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6572 J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 6572–6583 DOI: 10.1021/jm1002556

Substituted 4-Carboxymethylpyroglutamic Acid Diamides as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Fibroblast Activation Protein
Ting-Yueh Tsai,? Teng-Kuang Yeh,? Xin Chen,? Tsu Hsu, Yu-Chen Jao, Chih-Hsiang Huang, Jen-Shin Song, Yu-Chen Huang, Chia-Hui Chien, Jing-Huai Chiu, Shih-Chieh Yen, Hung-Kuan Tang, Yu-Sheng Chao, and Weir-Torn Jiaang*
Division of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, National Health Research Institutes, No. 35, Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli Country 350, Taiwan, R.O.C. ?These authors contributed equally to this work. Received February 26, 2010

Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) belongs to the prolyl peptidase family. FAP inhibition is expected to become a new antitumor target. Most known FAP inhibitors often resemble the dipeptide cleavage products, with a boroproline at the P1 site; however, these inhibitors also inhibit DPP-IV, DPP-II, DPP8, and DPP9. Potent and selective FAP inhibitor is needed in evaluating that FAP as a therapeutic target. Therefore, it is important to develop selective FAP inhibitors for the use of target validation. To achieve this, optimization of the nonselective DPP-IV inhibitor 8 led to the discovery of a new class of substituted 4-carboxymethylpyroglutamic acid diamides as FAP inhibitors. SAR studies resulted in a number of FAP inhibitors having IC50 of <100 nM with excellent selectivity over DPP-IV, DPP-II, DPP8, and DPP9 (IC50 > 100 μM). Compounds 18a, 18b, and 19 are the only known potent and selective FAP inhibitors, which prompts us to further study the physiological role of FAP.

Introduction Fibroblast activation protein (FAPa) is a type II transmembrane serine protease belonging to the prolyl peptidase family, which comprises serine proteases that cleave bioactive peptides preferentially after proline residues. Members of this family include dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), DPP-II (DPP7), DPP8, and DPP9, and this family has been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and mood disorder.1,2 FAP is expressed on reactive stromal fibroblasts in over 90% of common human epithelial cancers,3 in granulation tissue of healing wounds, and in bone and soft tissue sarcomas.4,5 It has been suggested that FAP promotes tumorigenesis and that FAP inhibition may attenuate tumor growth.6-8 The development of potent and specific inhibitors for each of these DPP enzymes can be an important tool to study the physiological function and to validate their potential as a therapeutic target. Specific inhibitors for DPP-IV,9-11 DPP-II,12,13 and DPP8/914 have been identified, and investigations of selective inhibitors for FAP have only started recently.15-17 Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, also known as CD26) (EC 3.4.14.5) is a drug target for type II diabetes. The active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion, inhibits glucagons release,18,19 and slows gastric emptying,20-22 each a benefit in the control of glucose homeostasis
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: 886-37246166, extension 35712. Fax: 886-37-586456. E-mail: wtjiaang@nhri. org.tw. a Abbreviations: FAP, fibroblast activation protein; DPP, dipeptidyl peptidase; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; LiHMDS, lithium hexamethyldisilazide; DBU, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene; EDC, 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide; TFA, trifluoroacetic acid; LC-MS, liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry; SAR, structure-activity relationship; HOBt, N-hydroxybenzotrizole.

in patients with type 2 diabetes.23,24 Therefore, inhibition of DPP-IV prolongs the action of GLP-1, which offers a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes. Antidiabetic efficacy has been demonstrated clinically with DPP-IV inhibitors; sitagliptin 1 (MK-0431) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,10 and vildagliptin 2 (LAF237) was approved for use in the European market (Figure 1).9 Dipeptidyl peptidase II (DPP-II, EC 3.4.14.2) is believed to be involved in the physiological breakdown of some prolinecontaining neuropeptides and in the degradation of collagen and substance P.25,26 Using 1-[(S)-2,4-diaminobutanoyl]piperidine as lead compound, Senten et al. developed a series of potent and selective DPP-II inhibitors.12,13 The representative DPP-II inhibitor 3 (Figure 1) showed IC50 = 0.23 nM and a high selectivity toward DPP-IV (IC50 = 345 μM, Table 1).13 Our studies found that compound 3 was inactive toward FAP, DPP8, and DPP9 (Table 1). These selective DPP-II inhibitors are outstanding tools to determine the physiological function of DPP-II and the therapeutic potential of DPP-II inhibitors. Dipeptidyl peptidase 8/9 (DPP8/9) are cytoplasmic proteases with a 51% homology in amino acid level with DPPIV.27 Previously, the administration of selective DPP8/9 inhibitor 4 (Figure 1) may be associated with profound toxicities in preclinical species, which included alopecia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, enlarged spleen, multiple histological pathologies, and animal mortality shown in rats.28 Highly specific and potent DPP8/9 inhibitors were also developed by Jiaang et al. The representative DPP8/9 inhibitor 5 (also called 1G244, Figure 1) had IC50 values of 14 and 53 nM against DPP8 and DPP9, respectively (Table 1).14 It did not inhibit DPP-IV, FAP, or DPP-II, with IC50 values greater than 100 μM. Recently, by using this potent and selective DPP8/9 inhibitor,
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Published on Web 08/18/2010

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Wu et al. show that the inhibition is not associated with any animal toxicity.29

Previously, N- and RC-substituted Gly-boro-Pro derivatives have been developed, and these compounds strongly inhibited DPP-IV, DPP7 (DPP-II), and FAP. In this class, a representative compound is Val-boroPro 6 (Figure 1), having IC50 of <40 nM against all the three DPPs (Table 1).15 On the basis of FAP’s preference for Gly-Pro-based endopeptidase substrates, Tran et al. developed a series of N-acyl-Gly-, N-acyl-Sar- (sarcosine), and N-blocked-boroPro derivatives. Representative compound in this class was inhibitor 7 (Figure 1), which preferentially inhibited FAP versus DPPIV, but the selectivity against DPP-II, DPP8, and DPP9 was not reported (Table 1).16 In our studies, this compound had weak inhibitory activity against DPP8 and DPP9 (11 and 6.5 μM, respectively) and was inactive toward DPP-II (Table 1). In this paper, we report a systematic search for potent and selective FAP inhibitors. A structure-activity relationship was investigated starting from L-homoglutamic acid 8 (Figure 2), a dual DPP-V and FAP inhibitor (IC50 = 10 and 54 nM, respectively), as a lead compound (Table 1).30 To develop selective FAP inhibitors, introduction of ring constraint in the P2 portion of lead 8 and modification of the P2 site secondary amine to amide were done as depicted in Figure 2. The replacement of secondary amine with amide is based on the fact that FAP acts as both prolin-specific endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase, but DPP-IV prefers to display the latter activity.8,16,31 Further exploration of the 2-position pyrrolidine derivatives (P1 site) and the 4-position amine substituents at the carbonylmethyl group (P2 site) led to the discovery of potent pyroglutamic acid-based FAP inhibitors with a high selectivity for FAP over DPP-IV, DPP-II, DPP8, and DPP9. Chemistry

Figure 1. DPP-IV inhibitors 1 and 2, DPP-II inhibitor 3, DPP8/9 inhibitors 4 and 5, nonselective inhibitor 6, and FAP inhibitor 7.
Table 1. Potency and Selectivity of Compounds 1-8

Reference compounds N-acyl-Gly-boroPro 9 and N-acylGly-cyanoPro 10 were prepared according to the literature
IC50 (μM)a

compd 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
a

name sitagliptin vildagliptin DPP-II selective DPP8/9 selective 1G-244 nonselective FAP selective 1G-409

FAP >100 >100 ND >100 >100 >100 0.011 0.008 0.12 0.054

DPP8 >100 14 ND >100 0.15 0.014 ND ND 11 0.36

DPP9 >100 1.2 ND >100 0.24 0.053 ND ND 6.5 0.089

DPP-II >100 >50 0.00023 0.005 >100 >100 0.038 ND >100 2.6

DPP-IV 0.023 0.056 345 >100 >100 >100 0.0003 23 8.0 0.010

referenceb this study this study 13 this study this study this study 15 16 this study this study

Mean values of at least three experiments; standard deviations are (20%. ND, no data. b “This study” means in-house data.

