced in the surrounding atmosphere by an Explosion or detonation. The blast includes a shock front,high pressure gas behind the shock front and a verification following the high pressure. BMEWS Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. Bomblet A small container carrying its own complete initiation system. Boost coast A single motor missile unpowered for most of its flight. Boost sustain A missile with two stage propulsion. Essential for TVC. Boundary layer The layer of air close to the surface of the missile in which shear stresses are important. Bypass duct An annular passage surrounding the core of a turbine aeroengine; a portion of the air ingested passes through this duct, by passing the engine core. C C Velocity of light: 3 x lO8m per sec; Canard A missile configuration in which the control surfaces are positioned forward of the main lifting surfaces. Cartesian control A system of guidance/control in which steering signals are produced by the guidance system and implemented by the control system in an up-down, leftright manner. Casebonded charge A propellant charge which is formed in and bonded (with adhesive) to the motor case. Centre of pressure The point through which an aerodynamic load must act to provide the moment which it causes. Chaff Also called 'window'. Thin strip of metal-coated plastic dispersed in bundles to decoy radar. Characteristic velocity The ratio of the product of chamber (combustor) pressure and nozzle throat area and propellant mass flow rate.

Choking The phenomenon of the maximum mass flow which may pass through a nozzle for given upstream conditions. Cigarette burner A solid propellant configuration in which the propellant burns longitudinally at an end face. Circus Number of jamming aircraft on a 'race track'. CL Command link. The communication channel between guidance computer and missile. CLGP Cannon Launched Guided Projectile. USA term for GLOP. CLOS Command to Line of Sight Guidance. Closed Loop System Negative feedback system in which the output automatically aligns itself with the demanded input by making the error become zero. COLOS Command Off the Line of Sight. Command guidance . A form of guidance in which the guidance computer is separated from the missile.

Command link WIre, optical fibre, radio beam or laser beam command charmel to missile. Composite A type of heterogeneous propellant composed primarily of ammonium perchlorate as oxidant and a polyrnerisable binder as fuel. Compression The opposite of an expansion. Continuous rod A guided missile warhead configuration consisting of a series of steel rods longitudinally encasing an explosive charge. The rods are joined at alternate ends and create an expanding hoop on warhead detonation. CRP , Control and Reporting System. Cryogenic Description sometirnes applied to an exceptionally low temperature Liquefied gas. Cruise missile A missile which flies most of constant speed and constant height. Cruise trajectory Constant speed, constant height path. D Decoy False target provided by enemy to deceive radar or opt!ical sensor. Dedicated surveillance A system exclusive to a particular guided weapon system. Design point A fixed flight condition at which engine performance parameters are optimised. Detonation An exothennic reaction wave which follows and also maintains a shock front in an explosive. Detonator An explosive device for starting detonation. Discrete rod A long rod of metal designed to penetrate a target. Double base A type of homogeneous colloidal propellant composed primarily of

nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Drone A UMA with pre-programmed flight path. Dual-thrust motor A solid-propellant motor giving a short duration -high thrust, followed by a longer duration -low thrust; it is a booster/sustainer design. E ECM Electronic Counter Measures. . ECCM Electronic Counter Counter Measures. EFOGM Enhanced Fibre-Optic Guided Missile. EMR Electromagnetic radiation ie light, IR, MMW, radar waves, radio waves. Engine A liquid-propellant rocket or an airbreather. E PJ Escort protection jammer. ESM Electronic Support Measures. The detection and location of enemy transmitters. EW Electronic Warfare. Expansion Process undergone by a gas in which the density falls or the pressure falls (or both). Explosive A chemical substance or mixture which, when suitably initiated, can react to produce an explosion. Extrusion To press out through a shaped orifice. F . F(F dot) Rate of turn of flight path. I FC radar Fire Control radar. FFR Free Flight Rocket. FGA Fighter Ground Attack. Fin control surface of missile. Fin servo Closed Loop Control System which makes the position of the fill follow the demand. Fixed location end point The point to which a GOLIS missile is guided. FOGM Fibre-Optic Guided Missile. FOV Field Of View. Fragmentation The shattering of a munition casing caused by an explosive charge.

