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定语从句与名词性从句的互换


定语从句与名词性从句的互换
一、定语从句和名词性从句由于表达意思的需要,有时可以互相转换。大致有下面三种情
况: (1)定语从句与表语从句的互换 That's the thing that we're worrying about.(定语从句) That's what we're worrying about.(表语从句) 那就是我们正在担心的事。 This is the way she did it.(定语从句) This is how she did it.(表语从句) 这就是她做这件事的方法。 This is the reason why we must go now.(定语从句) This is why we must go now.(表语从句) 这就是我们现在该走的理由。 That is the place where Xiao Lin was born.(定语从句) That is where Xiao Lin was born.(表语从句) 那就是小林出生的地方。 (2)定语从句与宾语从句的互换 I don't know the reason why she is so happy.(定语从句) I don't know why she is so happy.(宾语从句) 我不知道她为什么这样高兴。 He showed me the place where he used to live.(定语从句) He showed me where he used to live.(宾语从句) 他带我看了他曾经住过的地方。 Do you know the date when Wuhan was liberated?(定语从句) Do you know when Wuhan was liberated?(宾语从句) 你知道武汉是什么时候解放的吗? (3)定语从句与主语从句的互换 The thing that we need is more time.(定语从句) What we need is more time.(主语从句) 我们所需要的是更多的时间。 The time when they will start out has not been decided yet.(定语从句) When they will start out has not been decided yet.(主语从句) 他们什么时候动身还没有决定下来。 The reason why he did it wasn't quite clear.(定语从句) Why he did it wasn't quite clear.(主语从句) 他为什么做那件事还不很清楚。 The place where she lives is not known yet.(定语从句) Where she lives is not known yet.(主语从句) 她住在什么地方,大家还不知道。 二、学习定语从句应注意的几个问题

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(1)定语从句中关系代词与先行词的一致性 定语从句中关系代词一般应与它所指代的先行词的单复数保持主谓一致。例如: The students who were here just now are from No,2 Senior Middle School. 但注意下列一组句子: He is the only one of the students who was here just now. He is one of the students who were here just now. 如果"one of +复数名词"后跟有定语从句, 一般情况下"one of"后的复数名词为先行词, 但当 one 前有 the only,the very,just the 修饰时,先行词则为 one。 (2)定语从句与强调结构 It is the place where they lived before. It is in the place that they lived before. 第一个句子为定语从句,where 指代 the place,在定语从句中作状语,第二个句子为强调结 构,强调 in the place,that 没有意义,把 in the place 放回后面句子,句子意思完整。 Where is it that he found the lost watch?(强调句型,强调疑问副词 where)。 Where is the watch that he found yesterday.(定语从句,that 指代 the watch) (3)定语从句与并列结构 He has two sons,neither of whom looks like him. He has two sons,and neither of them looks like him. I've got two sisters.Both of them are in Shanghai. 第一个句子为定语从句,关系代词 whom 指代 two sons,在定语从句中作介词 of 的宾语。第 二个句子为并列结构,由并列连词 and 连接,人称代词 them 指代 two sons。第三个为两个 独立的句子,两个句子中间用句号,两句开头的处一个字母都大写。 (4)定语从句与状语从句 He found the books where he had put. He found the books in the place where he had put. 第一个句子为状语从句, where he had put 作主句 He found the books 的地点状语。 第二个句 子为定语从句,where 引导从句修饰 the place。 This is such an interesting book that I'd like to read it. This is such an interesting book as I'd like to read. 第一个句子为结果状语从句,在结果状语从句中,it 指代 book,作 read 的宾语。第二个句子 为定语从句,关系代词 as 指代先行词 book 的定语从句中 read 的宾语。 (5)定语从句中的先行词 Is this book the one that you bought yesterday? Is this the book that you bought yesterday? 第一个句子中,this book 是主句的主语,the one 是先行词。在第二个句子中 this 是主句的 主语,the book 是先行词。一定要避免出现:Is this book that you bought yesterday? (6)定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句相当于形容词,它对先行词起修饰、描述或限制作用,而同位语从句则相当于名 词,它对其前面的词给予说明或作进一步解释,即说明该词所表示的具体内容。例如: The news that we heard is not true.(定语从句) The news that he won the prize is not true.(同位语从句) 另:在"have no idea+从句"结构中,其从句都作 idea 的同位语。例如: I have no idea when she will be back.