Figure 2. Design of 4-carboxymethylpyroglutamic acid diamides as FAP inhibitors.

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Scheme 1. Synthesis of C(4)-Substituted Pyroglutamate Ester Urethanesa

a

Reagents: (a) DIEPA, CH2Cl2; (b) (Boc)2O, 4-DMAP, CH2Cl2; (c) LHMDS, THF, -78 °C; (d) DBU, CH2Cl2, 0 °C to room temp.

Scheme 2. Synthesis of FAP Inhibitors 17-22, 24, 27, and 30a

Reagents: (a) H2, Pd/C, MeOH; (b) EDC,HOBt, CH2Cl2/1,4-dioxane, various amines; (c) POCl3, imidazole, pyridine; (d) TFA, CH3CN, 0 °C to room temp; (e) BCl3.
a

procedures with some modifications.9,16 (2S)-Cyanopyrrolidine analogues 17-19, 24, 27, 30, and 31 were prepared as described in Schemes 1 and 2 and are listed in Tables 2 and 3. The synthesis (Scheme 1) proceeded in good yield following the procedure of Young and co-workers to afford the fully protected pyroglutamate 13.32 The stereoselective alkylation using lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) and tert-butyl bro-

moacetate 14 gave compound 15 in 70% yield with a cis/trans ratio of 3:1. The cis isomer 15 was treated with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) in methylene chloride for 24 h to give inverted product in a 1:3 ratio and high yield. The assignment of the cis/trans configuration was based on the results reported in the literature.33,34 By use of the building block of C(4)substituted pyroglutamate ester urethanes cis- and trans-15,

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Table 2. Inhibition of FAP, DPP-IV, DPP8, DPP9, and DPP-II by Compounds 9, 10, 17, and 31

a

Mean values of at least three experiments; standard deviations are (20%.

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Table 3. Inhibition of FAP, DPP-IV, DPP8, DPP9, and DPP-II by Compounds 17-20, 24, 27, 30, and 32

Tsai et al.

a

Mean values of at least three experiments; standard deviations are (20%.

pyroglutamic acid-based FAP inhibitors were synthesized. As shown in Scheme 2, the fully protected pyroglutamate trans15 was deprotected by standard hydrogenation condition and was 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC)coupled with pyrrolidine derivatives to give tert-butyl esters 23 and 2517 or followed by dehydration of the amides to give 16.9,35 Removal of the tert-butyl protecting group of 16, 23, and 25 with trifluoroacetic acid followed by EDC coupling with primary or secondary amines provided the desired (2S)cyanopyrrolidine analogues 17-19, thiazolidine 24, and boronic ester 26, respectively. The free boronic acid 27 was obtained through acid catalyzed transesterification of boronic ester 26 with boron trichloride.17 The synthesis of cis-31 from cis-15 was identical to that of trans-17 from trans-15. The proposed mechanism for the formation of byproducts 20-22 is that the nitrile group of 17-19 trapped the tert-butyl carbocation followed by hydrolysis to produce amide compounds 20-22, respectively. Therefore, the search for scavengers of alkylating agents is required. When the thioanisole was used as a scavenger for the intermediate carbocation, its

ability to suppress the formation of 20-22 was not effective. The more promising result was observed when acetonitrile (CH3CN) was applied as cosolvent with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and thus, the nitrile group of CH3CN participated in the reaction by acting as acceptor of the leaving tert-butyl cation. As expected, this approach slashed the yield of 20-22 and produced another byproduct N-tert-butylacetamide (Mw = 115, detected by LC-MS). Compound 30 was prepared in five steps from the known building block 28, which was synthesized according to literature report (cis or trans configuration is not assigned).36 Results and Discussion To establish an optimized P2 site for FAP inhibition, C(4)substituted pyroglutamic acid based inhibitors with various amines were explored, including bicyclic ring system (17a-h), piperazine ring system (17i,j), monocyclic system (17l,m), and phenylamine (17n). These derivatives described above were tested for inhibition of FAP, DPP-IV, DPP8, DPP9, and DPP-II, and the data are summarized in Table 2. Patent search found that

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N-acyl-Gly-boroPro 9 is a potent FAP inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM.37 In our study, the reference compound 9 has an IC50 of 19 nM for the inhibition of FAP and is inactive toward DPP-IV and -II (IC50 greater than 20 and 100 μM, respectively), but this compound shows moderate inhibition against DPP8 and DPP9 (3.7 and 2.7 μM, respectively). A structure-activity relationship (SAR) work was carried out by replacing the boronic acid moiety of 9 with a cyano group. This work has led to the identification of N-acylGly-cyanoPro 10 (FAP, IC50 = 0.61 μM), which is 30-fold less potent than 9 and inactive toward the other related enzymes. In the pyroglutamic acid series of compounds, we started initially with the bicyclic system using the isoquinoline ring. Compound 17a (trans configuration) inhibited FAP with an IC50 value of 79 nM and inactive toward DPP-IV, DPP-II, DPP8, and DPP9 (IC50 > 100 μM). The cis epimer 31 was around 3-fold less potent than trans-17a. Therefore, a focused structure-activity profiling effort was initiated by modifying the P2 site amine of trans isomer 17a. The introduction of chloro (17b), fluoro (17c), or trifluoromethyl (17d) substituent at the 5-position of the isoindoline gave similar potency (IC50 ≈ 66-110 nM) compared to 17a. When the isoindoline moiety of 17a was replaced with isoquinoline, compound 17e showed a similar level of FAP inhibition as seen for 17a. Further modification carried out with heterobicyclic building blocks, such as 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-c]pyridine 17f, imidazopyrazine 17g, and triazolopyrazine derivative 17h, led to at least a 3-fold decrease in FAP inhibitory potency compared to lead compound 17a. Compound 17h is the least potent FAP inhibitor in the bicyclic ring system with an IC50 value of 15 μM. Replacement of the bicyclic ring system with piperazine derivatives, such as 1-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazine 17i and 1-pyridin-4-ylpiperazine 17j, led to no improvement in FAP potency. Among them, the potency of more polar 1-pyridin-4ylpiperazine 17j gave a relatively low IC50 of 3.2 μM. On the basis of the results of 17h (bicyclic system) and 17j (piperazine system), it seemed that polar substituents at the P2 site would be detrimental to potency; compound 17h had weak inhibition (IC50 > 10 μM), and compound 17j exhibited low micromolar activity against FAP. Compound 17k with a 4-chlorophenyl substituent at the 4-position of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine is a close analogue of 17i. This compound showed 2.5-fold more potency than 17i. As for the effects of monocyclic system, pyrrolidine 17l (IC50 = 73 nM) is equipotent with bicyclic 17a as FAP inhibitors. However, replacement of the pyrrolidine ring of 17l with the piperidine (17m, IC50 = 730 nM) led to a marked 10-fold decrease in potency. Next, when we brought the nitrogen out of the ring system, the aniline 17n dramatically decreased the inhibitory activity against FAP (IC50 > 20 μM). Therefore, the nitrogen out of the ring system was not further modified. In general, these active FAP inhibitors 17a-n were inactive toward DPP-IV, DPP8, DPP9, and DPP-II (IC50 > 20 μM). After optimizing the P2 portion, we turned our attention to the P1 portion of the molecule. The requirements of the S1 pocket for FAP inhibition were explored by keeping isoindoline as the 4-position substituent and varying the 2-position substituent. Their inhibitory properties are shown in Table 3. Incorporation of the (4S)-fluoro substituent at the (2S)-2cyanopyrrolidine ring (18a, IC50 = 20 nM) led to a 4-fold increase in FAP inhibitory activity compared to that of unsubstituted analogue (17a, IC50 = 79 nM). However, introduction of a chloro substituent at the 5-position of isoindoline