Fuze An electronic device used in a missile capable of sensing or detecting the target. Normally does not include explosive components, unlike artillery fuze systems. G General surveillance

A form of surveillance system gathering information for several different purposes. GLCM Ground Launched Cruise Missile. GLGP Gun Launched Guided Projectile. GOLIS Guide Onto Location In Space. GOT Guide Onto Target. GPS Global Positioning System. Gravity Force of gravity or acceleration due to gravity loosely used as a unit Force or latex of so many 'g'. Strictly 9.81m per sec. Gross thrust The product of jet velocity and gas mass flow-rate. Guidance loop The essential closed loop system of a guided weapon. GW Guided Weapon. H HE High Explosive. Any explosive which is capable of detonation when suitably initiated. HEAT High Explosive Anti- Tank. HESH High Explosive Squash Head. HI A high altitude segment of a flight path. Hittile A missile which is so accurate that it is not worth fitting a proximity fuze. Homing Guidance A GOT system in which the missile carries the target tracker. . Hyperbolic The description of liquid fuel and oxidant which ignite on contact. I ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. IFF Identification Friend or Foe. IG Inertial Guidance. A system in which missile displacement is measured by the double integration of accelerometer signals. Igniter A device for starting bumillg or deflagration. Ignition The start of burning. ' , Impulse The integral of rocket motor thrust with respect to time. IN Inertial Navigation. (See IG). Incidence The angle between the missile or one of its component parts and the missile flight path. Initiator A device for setting off explosive or pyrotechnics, eg a detonator or igniter. IR Infra-red electromagnetic radiation. IRBM Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.

Iron bomb USA name for a conventional free fall aerial bomb. J Jammer Radar, radio or laser transmitter intended to confuse or deceive enemy receivers. K K PN constant. The radio of F/S. L Laser Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A coherent light or IR transmitter. Latex Lateral acceleration. The result of a pitch or yaw demand on an air frame. LAW Light AntiAm1our Weapon. LO A low altitude segment of flight path. LOAL Lock On After Launch. LOBL Lock On Before Launch. Loose charge A propellant charge which is made separately and inserted ( cartridge style) into the motor case. LOS Line Of Sight. The line between track point and the target at any instant. LOSBER LOS Beam Rider. LWR Laser Warning Receiver. M Mach number The speed of a missile divided by the ambient speed of sound. MAD Mutual Assured Destruction. MBT Main Battle Tank. MCWS Manual Command to Line Of Sight. MHz Megahertz: 1 06Hz. MICOM EFGOM Missile Command Enhanced Fibre-Optic Guided Missile. Micrometre Sometimes called micron. lO-6m. SymbollLm sometimes used. MIRV Multiple Independently Targetted Re-entry Vehicle. Missile A device propelled through the air. MG , Machine Gun. MLRS Multi-Launch Rocket System. MMW Millimetre wave. Momentum The product of mass and velocity. Motor A solid-propellant rocket. MRBM Medium Range Ballistic Missile.

N NADGE NATO Air Defence Ground Environment. NATINADS NATO Integrated Air Defence System. Net thrust Gross thrust minus inlet momentum drag. Neutral Point The position of the centre of gravity on the longitudinal axis of a missile which will give neutral static stability. Newton's Second Law Force is proportional to rate of change of momentum. Newton's Third Law Action versus reaction are equal and opposite. NG Navigational Guidance. A missile containing the guidance computer also carries instruments which measure the artificial or natural environment of the missile. Noise jammer Confusion to victim receiver caused by a total confusion of signals random noise. Nozzle An orifice with (nearly always) a convergent-divergent profile through which the propulsive gas is accelerated and discharged.

O One-dimensional A type of flow in which it is assumed that the fluid properties are constant across the flow. Optical fibre Thin, string-like optical wave guide which transmits signals in the form of pulses of light. Oxidant The component of a bi-propellant combination which supports the combustion of the fuel. P Passive homing A homing missile which tracks natural energy coming from the target. Perfect gas A thermlodynamically 'ideal' gas. PGM Precision Guided Munition. A compound guided weapon with terminal homing. Pitot intake A carefully designed open-ended duct; pod-mornted aeto-engines exhibit good examples. PN Proportional Navigation. Used for most homing systems. The rate of turn of flight path is made proportional to the rate of turn of sight line. Polar Control ( often called 'twist and steer') A system of guidance/control when steering signals are produced by the guidance systein and implemented by the control system such that the missile rolls so that its lifting surfaces lie in a given plane, and then manoeuvres perpendicular to that plane. Power The measure of the energy available from an explosive. Propellant mass fraction Ratio of propellant mass to launch mass of missile ( or stage of missile). Propulsive efficiency The effectiveness of conversion of jet kinetic energy into propulsive power.

