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1. –ing 分词的构成

主动形式 被动形式 doing being done 一般式 完成式 having done having been done 否定式: not+ --ing/not having(been) done 不是 having not (been) done

2. 一般式和完成式的用法

--ing 分词的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示 的动作同时进行的一个动作;完成式表示 先于谓语动词动作之前的一个动作。如: Walking along the street, he caught sight of an old friend of his. Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations.

3. ---ing分词的被动式
当-ing 分词与它的逻辑主语构成被 动关系时,需要用被动形式。根据-ing 分词动作发生的时间,-ing分词的被动 式分为一般被动式(being done)和完成被 动式(having been done), 如: The question being discussed is very important. Having been praised by the teacher, he works even harder.

4. ---ing分词的句法功能
1) ---ing 分词作主语 Learning English has become a part of his life. It is no use trying to repair the ship. These holes are much too big. 2) ---ing分词作宾语 以下动词必须跟---ing分词作宾语:admit/ appreciate/avoid/consider/delay/deny/dislike/enjoy /excuse/finish/image/keep/mind/ miss/postpone/put off/practise/risk/stand/ stop/ suggest / give up/cannot help

Make them easier for you to remember ! 避免 错过 少延期 avoid miss put off/ postpone

建议 完成 多练习 suggest finish
喜欢 想像 禁不住 enjoy 承认 否定 与嫉妒 admit 逃避 冒险 莫原谅 escape 忍受 保持 不介意 stand deny risk keep

envy excuse mind

imagine can’t help

英语中某些及物动词后习惯跟动名词作宾语,这类动词 是:advise, delay, appreciate, consider, be worth,

feel like etc.

to do sth.
forget regret 忘记去做某事

doing sth.
忘记已经做过某事 记住曾做过某事 后悔做过某事 意味着做某事

remember 记住去做某事
遗憾去做某事 打算/想做某事


go on (做完某事)接着去 继续做同一件事 做另一件事 stop 停下来去做另一件事 停止做一件事 try



3)--ing 分词作表语。如: Our job is playing all kinds of music. The music they are playing sounds so exciting.
注:一般来讲,--ing分词作表语有两种情况, 一是名词性,这时主语和表语可以互换。即: Playing all kinds of music is our job. 二是形容词性,表示主语的性质和特征, 主表不可互换。

4) -ing分词作定语可以表示 (1) 所修饰名词的用途。如: a waiting room(=a room for waiting) 候车室 a walking stick(=a stick for walking) 手杖 a sleeping car (= a car for sleeping) 卧车 (2)所修饰词的性质特征。如: exciting news 令人激动的消息 a moving story 一个令人感动的故事

(3)所修饰名词正在进行的动作,可以换成定语 从句形式。如: a sleeping child (=a child who is sleeping) 正睡觉的孩子 a walking man (= a man who is walking) 正散步的男人 注:分词短语作定语须放在所修饰词之后,例 如:the man standing at the gate=the man who is standing at the gate 另外,-ing分词的完成式不能作定语。例如 不可以说:The man having written many books is a former student of our school.应改为 The man who has written many books is…

5) 在see,hear,feel,watch,notice等感官动词后 可以用-ing形式做宾语补足语。这时-ing 形式 和句子的宾语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系, 并且-ing 形式表示宾语正在进行的动作。如: He saw a boy climbing the tree. Do you hear someone knocking at the door? 有人敲门你听见了吗?

区别 see sb. doing sth 是指”看见某人正在做某事”,不是全 过程,表正在进行 see sb. do sth 是指”看见某人做过某事”是看着事情的 发生全过程, 是看见某人做某事 例句 I saw her clean the classroom. 是说我看到她打扫教室了。(强调做过这件事) I saw her cleaning the classroom. 我看到她正在扫打教室(强调正在做某事)

6)-ing分词作状语 (1)-ing分词在句中可以作伴随状语,常放于 句后,表示主语正在进行的另一个动作,来对 谓语表示的主要动作加以修饰或作主要陪衬。 如: They sat in front of the building, laughing and chatting. He worked late yesterday, preparing for the lecture. (2)-ing分词可以作时间状语,常放在句首, 如: (When)Walking in the street,I caught sight of a tailor's shop.