Figure 3. Inactive 4-alkyl substituted pyroglutamic acid amides.

ring (18b) showed a decrease in activity (IC50 = 63 nM). Compound 19 with a 4,4-difluoro substituent at the 2-cyanopyrrolidine ring exhibited very similar potency to monofluoro substituted 18a. Changing the 2-position substituent of pyroglutamic acid from 2-cyanopyrrolidine 18a to thiazolidine 24a or pyrrolidine 24b lacking a nitrile moiety showed no significant inhibition toward FAP (IC50 > 50 μM). All of the active FAP inhibitors shown in Table 3 were inactive toward the other related enzymes except boroproline 27. Even though 27 showed a potent FAP inhibition (IC50 = 31 nM), it also exhibited strong inhibitory activity against the other DPP enzymes (IC50 values ranged from 400 to 600 nM). So far, from our studies and literature reports, we found that inhibitors of DPPs containing proline boronic acid (boro-Pro) in the P1 site cause poor selectivity of the inhibitors. Compound 20 is a byproduct in the synthesis of compound 17a. We also investigated the effect of carboxylic acid tert-butylamide at the 2-position of pyrrolidine. The bulky amide 20 was inactive against FAP and the other DPP enzymes (IC50 > 100 μM). As for no substituent amide 32 was also inactive toward all the DPP enzymes. It means that dipeptides containing prolinamide in the P1 site cannot be well tolerated by FAP. In comparison with 17a, 4-carboxypyroglutamic acid diamide 30, shortened by one carbon at the 4-position of 17a, caused no significant inhibition against FAP (IC50 > 20 μM) and the other DPP enzymes (IC50 > 50 μM). In addition, we introduced less polar alkyl groups, such as benzyl (33) and 3-methylbut-2-enyl (34) groups, to replace the 2-(1,3-dihydroisoindol2-yl)-2-oxoethyl moiety of the lead 17a at the 4-position of pyroglutamic acid diamide, but none of them showed significant inhibition against FAP (Figure 3, see Supporting Information for details). Next, we measured the inhibition constant Ki of potent compound 19 against FAP. Assessment of reaction progress curves in the presence of various concentrations of compound 19 revealed a clear, time-dependent approach toward steady state, which is characteristic of slow-binding inhibition kinetics, and the Ki value of 19 is 1.3 nM. In addition, the kinetic mechanism of the inhibition of FAP by the reference compound N-acyl-Gly-boroPro 9 was also determined. It showed a competitive inhibition pattern well-fitted to a Lineweaver-Burk plot, and its Ki value was estimated to be 7.9 nM (Figure 4).29 Inhibitors that possessed excellent potency and selectivity profiles were selected for plasma pharmacokinetic screening in mice, and the data are summarized in Table 4. 4-Fluoropyrrolidine derivative 18a demonstrated short-to-moderate oral half-life (1.8 h), low oral bioavailability (12%), and relatively high clearance (94 (mL/min)/kg). Introducing a 3-chloro substituent at the isoindoline gave compound 18b, which showed reduction of total body clearance (55 (mL/min)/kg) and prolonged oral half-life (t1/2 = 3.6 h) compared to 18a. On the other hand, although compound 18b had a very low oral bioavailability (F = 0.7%), it had a very long half-life (t1/2 (iv) = 13.3 h) and a favorable drug exposure (AUC) after iv dosing. Therefore, compound 18b can be selected as an iv route in

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Figure 4. Determination of the Ki values for compounds 9 and 19 against human recombinant FAP (hFAP): (A) competitive inhibition of hFAP by compound 9; (B) slow-binding kinetics for the inhibition of hFAP by compound 19. One representative experiment is shown in both panels A and B.
Table 4. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Selected FAP Inhibitors in Mice intravenous (dose, 2 mg/kg) compd 18a 18b 19 CLP (mL/min/kg) 94 58 87 T1/2 (h) 2 13.3 0.8 AUC (ng/(mL 3 h)) 460 593 495 Cmax (ng/mL) 210 21 108 oral (dose, 20 mg/kg) T1/2 (h) 1.8 3.6 3.9 AUC ng/(mL 3 h) 408 43 336 F (%) 12 0.7 10

animal models for therapeutic target validation of FAP. The 4,4-difluoropyrrolidine analogue 19 exhibited similar clearance, po AUC, and oral bioavailability to 4-fluoropyrrolidine 18a. On the contrary, compound 19 showed 2-fold longer oral half-life (3.9 h) and lower Cmax than 18a (1.8 h). An analysis of the mouse pharmacokinetic data from the selected FAP inhibitors indicated a strong trend where a more hydrophobic chloro substituent at the isoindoline (18b) has a considerably lower plasma clearance and longer half-life after iv dosing and led to a compound with low Cmax and oral bioavailability after oral dosing. Conclusions By introduction of ring-constraint in the lead compound 8 and carrying out SAR studies in a series of substituted 4-carboxymethylpyroglutamic acid diamides, some potent and selective FAP inhibitors have been discovered. Notable among these are compounds 18a and 19 with a 4-fluoro substituent at the P1 site pyrrolidine ring, which are IC50 = 20 nM FAP inhibitors with excellent selectivity profile over DPP-IV, DPPII, DPP8, and DPP9 (IC50 > 50 μM). The SAR suggests that the polar substituents at the P2 site (17h and 17j) would be detrimental to potency and that shortening by one carbon at the 4-position of pyroglutamic acid diamide (30) results in a loss in FAP inhibitory potency (IC50 > 20 μM). Our kinetic analyses demonstrated that compound 19 is a slow-binding inhibitor of FAP with Ki value of 1.3 nM. A survey of mouse pharmacokinetic parameters showed that selected compounds 18a,b and 19 showed poor oral availability in mice. However, 18b has a longer half-life, lower total body clearance, and favorable drug exposure (AUC) after iv treatment. Thus, compound 18b can be dosed as iv route to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of FAP inhibitors in vivo. Experimental Section
All commercial chemicals and solvents are reagent grade and were used without further treatment unless otherwise noted. 1H