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三、把握定语从句中的时空概念 在定语从句的运用中,当其先行词表示时间或空间概念时,有些学生很容易想当然地用关 系副词 when 或 where 引导,而没有具体情况具体处理。所以,应注意以下几点。 (1) 从逻辑意义上讲,只有从句中的谓语动词与该先行词构成动状 (时间、地点)关系时, 才能用 when 或 where 引导从句;或视不同情况以 prep.+which 代之。例如: 1、 This is the country where/in which Edison was born。 (动状关系) 2、 I'll never forget the year when/in which the terrible earthquake happened.(动状关系) 3、 England was one of the places from which the settlers moved to America.(动状关系) (2)从逻辑意义上看,当从句中的谓语动词与该类先行词有主谓关系或动宾关系时,则以 which/that 或 prep.+which 引导从句。 4、 Please follow the custom of the country which/that you are going to visit.(动宾关系) 5、 For ever I'll remember the year that/which brought me happy memory.(主谓关系) 6、 He is going to work in Tibet which/that is far away from Hebei Province.(主谓关系) (3)从逻辑意义上讲,当从句中作主语的名词与先行词存在所属关系时,则用词 whose。 7、 Mr.Gallant is going to the country whose name is Sweden.(所属关系) 8、 Generally,we refer to the time whose speed is unchanged.(所属关系) 浅述主动式定语从句的简化 一、定语从句简化 英语表达方式是相当灵活的,为了表达言简意赅,使叙述简洁明快,常用一定的语法手段 把句子加以简化, 定语从句被简化成简单句就是常见的一种。 下面简单谈谈主动式定语从句 简化的几种情况。 (1)定语从句中的关系代词为从句主语,其谓语动词是现在进行时,可以用现在分词短 语来简化。例如: The man who is teaching us English now graduated from Hubei University three years ago. -->The man teaching us... 现在教我们英语的老师三年前毕业于湖北大学。 但是,如果定语从句动词之后没有介词作状语时,现在分词常置于中心词之前。例如: The countries which are developing should get united. -->The developing countries should... 发展中的国家应该团结起来。 (2)把定语从句简化为现在分词短语有以下几个条件。 1、从句的动词和主句的动作的时态的一致。例如: My father used to work for the neighbours that lived here. --> ...the neighbours living here. 我父亲过去常给住在这儿的邻居干活儿。 2、从句谓语的动作可以发生在主句谓语动作之前。例如: Can you catch the early bus which will leave at 6:00 this morning? --> Can you catch the early bus leaving at... 你能赶上今天早晨六点钟离开的早班汽车吗?

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3、从句和主句的动词和动作都是泛指的。例如: China is a developing country which belongs to the third world. --> ...country belonging to the third world. 中国是一个属于第三世界的发展中国家。 4、从句谓语动作一发生,主句谓语动词的动作紧接着发生。例如: The man who stole into the bank was caught immediately on the spot. -->The man stealing into... 溜进银行偷窃的那个人被立即当场逮住。 (3)如果定语从句中是连系动词 be 的一般现在时或一般过去时,且表语是介词短语,形 容词短语或名词短语,可以把它们简化作中心词的后置定语。例如: The farmers had to fetch water from a river which was a mile away from the village. -->...a river a mile away from the village. 家民们得从离村子一里路远的河里取来水。 The students who were from the N0.14 Middle School have gathered. --> The students from the No.14 Middle school... 来自十四中的学生集合好了。 (4)定语从句的谓语是表示程度、时间和方式等的副词或副词短语修饰语,可用副词和现 在分词(两者之间用连字号)作中心词的前置修饰语。例如: This is a man who works hard. -->This is a hard-working man. 这是一位勤奋工作的人。 (5)如果定语从句的动词是一个普通名词作宾语时,可用名词和现在分词(二者之间须用 连字号)作定语来简化。例如: The south of Hubei is an area which grows rice. The Sorth of Hubei is a rice-growing area. (6)定语从句中有一系列并列形容词作表语,可简化成简单句,形容词变成中心词的前置 定语。例如: A person who is gentle,lovable and familiar is always easy to get along with. -->A gentle,lovable and familiar person is always... 一位温和,可爱和熟悉的人总是容易相处。 (7)如果定语从句的谓语动词与中心词有逻辑上的动宾关系,动状关系和主谓关系时,可 以简化成不定式短语作中心词的后置定语。例如: He is a good student with whom you can study. -->...student to study with. 他是一位能一起学习的好学生。 (8)如果定语从句中有 have 加宾语被形容词修饰时,可以简化成 with 短语中心词的后置 定语,也可以简化成名词加-ed 作前置定语。例如:

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a girl who has blue eyes--> a girl with blue eyes.--> a blue-eyed girl 二、定语从句典型错误例析 1.【误】The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put it into my mouth. 【正】The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put into my mouth. 【析】上句应由关系代词 that 或 which 在定语从句中作宾语,已省去。因此,从句中的宾 语 it 多余。又如: 【误】Chaplin lived the last years of his life in Switzerland,where he was buried there in 1977 【正】Chaplin lived the last years of his life in Switzerland,where he was buried in 1977. 2.【误】I,who is a Chinese,will do my best for our country. 【正】I,who am a Chinese,will do my best for our country. 【析】定语从句中谓语动词的形式应依据先行词的人称和数来确定,保持主谓一致。如: ① Mike is one of the students who know the truth.( 先 行 词 为 students) ② Mike is the only one of the students who knows the truth.(先行词为 the only one) 3.【误】All what you have done is not necessary. 【误】All which you have done is not necessary. 【正】All that you have done is not necessary. 【析】 what 不能引导定语从句。 当先行词是不定代词 (all,something,anything,nothing,everything 等) ,或先行词受形容词最高级,序数词或 last,very 等词修饰时,关系代词常用 that 而不用 which 。 如 : ① This is the most interesting film that I have ever seen. ② They asked him to tell them everything that he saw in the factory. 4.【误】I don't know the man with who my brother is talking. 【正】I don't know the man with whom my brother is talking. 【 析 】 定 语 从 句 中 , 如 介 词 提 前 , 指 人 时 只 用 whom , 指 物 时 只 用 which: 如 : The two things about which Marx was not sure were grammar and some of the idioms. 5.【误】He is the very person for whom I am looking. 【正】He is the very person who(whom)I am looking for. 【析】有些定语从句中的介词不能提前,如提前,从句动词的意义会改变。 take care of,look up,look forward to,ask for,make up 等短语动词均属此列。 6. 【误】 China Daily has plenty of advertisements,that help to cut the costs of making the newspaper. 正】 China Daily has plenty of advertisements,which help to cut the costs of making the newspaper. 【析】在非限制性定语从句中,指物时用 which,不用 that. 7.【误】I can't remember the things and persons who I met at that time. 【正】I can't remember the things and persons that I met at that time. 【析】先行词既有人又有物时,定语从句用 that 引导。 定语从句误用辨析 1. This is the factory where we visited last week. 2. This is the watch for which Li Feng is looking. 3. The person to who you spoke is a student of Grade Two. 4. The house in that we live is very small. 5. Everything which we saw was of great interest.

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6. I've read all the books which I borrowed from the library. 7. This is the best film which I have ever seen. 8. My father and Mr Crosset talked of things and persons who they remembered in the school. 9. This is the same bag like I lost yesterday. 10. His dog,that was now very old,became ill and died. 11. This is one of the reasons,why you may like to eat it. 12. Those who wants to go with me put up your hands. 13. The boy,his mother died,studies very hard. 14. I have two sisters,both of them are doctors. 15. We're going to visit the school where your brother works there. 16. The captain's head soon appeared out of the second storey windows,from which he could see nothing but trees. 17. That is the way which they work. 18. Those have questions can ask the teachers for advice. 19. The news which a new English teacher will come makes us excited. 20. As we all know it,he is American. 辨析: 1、将 where 改为 that 或 which。定语从句关系代\副词的选择,一看先行词,二看其在从句 中的成分。本句中 visit 是及物动词,which 做其宾语。 2、把 for 放在 looking 之后,当 which 做短语动词(即动词和其介词不能分开)的宾语时, 介词不前置。 3、who 改为 whom,尽管在口语中 who、whom 都能做宾语,但在介词后只用 whom。 4、that 应为 which。 that 不做介宾。 5、 which 改成 that。 当先行词有不定代词 something,someone,all 等时, that 充当关系代词, 由 不用 which。 6、which 改为 that。当先行词被 all,every,no,some,any,little 等修饰时,用 that,不用 which。 7、which 换成 that。当先行词中有形容词的最高级、序数词,the only、the very 等时,只用 that 引导。 8、who 改为 that。如果先行词既是人又有物时,则用 that 引导定语从句。 9、like 改为 as。当先行词里有 the same,such 时,用 as 引导限制性定语从句。 10、which 代 that。that 不引导非限制性定语从句。 11、去掉逗号。why 可以引导定语从句,但不能用于非限制性定语从句。 12、wants 改为 want。定语从句的谓语动词的数应与先行词一致。 13、his 改为 whose。 14、them 改为 whom,由 both of whom 引导非限制定语,或去掉逗号,both 大写。 15、there 多余,去掉。 16、 from which 改为 from where。 which 只表示地点 (place) ,where(n)可表示地方, (space) 空间 。 17、which 改为 that 或 in which。 18、在 Those 后添上 who,引导定语从句。 19、which 改为 that。本句是同位语从句,that 不做成分,只起引导作用。 20、去掉 it。as 作 know 的宾语,以"he is American"为先行词。

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历届高考英语单项选择题精选定语从句 1.His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose (89) 2.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that (91) 3.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom (92) 4.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it (92) 5.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A.which B.where C.that D.when (96) 6.Carol said the work would be done by October._____personally I doubt very much. A. it B.that C.when D.which (99) 7.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the oth ers unhappy. A.who B.which C.this D.what (2000) 8.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A.which price B.the price of which C.its price D.the price of whose 9._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A.As B.It C.That D.Which 10.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A.this B.which C.that D.same 11.Oh the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A.whose B.of which C.which D.its 12.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A.what B.which C.that D.when 13.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A.that B.where C.which D.there 14.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A.in which B.in that C.in whose D.whose 15.I don’t like _____ you speak to her. A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which 16.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through . A.It’s the reason B.That’s why C.There’s why D.It’s how 17.He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science. A.which I think is B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think which is 18.He was very rude to the customs officer, ____ of course made things even worse. A.who B.whom C.what D.whcih KEYS: 1-5 DBDBB 6-10 DBCAB 11-15 ABBCA 16-18 BAD

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