(After )Finishing my work, I went out. Having told us a funny story, the teacher went on to explain the text to us (3)-ing分词可以作原因状语,常放句首。 如: Being ill, he can't go to school. Not knowing her address, we couldn't get in touch with her. Having lived in the city for many years, he knows it very well.

(4)-ing分词可以作条件状语,常放句首。 Turning to the right, you’ll find the post office there. (5)-ing分词可以作结果状语,常放句末。 He turned off the light, seeing nothing.

5. -ing分词的复合结构 物主代词/人称代词/名词所属格或普通名词 +ing分词 (1) 作主语(须用物主代词或名词所属格) His/Tom’s not being chosen made us disappointed.

(2)作宾语(除了物主代词和名词所有格,也可用普 通名词或代词宾格) He was awakened by someone’s knocking at the door. They have never forgiven us going there. We don’t mind him explaining it again. My friend can’t understand your treating him like that.

(3)作状语 (须用普通名词或主格代词,亦称 独立主格结构) Time permitting, we’ll deal with the text. The boy was playing with a ball, his mother standing nearby.

1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词 等是主谓关系或动宾关系。 3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。

The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 独立主格结构可在其前加上介词 with/without。 Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. The boy was walking, with his father following.

在“名词(或代词)+介词短语”构成的 独立主格结构中,一般不用形容词性物主 代词和冠词。
Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand. Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book in her hand.

Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon. A. its B. whose C. which D. that
【分析】此题很容易误选B,汉子你一不小心就会认 为它是定语从句,whose 在定语从句中用作定语修饰 其后的名词owner。但它却不是一个句子,因为没有 谓语。seat 用作动词时,它总是及物的,其后要么接 宾语,要么它就用于被动语态,所以若在 seated 前加 上助动词is,则可以选择B。所以选A。

(1) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C.which D. that (2) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. which D. that

第(1)应选B,因为句中的 translated 是过去分词 若选C,则该从句无谓语; 第(2)应选C,该句是典型的定语从句,因为该句 修饰的是前面的novels,即指物,所以只能用 which做of的宾语 . 请记住定语从句有逗号,不用 that !

(3) He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages. A. it B. them C. which D. that 【分析】此题与上面的第(2)题不同,两句间 多了一个并列连词and,说明这是一个并列 句,故应选B,则不能选C。

(1) There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners. (独立主格结构) A. which B. them C. whom D. that (2) There I met several people, two of _________ were foreigners. (非限制性定语从句) A. Which B. whom C. who D. that

(3) There I met several people, and two of _________ were foreigners. (两个句子) A. which B. them C. whom D. that
(4)There _________ nothing more to do , Mr.Goodman left for home. (独立主格结构) A. Was B. being C. to be D. had being

A 1. ___ more attention, the tree could have grown better A. Given B.To give C. Giving D. Having given C 2.___ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received B 3.The secretary worked late into the night, ___ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing toD was preparing prepare表目的意思上并不错但通 C. prepared

5. The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with his talks, C that he had __ enjoyed his stay here. A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added

A 6.“ Can’t you read?” Mary said ___ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and pointed angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing
D 8. The computer center, ___ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened D 9. The first textbooks___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written

D 11. Do you know the boy ____ under the big tree ? A.lay B. lain C. laying D. lying 12. There was a terrible noise ____ the sudden B burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 13. --- Good morning, can I help you ? D --- I’d like to have this package______ , madam. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed 14. The speaker raised his voice but still couldn’t make himself ___. D A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard

15. The missing boys were last seen __ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play
A 别人看到时正在玩耍,而非全过程

16. The salesman scolded the girl caught ___ D and let her off. A. to have stolen B. to be stealing C. to steal D. stealing
补充完girl的定语从句:who is caught stealing其中 who is 可以省略 也可以加上。 be caught doing sth是固定句型。意思是某人被撞者 做某事 ,放到句中,就是被抓到偷东西。

17. The murderer was brought in, with his D hands ___ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied D 19. She set out soon after dark ___ home an hour later. A. arriving B. to arrive C.having arrived D.and arrived