NMR spectra were obtained with a Varian Mercury-300 spectrometer operating at 300 or 400 MHz. Chemical shifts were recorded in parts per million (ppm, δ) and were reported relative to the solvent peak or TMS. High-resolution mass spectra (HRMS) were measured with a Finnigan (MAT-95XL) electron impact (EI) mass spectrometer. LC-MS data were measured on an Agilent MSD-1100 ESI-MS/MS System. Microanalyses were carried out on a Heraeus VarioIII-NCH analyzer. Flash column chromatography was done using silica gel (Merck Kieselgel 60, no. 9385, 230-400 mesh ASTM). Reactions were monitored by TLC using Merck 60 F254 silica gel glass backed plates (5 cm ? 10 cm). Zones were detected visually under ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) or by spraying with phosphomolybdic acid reagent (Aldrich) followed by heating at 80 °C. All starting materials and amines were commercially available unless otherwise indicated. Purity of target compounds were over 95% based on reversed-phase HPLC analyses (Chromolith performance RP-18e 4.6 mm ?100 mm column) under the two elution conditions. Condition A was 40:60 MeOH-H2O, and condition B was 70:30 MeOH-H2O. The flow rate was 0.2 mL/min, and the injection volume was 5 μL. The system operated at 25 °C. Peaks were detected at λ = 220/254 nm. Benzyl (2S,4S)-N-tert-Butoxylcarbonyl-4-tert-butoxycarbonylmethypyrglutamate (trans-15) and Benzyl (2S,4R)-N-tert-Butoxylcarbonyl-4-tert-butoxycarbonylmethypyrglutamate (cis-15). Benzyl (2S)-N-tert-butoxylcarbonylpyrglutamate 1332 (628 mg, 2 mmol) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF, 10 mL) and cooled to -78 °C, with stirring under nitrogen. LiHMDS (1.0 M in THF, 2.2 mL, 4.4 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 min, and stirring was continued for 1 h. tert-Butyl bromoacetate 14 (0.32 mL, 4.0 mmol) was added dropwise over 3 min, and stirring was continued at -78 °C for 2 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and extracted into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with water and saturated aqueous sodium chloride and dried (MgSO4). The solvent was removed in vacuo to give a brown oil, which was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (eluted with hexane/CH2Cl2/EA = 4/5/1) to yield the desired compounds trans-15 (130 mg, 15%) and cis-15 (390 mg, 45%) as white crystalline solids. trans-15: mp 89-91 °C. [R]24 -24.0 D (c 0.2, CH2Cl2). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.22 and 5.17 (AB quartet, J = 12.0 Hz, 2H), 4.62 (dd, J = 9.6, 1.2 Hz,

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1H), 3.10-2.90 (m, 1H), 2.78 (dd, J = 17.0, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 2.39 (dd, J = 17.0, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.32 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 2.16-2.02 (m, 1H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.40 (s, 9H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C23H31NO7: 433.49. Found: 456.1 (M ? Na?). cis-15: mp 70-72 °C. [R]24 -15.3 D (c 0.2, CH2Cl2). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.36 (m, 5H), 5.22 and 5.17 (AB quartet, J = 12.0 Hz, 2H), 4.55 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.05-2.90 (m, 1H), 2.84 (dd, J = 17.0, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 2.60-2.70 (m, 1H), 2.34 (dd, J = 16.7, 10.0 Hz, 1H), 1.74-1.64 (m, 1H), 1.43 (m, 18H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C23H31NO7: 433.49. Found: 456.2 (M ? Na?). Isomerization from cis-15 to trans-15.34 The cis-15 (433 mg, 1 mmol) was dissolved in CH2Cl2 and cooled to 0 °C. DBU (0.44 mL, 3 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture stirred at 0 °C for 30 min and then at room temperature for 24 h. The mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 and washed once each with 1 N HCl and water. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give the crude product, which was purified by column chromatography as described above to yield trans-15 (292 mg, 68%) and recovered cis-15 (100 mg, 23%). General Procedure for the Synthesis of Compounds 16, 23, 25, and 29. To a solution of compound 15 or 28 (1.0 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL) was added 5% palladium on carbon under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The mixture was stirred vigorously under an atmosphere of hydrogen for 5 h at room temperature. The mixture was filtered through Celite and concentrated in vacuo to give (2S,4S)-N-tert-butoxylcarbonyl-4-tert-butoxycarbonylmethypyrglutamic acid or (2S,4S)-N-tert-butoxylcarbonyl-4-tert-butoxycarbonylpyrglutamic acid as a pale yellow oil. The crude acid was used for the next reaction without further purification. To a solution containing this acid (343 mg, 1.0 mmol) and N-hydroxybenzotrizole (HOBt, 168 mg, 1.1 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added a solution of EDC (211 mg, 1.1 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 10 min at room temperature. To the resulting solution was added the appropriate proline derivatives (L-prolinamide, (2S,4S)-4fluoroprolinamide,35 (2S)-4,4-difluoroprolinamide,35 thiazolidine or prolineboronic ester,17 1.2 equiv) in CH2Cl2 (4 mL), with stirring. After 2 h, the reaction mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (10 mL), 1 N aqueous citric acid solution (10 mL), and brine (10 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The crude prolinamides 16 and 29 and thiazolidine 23 were used for the next reaction without further purification. The crude boronic ester 25 was purified over silica gel using hexane/EA (7:3) as an eluant to yield the desired compound 25 (92%, two steps) as a colorless oil. To a mixture of the prolinamide 16 or 29 (1.6 mmol) and imidazole (0.12 g, 1.8 mmol) in pyridine (5 mL) cooled to -20 °C was added phosphoryl chloride (0.64 g, 4.2 mmol) under nitrogen. After being stirred for 30 min at -20 °C, the mixture was evaporated to dryness in vacuo. The resulting browm solid was dissolved in CH2Cl2 (40 mL) and washed with 1.0 N aqueous citric acid (40 mL). The organic phase was dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield the crude material as a viscous oil. The crude material was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluted with hexane/EA = 2/1) to give the corresponding nitrile 16 or 29 (>90%) as a white powder. Only the data of representative compounds are shown. (2S,4S)-3-tert-Butoxycarbonylmethyl-5-((2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-2-oxopyrrolidine-1-carboxylic Acid tert-Butyl Ester (16a). Mp 160-162 °C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.83 (dd, J = 6.9, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (dd, J = 9.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.79-3.58 (m, 2H), 3.22-3.06 (m, 1H), 2.74 (dd, J = 17.1, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 2.50 (dd, J = 17.0, 8.1 Hz, 1H), 2.04-2.40 (m, 6H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.44 (s, 9H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C21H31N3O6: 421.49. Found: 444.1 (M ? H?), 266.0 (M - (Boc)-(tert-butyl) ? H?). (2S,4S)-3-tert-Butoxycarbonylmethyl-5-((2S,4S)-2-cyano-4fluoropyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-2-oxopyrrolidine-1-carboxylic Acid tert-Butyl Ester (16b). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 5.53 (br t,