R RADAG Radar Area Guidance. Ram effect The pressure increase obtained in an air-breathing engine intake by virtue of its forward motion. Ramjet The simplest (in terms of moving parts) of all air-breathing engines in which the compression is produced by the cram' or forward velocity pressure in the intake; combustion downstream of the intake thus gives the high velocity jet. Rapier A British low level SAGW. Rear Controls (sometimes called 'Tail Controls') A method of steering a missile by moving small aerodynamic surfaces placed as far to the rear of the missile as possible. REC Radio Electronic Combat. English translation of the Russian equivalent of EW. Repeater Jammer Deceives victim receiver. by transmitting a deformed copy of the expected signal. Reticle An optical disc with some areas transparent and some opaque. Used in IR trackers. Retro lamp A form of jammer used to dazzle a missile operator. RMSMD Root Mean Square Miss Distance. A statistical measure of lack of accuracy. Roll position stabilisation A missile which does not roll as it flies. Roll reference Position datum for the roll angle of a missile. Provided by gyros or external signals. RPV Remotely Piloted Vehicle. . S (S dot) Rate of turn of sight line. SACLOS ' ,Semi-Active Command to Line Of Sight. SAGW Surface-to-Air Guided Weapon. -; SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. SAM Surface-to-Air Missile. Seeker American term for homing head. Semi-active homing A homing missile system in which the target is illuminated by a radar or laser which is not in the missile itself. Sensitivity A measure of the relative ease with which reliable functioning may be assured in different explosives or explosive systems under the intended conditions of use. SFPA Staring Focal Plane Array. A modern form of IR imaging detector. Shaped charge An explosive charge shaped to concentrate its effect when detonated. The effect of the charge is enhanced by the addition of a metal liner. Shock A discontinuity (in supersonic flow) across which there is a step

rise in gas pressure and step fall in velocity. SIJ Stand in or stand forward jammer. SLGM Submarine Launched Guided Missile. SMCLOS Semi Manual Command to LOS. SOJ Stand Off Jammer. Span The distance from one wing tip to another, measured at right angles to the body centre line. Specific fuel consumption (sfc) An air-breathing engine performance parameter defmed as fuel flow rate divided by net thrust. Specific impulse A rocket motor performance parameter, defmed as fuel flow rate divided by the propellant mass flow rate. SR Surveillance Radar. SSGW Surface-to-Surface Guided Weapon. SSKP Single Shot Kill Probability. A statistical measure of lethality. Stall The phenomenon which causes a missile or aeroplane to lose height because of a loss of lift and an increase in drag. Star-centre A common solid propellant configuration which gives nominally constant thrust throughout the burn time as the propellant burns in an outwards direction from a starshaped central conduit. Static margin The distance along the fore-and-aft axis of the missile between the centre of pressure and centre of gravity. Static pressure The pressure of a flowing gas exclusive of any dynamic component due to its velocity. Striker A version of the British Combat Reconnaissance Vehicle (Tracked) fitted with Swingflre. Subsonic A velocity less than the local velocity of sound. Supersonic A velocity greater than the local velocity of sound. Sweepback The angling rearwards of tIle leading edge of a wing. Swingflre An ATGW using MCLOS guidance. T TACS Tactical Borne Jammer. TBJ Target Borne Jammer. TC Radar Tactical Control Radar. TERCOM Terrain Contour Matching. TGSM Terminally Guided Sub-Munition. Thernlal efficiency The effectiveness of conversion of fuel energy into jet kinetic energy. Throat (choke) The minimum cross-section area of a nozzle, either convergent only or convergentdivergent. Thrust coefficient

The ratio of the thrust and the product of chamber (combustor) pressure and nozzle throat area. Thrust vector control (TVC) A method of steering a missile by altering the direction of the thrust of the propulsion motor. TSPM Tank Self-Protection Missile. Turbofan A dual-fow derivative of the turbojet incorporating a bypass in which part of the entering air is compressed to a lesser extent than the air going through the combustor and which ultimately rejoins the hot flow prior to expansion through the nozzle. Turbojet The simplest fornl of mono-flow gas-turbine jet engine with relatively low frontal area and high jet velocity. TVC Thrust Vector Control. TVM Track Via Missile. Twist and Steer A missile which banks and steers like a manned aircraft. Polar control. U UVA Unmanned or Uninhabited Air Vehicle. v VI An early Gennan cruise missile, developed and employed in World War II. V2 An early Gennan ballistic missile, developed and employed in World War II. Velocity of Detonation cY of D) This is the speed at which a detonation wave progresses through an explosive. . VHSIC Very High-Speed Integrated Circuits. Viscosity A measure of the tendency of a fluid to adhere to a surface in motion through it. W Wavelength Distance advanced by EMR during the time of one cycle. Usual symbol L. Weapons Tight No launch of weapons pennitted unless target is defInitely identified as hostile. Wing controls A method of steering a missile by moving the main lifting surfaces of the missile. These surfaces are usually placed slightly ahead of the centre of gravity of the missile. Wire control A command link using a wire or wires-

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