A 20. John was made __ the truck for a week as a punishment. make sb. do A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing be made to do
21. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ___ by C the hour. A. paysb.B. paying sth.警告某人(不要)干某事 warn (not) to do C. paid D. to pay
warn sb. about /of sth.提醒、警告某人注意某事

A 22. Mr. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking. A. never to drive B. to never drive C. never driving D. ever drive

A 25. European football is played in 80 countries, __ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make A 26. She pretended __ me when I passed by. A. not to see B. not seeing C. to not see D. having not seen C 27. Rather than ___ on a crowded bus, he always prefers __ a bicycle. A. ride, ride B. riding , ride C. ride, to ride D. to ride, riding

28. Little Jim should love ___ to the theatre this morning. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking shoud love to 等于woud like to,后边跟动词 原形,Jim 是被带进剧院的,用被动语态. 所以选A .

B 29. I would love ___ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone B 31. Tom kept quiet about the accident ___ lose his job. A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to

33. --- The light in the office is still on.
C ---- Oh, I forgot ____.

A. turning it off
C. to turn it off

B. turn it off
D. having turned it off

C 34. I can hardly image Peter ___ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail C. sailing B. to sail D. to have sailed

35.I would appreciate __ back this afternoon. C A. you to call B. you call C. your calling D. you’re calling
37. ___ is a good form of exercise for both young B and old. A. The walk B. Walking C. To walk D. Walk

B 38.--- I must apologize for ___ ahead of time. --- That’s all right. A. letting you not know B. not letting you know C. letting you know not D. letting not you know

42. – You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. D --- Well , now I regret __ that. A. to do B. to be doing C. done D. having done 43. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, A but his mother told him ___. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
B 这是一个省略式的回答,用to来表示动词的省略。 若选A,必须是完整的,not to do that . 因为do是及物 动词。例如:Would you like to go with me? I'd like to.

C 44. The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating 45. ___ in thought, he almost ran into the car in C front of him. Be lost in sth 是沉醉、沉迷、迷失于。 A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lost A 46. Robert is said ___ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying

48. When I got back home I saw a message D pinned to the door____ “ Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading 49.The sentence wants___ once more. B A. explained B. explaining C. being explained D. to explain want doing=want to be done. need require 都可以用主动的形式表示被动 如 The trees need watering = The trees need to be watered.

B 51. ____ from so many apple, I think, these on the table are much better than the others. A. Having chosen B. Chosen C. Being chosen D. Choose C 52. Her skirt has become loose. She seems ____ weight. A. to lose B. that she has lost C. to have lost D. to be losing D 53. The highway ____ to the city is under repair now. A. leads B. led C. to lead D. leading

54. Did ____ on time make the teacher angry? D A. she not come B. she not to come C. not her coming D. her not coming 55. You can never image the great trouble I have had ____ the patient who received a serious D wound. A. to treat B. treated C. treat D. treating
这里省略了in , 惯用法 have trouble/difficulty (in) doing sth : 做某事遇到了麻烦。

C 56. ____ to be no time for going to the cinema. A. It seems B. It is seeming C. There seems D. It is
There seems to be no time for going to the cinema 化简是There is no time for going to the cinema. it is no time 不可以这样用。只能it is time for (doing ) sth . 而否定的只能there is some/much/a little/no time

A 57. ____ to the top of the hill, and you can see the whole of the town. A. Get B. To get C. Getting D. Having got
祈使句 : 一. 动词原型+ and/or + 陈述句
(一般陈述句里有will , or可用or else或otherwise替换) 如 Give me one more hour, and I’ll get the work finished. Follow the advice, and you’ll be well very soon. Take the chance, or you will regret it.

二. 名词词组 + and + 陈述句 如 More effort, and you will succeed.
Another attempt, and you will get it.

58. While shopping, people sometimes can’t help C ____ into buying something they don’t really need. A. to persuade B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded

C 59. ---Your shirt wants ____ , Mary. ----Yes, it does. I’m going to have it ____ this afternoon. A. to wash, washing B. to wash, washed C. washing; washed D. washing, wash

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