J = 3.3 Hz, 0.5H), 5.38 (br s, 0.5H), 5.04 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 1H), 4.64 (dd, J = 12.0, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 4.18-3.83 (m, 2H), 3.20 (m, 1H), 2.78-2.10 (m, 6H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.45 (s, 9H). (3R)-3-tert-Butoxycarbonylmethyl-2-oxo-(5S)-5-[(2R)-2-((1S,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[6.1.1.02,6]dec-4-yl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl]pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic Acid tertButyl Ester (25). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.70 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.73-3.65 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.40 (m, 1H), 3.29 (dd, J = 9.0, 7.2 Hz, 1H), 3.17-3.06 (m, 1H), 2.77 (dd, J = 16.7, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 2.42-2.20 (m, 5H), 2.20-1.65 (m, 7H), 1.47 (s, 9H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.26 (m, 4H), 0.82 (s, 3H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C30H47BN2O8: 574.51. Found: 597.2 (M ? Na?), 419.1 (M - (Boc)-(tert-butyl) ? H?). 5-((2S)-2-Cyanopyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-2-oxo-pyrrolidine-1,3dicarboxylic Acid di-tert-Butyl Ester (29). Compound 29 is a single isomer (major). The absolute configuration of 29 at C-4 is not assigned. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.77 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 4.69 (dd, J = 9.2, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (td, J = 9.8, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 3.72-3.54 (m, 2H), 2.64-2.52 (m, 1H), 2.30-2.03 (m, 5H), 1.43 (s, 15H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H29N3O6: 407.46. Found: 430.1 (M ? Na?). General Procedure for the Synthesis of Compounds 17-19, 20-22, 24, 26, and 30. To a solution of compound 16, crude 23, 25, or 29 (2.0 mmol) in CH3CN (5 mL) at 0 °C was added TFA (5 mL) dropwise over 5 min. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum and crystallized with EA/ether to yield the corresponding acids. To a stirred solution of these acids (0.5 mmol) and HOBt (0.55 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (3 mL) was added a solution of EDC (105 mg, 0.55 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (3 mL). The mixture was stirred for 10 min at room temperature. The appropriate 1° or 2° amine (0.55 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (2 mL) was added with stirring. After 16 h, the reaction mixture was diluted with CH2Cl2 (30 mL) and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (30 mL), 1 N aqueous citric acid (30 mL), and brine (30 mL). The organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified over silica gel (eluting sequentially with CH2Cl2/MeOH = 98/2, 97/3, 96/4, and 95/5) to yield compounds 17-19 (75-80%) and byproducts 20-22 (5-10%) from 16, compound 24 (85%) from 23, and compound 30 (90%) from 29 as white solids or foam. The elution condition for crude 26 was EA/CH2Cl2 = 1/1 followed by EtOH/EA/CH2Cl2 = 5/45/50 to yield 26 (50%) from 25 as a pale brown foam. (2S)-1-{(2S, 4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17a). Mp 170 °C (dec). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (6/1 mixture of trans/ cis amide rotomers) δ 7.30-7.26 (m, 4H), 6.56 (s, 0.86H), 6.06 (s, 0.14H), 4.82-4.77 (m, overlapped with two singlet at 4.82, 4.77, 4.86H), 4.60 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 0.14H), 4.55 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 0.14H), 4.40 (dd, J = 3.0, 9.0 Hz, 0.86H), 3.61-3.04 (m, 2H), 3.02-2.88 (m, 2H), 2.68-2.36 (m, 3H), 2.29-2.12 (m, 4H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H22N4O3: 366.17. Found: 367.1 (M ? H?). Anal. Calcd for C20H22N4O3 3 H2O: C, 62.49; H, 6.29; N, 14.57. Found: C, 62.21; H, 6.14; N, 14.63. (2S)-1-{(2S,4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid tertButylamide (20). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): (2.6/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 8.05 (br s, 0.28H), 7.88 (br s, 0.28H), 7.56 (br s, 0.72H), 7.37-7.28 (m, 4H), 7.21 (br s, 0.72H), 4.90 (s, overlapped with H2O, 2H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 4.55 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.8 Hz, 0.72H), 4.39-4.32 (m, 1H), 4.10 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.4 Hz, 0.28H), 3.72-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.05-2.95 (m, 1H), 2.95-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.72-2.28 (m, 3H), 2.18-1.84 (m, 4H), 1.36 (s, 2.52H), 1.32 (s, 6.48H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C24H32N4O4: 440.54. Found: 441.2 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C22H33N4O4: 441.2502. Found: 441.2496. (2S)-1-{(2S, 4R)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (31). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): (6/1 mixture of trans/cis amide

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rotomers) δ 7.29-7.26 (m, 4H), 6.51 (s, 0.86H), 6.24 (s, 0.14H), 4.83-4.74 (m, 5H), 4.59-4.55 (m, 0.14H), 4.40-4.35 (m, 0.86H), 3.69-3.52 (m, 2H), 3.15-3.03 (m, 2H), 2.50-2.38 (m, 1H), 2.31-2.04 (m, 3H), 1.87-1.75 (m, 3H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H22N4O3: 366.17. Found: 367.1 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C20H22N4O3: 366.1692. Found: 366.1691. (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(5-Chloro-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17b). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (7/1 mixture of trans/ cis amide rotomers) δ 7.37-7.18 (m, 3.88H), 6.56 (s, 0.12H), 5.31-4.69 (m, 5H), 4.53 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 0.12H), 4.42 (dd, J = 2.1, 9.3 Hz, 0.88H), 3.61-3.57 (m, 2H), 3.01-2.87 (m, 2H), 2.57-2.18 (m, 7H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H21ClN4O3: 400.13. Found: 400.9 (M ? H?), 402.9 (M ? 2 ? H?). (2S)-1-{(2S,4S)-4-[2-(5-Fluoro-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17c). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): (7/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.24-7.19 (m, 1H), 7.02-6.95 (m, 2H), 6.70 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 0.88H), 6.18 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 0.12H), 4.83-4.72 (m, 4.88H), 4.61 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 0.12H), 4.51 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 0.12H), 4.39 (dd, J = 2.8, 8.8 Hz, 0.88H), 3.69-3.52 (m, 2H), 2.982.87 (m, 2H), 2.61-2.39 (m, 3H), 2.30-2.17 (m, 4H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H21FN4O3: 384.16. Found: 385.3 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C20H22N4O3: 366.1692. Found: 366.1691. (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(5-Trifluoromethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine2-carbonitrile (17d). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (7/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.60-7.55 (m, 2H), 7.42 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 0.88H), 6.55 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 0.12H), 4.90-4.83 (m, overlapped two singlet at 4.90, 4.83, 4.88H), 4.69 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 0.12H), 4.56 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.12H), 4.65 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 0.88H), 3.64-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.09-2.91 (m, 2H), 2.63-2.20 (m, 7H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C21H21F3N4O3: 434.16. Found: 435.0 (M ? H?). (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydro-2H-isoquinol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17e). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (7/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.28-7.12 (m, 4.88H), 6.54 (s, 0.12H), 4.84 (t like, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (s, 1H), 4.62 (s, 1H), 4.49 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 0.12H), 4.38 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 0.88H), 3.81-3.66 (m, 2H), 3.57-3.53 (m, 2H), 3.00-2.82 (m, 4H), 2.57-2.15 (m, 7H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H24N4O3: 380.18. Found: 381.0 (M ? H?). 2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(6,7-Dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17f). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (8/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.14 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 0.89H), 6.79 (dd, J = 3.3, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 6.43 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 0.11H), 4.82-4.80 (m, 0.89H), 4.72-4.44 (m, 2.22H, overlapped two singlet at 4.64, 4.56), 4.36 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 0.89H), 3.96-3.48 (m, 4H), 3.04-2.83 (m, 4H), 2.62-2.11 (m, 5H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C19H22N4O3S: 386.14. Found: 386.9 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C19H22N4O3S: 386.1413. Found: 386.1411. 2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-5-oxo-4-[2-Oxo-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]ethyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17g). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): (6/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.22 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 0.86H), 7.08 (s, 1H), 6.58 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 0.14H), 4.94-4.57(m, 3H), 4.47-4.46 (m, 0.14H), 4.32 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 0.86H), 4.113.92 (m, 4H, overlapped singlet at 4.01), 3.61-3.52 (m, 2H), 2.92-2.88 (m, 2H), 2.63-2.54 (m, 1H), 2.42-2.14 (m, 6H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C19H21F3N6O3: 438.16. Found: 439.1 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C19H21F3N6O3: 438.1627. Found: 438.1624. (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-5-Oxo-4-[2-oxo-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]ethyl]pyrrolidin-2yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17h). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 5.04-4.98 (m, 2H), 4.78 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.49 (dd, J = 3.0, 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.35-4.20 (m, 2H), 4.08-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.71-3.57 (m, 2H), 3.04-2.94 (m, 2H), 2.77-2.65 (m, 1H),

2.44-2.05 (m, 6H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C18H20F3N7O3: 439.16. Found: 440.0 (M ? H?). (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-[4-(4-Fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17i). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (7/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.27-6.85 (m, 4.88H), 6.27 (s, 0.12H), 4.834.82 (m, 0.88H), 4.60 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 0.12H), 4.48 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.12H), 4.36 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.88H), 3.80-3.55 (m, 6H), 3.102.91 (m, 6H), 2.56-2.47 (m, 2H), 2.38-2.17 (m, 7H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C22H26FN5O3: 427.20. Found: 428.0 (M ? H?). (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-[4-(Pyridine-4-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17j). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): (9/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 8.29 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 6.95 (s. 0.9H), 6.65 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 6.39 (s, 0.1H), 4.82-4.80 (m, 0.9H), 4.60 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 0.1H), 4.49 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 0.1H), 4.36 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 0.9H), 3.85-3.48 (m, 6H), 3.45-3.31 (m, 4H), 3.07-2.87 (m, 2H), 2.55-2.16 (m, 7H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C21H26N6O3: 410.21. Found: 411.3 (M ? H?), 433.3 (M ? 23?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C21H27N6O3: 411.2145. Found: 411.2144. (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3,6-dihydropyridin1(2H)-yl]-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine2-carbonitrile (17k). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (9/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.30 (s, 4H), 6.80 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 0.9H), 6.19 (s, 0.1H), 6.06 (br s, 0.5H), 5.99 (brs, 0.5H), 4.834.81 (m, 0.9H), 4.60 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 0.1H), 4.58 (d, J = 9.3 Hz, 0.1H), 4.36 (dd, J = 2.4, 9.3 Hz, 0.9H), 4.20 (brs, 1H), 4.13 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.82-3.52 (m, 4H), 3.02-2.87 (m, 2H), 2.59-2.46 (m, 4H), 2.39-2.14 (m, 5H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C23H25ClN4O3: 440.16. Found: 440.9 (M ? H?), 442.0 (M ? 2 ? H?). (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-5-Oxo-4-[2-oxo-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17l). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (13/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.41 (s, 0.93H), 6.74 (s, 0.07H), 4.83-4.80 (m, 0.93H), 4.67 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 0.07H), 4.51 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 0.07H), 4.42 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 0.93H), 3.60-3.56 (m, 2H), 3.45-3.39 (q like, J = 6.3 Hz, 4H), 2.95-2.76 (m, 2H), 2.48-2.15 (m, 7H), 1.99-1.80 (m, 4H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C16H22N4O3: 318.17. Found: 319.1 (M ? H?), 341.1 (M ? 23?). (2S)-1-[{(2S,4S)-5-Oxo-4-(2-oxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidine-2-yl}carbonyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (17m). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (8/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 6.72 (s, 0.89H), 6.10 (s, 0.11H), 4.74-4.84 (m, 0.89H), 4.56 (br d, J = 5.7 Hz, 0.11H), 4.45 (br d, J = 7.2 Hz, 0.11H), 4.36 (dd, J = 9.6, 3.0 Hz, 0.89H), 3.76-3.30 (m, 6H), 3.10-2.80 (m, 2H), 2.60-2.00 (m, 7H), 1.74-1.54 (m, 6H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C17H24N4O3: 332.40. Found: 333.1 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C17H25N4O3: 333.1927. Found: 333.1920. 2-[(3S,5S)-5-{[(2S)-2-Cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]carbonyl}-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl]-N-phenylacetamide (17n). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): (8/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 8.96 (s, 1H), 7.54 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.32-7.15 (m, 2.89H), 7.06 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.47 (s, 0.11H), 4.75-4.73 (m, 0.89H), 4.61 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 0.11H), 4.49 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 0.11H), 4.33 (dd, J = 2.8, 8.8 Hz, 0.89H), 3.50-3.47 (m, 2H), 3.03-2.95 (m, 1H), 2.76 (dd, J = 6.4, 15.2 Hz, 1H), 2.52 (dd, J = 6.4, 15.2 Hz, 1H), 2.40-2.04 (m, 6H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C18H20N4O3: 340.15. Found: 341.0 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C18H20N4O3: 340.1535. Found: 340.1531. (2S,4S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (18a). Mp 130 °C (dec). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): (7/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.28-7.25 (m, 4H), 7.23 (s, 0.88H), 6.28 (s, 0.12H), 5.54 (br s, 0.44H), 5.46 (br s, 0.06H), 5.36 (br s, 0.44H), 5.30 (br s, 0.06H), 5.09 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.88H), 4.84 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.12H), 4.80 (s, 2H), 4.75 (s, 2H), 4.57 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.12H), 4.38 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.88H), 3.393.76 (m, 2H), 3.02-2.78 (m, 2H), 2.67-2.25 (m, 5H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H21FN4O3: 384.16. Found: 385.0 (M ? H?).

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Anal. Calcd for C20H21FN4O3 3 H2O: C, 59.69; H, 5.76; N, 13.92. Found: C, 59.87; H, 5.51; N, 13.84. (2S,4S)-1-{(2S,4S)-4-[2-(5-Chloro-1,3-dihydroisoindol-2-yl)2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2carbonitrile (18b). Mp 164-166 °C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSOd6): (7/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 8.02 (s, 1H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.41-7.34 (m, 2H), 5.58 (s, 0.44H), 5.50 (s, 0.06H), 5.46 (s, 0.44H), 5.38 (s, 0.06H), 5.18 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.12 H), 5.05 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.88H), 4.82 (br s, 2H), 4.62 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 4.32 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 0.12H), 4.29 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 0.88H), 3.89 (br s, 1H), 3.82 (br s, 1H), 2.84-2.62 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.10 (m, 5H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H20ClFN4O3: 418.85. Found: 419.2 (M ? H?), 421.2 (M ? 2 ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C20H20ClFN4O3: 418.1208. Found: 418.1215. (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl}carbonyl)-4,4-difluoropyrrolidine-2carbonitrile (19). Mp 156 °C (dec). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSOd6): (6/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 8.03 (s, 0.86H), 7.97 (s, 0.14H), 7.36-7.25 (m, 4H), 5.37 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 0.14H), 5.09 (dd, J = 4.2, 8.4 Hz, 0.86H), 4.82 (s, 2H),4.62 (s, 2H), 4.32 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.25-4.04 (m, 2H), 2.93-2.66 (m, 4H), 2.492.05 (m, 3H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H20F2N4O3: 402.15. Found: 403.1 (M ? H?). Anal. Calcd for C20H20F2N4O3 3 H2O: C, 57.14; H, 5.27; N, 13.33. Found: C, 56.87; H, 5.17; N, 13.43. (3S,5S)-3-[2-(1,3-Dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-(1,3thiazolidin-3-ylcarbonyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (24a). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.30-7.26 (m, 4H), 6.96 (d, J = 10.2 Hz, 1H), 4.82 (s, 2H), 4.77 (s, 2H), 4.66-4.40 (m, 3H), 3.94-3.67 (m, 2H), 3.11 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 3.03-2.93 (m, 2H), 2.60-2.46 (m, 2H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 2H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C18H21N3O3S: 359.13. Found: 360.1 (M ? H?). (3S,5S)-3-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-(pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (24b). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.21-7.18 (m, 4H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 4.71 (d, J = 18.4 Hz, 4H), 4.26 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H), 3.45-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.962.85 (m, 2H), 2.50-2.19 (m, 3H), 1.93-1.73 (m, 4H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C19H23N3O3: 341.40. Found: 342.0 (M ? H?). (3R)-3-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-(5S)-5-[(2R)2-((1S,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[6.1.1.02,6]dec-4-yl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl]pyrrolidin-2-one (26). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.30-7.20 (m, 4H), 5.89 (s, 1H), 4.81 (s, 2H), 4.77 (s, 2H), 4.34 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.25 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.55-3.35 (m, 2H), 3.18 (br t, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.00-2.85 (m, 2H), 2.60-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.45-2.20 (m, 3H), 2.20-1.50 (m, 7H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.23 (m 4H), 0.78 (s, 3H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C29H38BN3O5: 519.44. Found: 520.2 (M ? H?), 542.2 (M ? Na?). (2R)-1-{(2S, 4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}pyrrolidine-2-boronic Acid (27).17 To a stirred solution of BCl3 (2.5 mL of a 1 M solution in CH2Cl2) in CH2Cl2 (5 mL) at -78 °C was added (?)-pinanediol [(1R)-1-acetamido-2-(1-naphthyl)ethyl]boronate (26, 135 mg, 0.26 mmol). The mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 0.5 h and the cooling bath then removed. The mixture was evaporated under vacuum. Water (30 mL) and Et2O (70 mL) were added, and the aqueous phase was separated and washed with Et2O (3 ? 10 mL). Lyophilization of the aqueous phase yielded crude 27, which was freed from the boric acid contaminant by successive treatments with MeOH (100 mL) followed by distillation until the distillate showed no green boron color in the flame when a drop was ignited. The remaining MeOH was removed by distillation under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in water (10 mL), washed with Et2O (3 ? 10 mL), and then lyophilized to give 27 (39 mg, 40%) as a pale yellow solid. Mp 100-101 °C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O): δ (4/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) 7.19-7.17 (m, 4H), 4.69-4.61 (m, 2H), 4.43 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 0.8H), 4.24 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 0.2H), 3.65-3.55 (m, 1H), 3.39-3.31 (m, 1H), 3.19 (s, 2H), 3.06-3.02 (m, 1H), 2.91-2.72 (m, 2H), 2.53-2.49 (m, 1H), 2.37-2.21 (m, 2H), 2.01-1.86 (m, 3H), 1.62-1.56 (m, 1H).

(2S)-1-[(2S)-4-(1,3-Dihydroisoindole-2-carbonyl)-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile (30). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ (major isomer) 7.30-7.21 (m, 4H), 6.86 (br s, 1H), 5.46 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 4.94-4.76 (m, 4H), 4.58 (dd, J = 8.6, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 3.85 (dd, J = 9.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70-3.56 (m, 2H), 3.16-3.04 (m, 1H), 2.34-2.08 (m, 5H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C19H20N4O3: 352.39. Found: 353.1 (M ? H?), 375.0 (M ? Na?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C19H20N4O3: 352.1535. Found: 352.1536. (2S)-1-({(2S,4S)-4-[2-(1,3-Dihydroisoindol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl}pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid Amide (32). The title compound was obtained as a white powder in a manner similar to the preparation of 17 except for dehydration step. Mp 150 °C (dec). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): (6/1 mixture of trans/cis amide rotomers) δ 7.34-7.28 (m, 4H), 4.914.86 (m, overlapped with one singlet at 4.88, 1H), 4.81 (s, 2H), 4.55 (dd, J = 9.4, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.50 (dd, J = 8.6, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 3.71-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.04-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.91 (dd, J = 16.6, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 2.65 (dd, J = 16.2, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 2.58-2.50 (m, 1H), 2.40-1.80 (m, 6H). MS (ES?) m/z calcd for C20H24N4O4: 384.43. Found: 385.1 (M ? H?). HRMS (FAB) calcd for C20H25N4O4: 385.1876. Found: 385.1871. Purification of Human Recombinant FAP, DPP-IV, DPP8, DPP9, and DPP-II from Insect Cells. All the human DPP enzymes used in this study and our previous publications are recombinant proteins expressed individually in insect cells by tagging with His-tag. DPP-IV and DPP8 were expressed and purified as described in our previously published method.38-41 Specifically, the purification of DPP9 was carried out with Strep-Tactin resin as we reported previously.42 FAP was purified and expressed as described previously.5 Specifically, the medium of recombinant FAP from Hi5 insect cells was collected and precipitated by adding 3.8 M ammonium sulfate up to 70% saturation. The pellet was resuspended in the binding buffer containing 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, with 500 mM NaCl and bound with the Ni-sepharose (Novagen). After the column was washed with the binding buffer containing 10 and 20 mM imidazole, FAP protein was eluted by 250 mM immidazole. The purification of DPP-II was carried out with modifications by ConA-sepharose and Q-sepharose HP chromatography.43 The culture medium of Hi5 cells expressing DPP-II was collected and adjusted pH to 7.4. It was loaded into ConAsepharose column and washed with 20 mM Tris, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, pH 7.4. DPP-II was eluted by 250 mM methyl mannopyranoside in 20 mM Tris-HCl, 500 mM NaCl, pH 7.4. The eluent of the ConA-sepharase column was buffer with 20 mM Tris, pH 7.4, with Amicon YM 30 membrane (Millipore). After binding to Q-sepharose HP column, DPP-II was eluted with 0-200 mM NaCl gradient. All the enzymatic preparations have purities of over 90% with a single predominant band on SDS-PAGE gel. Kinetic constants of each batch of the enzymes were measured, and they were similar to the reported values. IC50 Determination. The enzyme activities were assayed in a total volume of 100 μL for 30 min at 37 °C at an emission wavelength of 405 nm with Power Wave X spectrometer (BioTek Instrument, Inc., Winooski, VT). The IC50 values for DPP8, DPP9, and FAP were determined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) in the presence of 2.5 mM Gly-Pro-pNA, 1.5 mM Gly-Pro-pNA, and 1.5 mM Ala-Pro-pNA, respectively. The IC50 for DPP-IV was determined in 2 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0) in the presence of 500 μM Gly-Pro-pNA. The IC50 for DPP2 was determined in phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) in the presence of 1.5 mM Gly-Pro-pNA. The inhibitor concentrations ranged from 100 to 0.003 μM. IC50 values were computed with commercially available curve-fitting programs such as SigmaPlot. Inhibition Constant (Ki) Measurement. Ki was measured as described previously,29 with a Beckman DU 800 spectrophotometer (Beckman Coulter, Inc., Fullerton, CA). The assays were performed in PBS in a total volume of 100 μL with 20 nM FAP.

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Abrogation of fibroblast activation protein enzymatic activity attenuates tumor growth. Mol. Cancer Ther. 2005, 4, 351–360. Edosada, C. Y.; Quan, C.; Tran, T.; Pham, V.; Wiesmann, C.; Fairbrother, W.; Wolf, B. B. Peptide substrate profiling defines fibroblast activation protein as an endopeptidase of strict Gly(2)Pro(1)-cleaving specificity. FEBS Lett. 2006, 580, 1581–1586. Villhauer, E. B.; Brinkman, J. A.; Naderi, G. B.; Burkey, B. F.; Dunning, B. E.; Prasad, K.; Mangold, B. L.; Russell., M. E.; Hughes, T. E. 1-[[(3-Hydroxy-1-adamantyl)amino]acetyl]-2-cyano(S)-pyrrolidine: a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor with antihyperglycemic properties. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 2774–2789. Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G. J.; Fisher, M. H.; He, H.; Hickey, G. J.; Kowalchick, J. E.; Leiting, B.; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, M. E.; Patel, R. A.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S. B.; Roy, R. S.; Wu, J. K.; Wyvratt, M. J.; Zhang, B. B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N. A.; Weber, A. E. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]-triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: a potent, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 141–151. Shrikanth, H. H.; Manojit, P. Medicinal chemistry approaches to the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009, 17, 1783–1802. Senten, K.; Van der Veken, P.; De Meester, I.; Lambeir, A. M.; Scharp, S.; Haemers, A.; Augustyns, K. Design, synthesis, and e SAR of potent and selective dipeptide-derived inhibitors for dipeptidyl peptidases. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 5005–5014. Senten, K.; Van der Veken, P.; De Meester, I.; Lambeir, A. M.; Scharp, S.; Haemers, A.; Augustyns, K. Gamma-amino-substie tuted analogues of 1-[(S)-2,4-diaminobutanoyl]piperidine as highly potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase II inhibitors. J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 2906–2916. Jiaang, W. T.; Chen, Y. S.; Tsu, H.; Wu, S. H.; Chien, C. H.; Chang, C. N.; Chang, S. P.; Lee, S. J.; Chen, X. Novel isoindoline compounds for potent and selective inhibition of prolyl dipeptidase DPP8. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2005, 15, 687–691. Hu, Y.; Ma, L.; Wu, M.; Wong, M. S.; Li, B.; Corral, S.; Yu, Z.; Nomanbhoy, T.; Alemayehu, S.; Fuller, S. R.; Rosenblum, J. S.; Rozenkrants, N.; Minimo, L. C.; Ripka, W. C.; Szardenings, A. K.; Kozarich, J. W.; Shreder, K. R. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro inhibitors of DPP4, FAP, and DPP7. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2005, 15, 4239–4242. Tran, T.; Quan, C.; Edosada, C. Y.; Mayeda, M.; Wiesmann, C.; Sutherlin, D.; Wolf, B. B. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-acyl-Gly-, N-acyl-Sar- and N-blocked-boroPro inhibitors of FAP, DPP4, and POP. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2007, 17, 1438–1442. Martichonok, V.; Jones, J. B. Probing the specificity of the serine proteases subtilisin Carlsberg and R-chymotrypsin with enantiomeric 1-acetamido boronic acids. An unexpected reversal of the normal “L”-stereoselectivity preference. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 950–958. Nauck, M. A.; Wollschlager, D.; Werner, J.; Holst, J. J.; Orskov, C.; Creutzfeldt, W.; Willms, B. Effects of subcutaneous glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1 [7-36 amide]) in patients with NIDDM. Diabetologia 1996, 39, 1546–1553. Drucker, D. J. Biological actions and therapeutic potential of the glucagon-like peptides. Gastroenterology 2002, 122, 531–544. Wettergren, A.; Schjoldager, B.; Mortensen, P. E.; Myhre, J.; Christiansen, J.; Holst, J. J. Truncated GLP-1 (proglucagon 78107-amide) inhibits gastric and pancreatic functions in man. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1993, 38, 665–673. Nauck, M. A. Is GLP-1 an incretin hormone? Diabetologia 1999, 42, 373–379. Egan, J.; Clocquet, A. R.; Elahi, D. The insulinotropic effect of acute exendin-4-administered to humans: comparison of nondiabetic state to type 2 diabetes. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002, 87, 1282–1290. Gutniak, M.; Orskov, C.; Holst, J. J.; Ahren, B.; Efendic, S. Antidiabetogenic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992, 326, 1316–1322. Gutniak, M. K.; Linde, B.; Holst, J. J.; Efendic, S. Subcutaneous injection of the incretin hormone glucagons-like peptide 1 abolishes postprandial glycemia in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994, 17, 1039–1044. Andersen, K. J.; McDonald, J. K. Lysosomal heterogenity of dipeptidyl peptidase II active on collagen-related peptides. Renal Physiol. Biochem. 1989, 12, 32–40. Mentlein, R.; Struckhoff, G. Purification of two dipeptidyl peptidases II from rat brain and their action on proline-containing neuropeptides. J. Neurochem. 1989, 52, 1284–1293.

For the competitive binding assays, the substrate concentrations were 312.5-2500 μM and the concentrations of reference compound 9 ranged from 0 to 40 nM. For the slow, tight binding assay of FAP, the concentration of the substrate was 500 μM, and the concentrations of compound 19 ranged from 0 to 70 nM. The hydrolysis of the Ala-Pro-pNA substrate was monitored continuously by measuring the light emission at 405 nm for 30 min. The data were fitted to slow-binding inhibition as previously reported.29 The Ki values are represented as the average of three independent experiments. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Selected Compounds in Mice. The Balb/c mice for the pharmacokinetic evaluation were obtained from BioLASCO Taiwan Co., Ltd., Ilan, Taiwan, R. O.C., and housed in the animal facility at the National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan, R.O.C. The animal studies were performed according to institutional animal care and committee-approved procedures. Male balb/c mice, each weighing 2535 g (each 6-8 weeks old), were quarantined for 1 week before use. The animals were fasted before treatment. The selected compounds were given to the groups of mice (n = 3 for each time point) as an intravenous (2 mg/kg) or oral (20 mg/kg) dose prepared in a mixture of DMSO/Cremophor/water (5/10/85, v/v/v) by tail-vein injection and orally by gavage. The volume of the dosing solution given was adjusted according to the body weight recorded before the drug was administered. At 0 (immediately before dosing), 2, 5 (intravenous only), 15, and 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h after dosing, a blood sample was taken from each animal via cardiac puncture and centrifuged at 3000g for 10 min to obtain plasma and then stored at -20 °C before analysis. The analyses of the plasma samples were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The plasma concentration data were analyzed with a standard noncompartmental method with the Kinetica software program (InnaPhase).

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Acknowledgment. The study was financially supported by National Health Research Institutes, National Research Program for Genomic Medicine (NRPGM), and National Science Council, Taiwan.
Supporting Information Available: Synthetic scheme and experimental details for the synthesis of compounds 33 and 34 and a figure for recombinant human DPP proteins purified. This material is available free of charge via the Internet at http:// pubs.acs.org.

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substituted acid 羟基酸 hydroxy acid 醇酸 alcoholic acid 酚酸 phenolic acid 酮酸 keto acid B-酮酸酯 B-ketone ester 乙酰乙酸乙醋 ethyl acetoacetate 亚硝基...
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1、 错 2、 对 学员答案:1 正确性:正确 题号:19 题型:是非题 本题分数:3.64 内容: Another actor has been substituted for the famous player, which ...
四级长难句分析
【分析】句子的主干是 it seemed "obvious" that ,that 之后引导一个很长的 主语从句;该从句的谓语动词有三个:changed, loosened, substituted. 【译文】几十...
常用中英文对照
The …for A addition to substituted B at 25℃ in benzene are summarized in Table XX. It is clear from these observations that… In the case of the...
最全会计专业术语中英文对照
Substituted money on VAT 出口退税 Tax reimbursement for export 进项税额转出 Changeover withnoldings on VAT 出口抵减内销产品应纳税额 Export deduct domestic ...
化学用语中英文对照(修订)
substituted acid 羟基酸 hydroxy acid 醇酸 alcoholic acid 酚酸 phenolic acid 酮酸 keto acid B-酮酸酯 B-ketone ester ketone 乙酰乙酸乙醋 ethyl acetoacetate...
英语
In manufacturing, cheaper materials are constantly being (substituted for)the more expensive ones. It was really very dangerous;you might have (injured)him...
阅读常见替换词
substitution=> substitute sth for sb /replace 45.alternative=>选择性的(selective/optional),代替性的 (replaceable/substituted), sequence=order秩序/ 46.孤立:...
语言学概论第二章
Besides, the term phoneme is used to refer to a speech sound that, when substituted for another, brings out a change in meaning. 举个例子,seed 和 ...
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