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英语(动词时态,语态讲解)3 11-11


辅导教案
学员编号: 学员姓名: 课 题 动词时态,语态讲解 1. 掌握中考涉及的 9 种时态知识点并能熟练运用、 2. 掌握被动语态考点并能熟练运用 ××年××月××日 教学内容 年 级: 课 时 数:3 学科教师:XX

辅导科目:英语

教学目的

授课日期

Step 1 四种时态学


1、四种时态的具体用法: (1)一般现在时 表示现阶段经常或习惯发生的动作或存在的状态,或说明主语的特征。 ① 一般现在时句子中常有的时间状语: often,usually,sometimes,always,every (day 等) , once/twice,a (week 等) , on (Sunday 等),never,in the (morning 等) 。如:They go to the Palace Museum once a year. / They often discuss business in the evening.(他们经常在晚上商谈生意) ② 表示客观真理、 事实、 人的技能或现在的状态时句子里一般不用时间状语。 如: The earth turns round the sun./ Light travels faster than sound. ③ 表示十分确定会发生 (如安排好的事情) 或按照时间表进行的事情,用一般现在可以表达将来,句子中可以有将来时 间。如:The train for Haikou leaves at 8:00 in the morning. ④ 在时间状语从句中(以 when, after, before, while, until, as soon as 等引导)和条件状语从句中(以 if,unless 引导), 用一般现在时代替一般将来时,句子可以有将来时间。 如: Please ring me up as soon as you arrive in Germany. / If it rains tomorrow,we will have to stay at home. ⑤ 一般现在时用于倒装句中可以表示正在发生的动作,动词以 come, go 为主。如:Here comes the bus. / There goes the bell. ⑥ 一般现在时常用于体育比赛的解说或寓言故事中。Now the midfield player catches the ball and he keeps it. ⑦ 人的心理活动和感官动作一般用一般现在时而不用现在进行时表达,常见动词有: like, love, hate, dislike, want, wish, hope, think (认为) ,understand, remember, forget, mean, need, hear, feel, see. 如: I think it is going to snow. / I really hope you can enjoy your stay here. (2)一般过去时 表示过去某时发生的动作或状态,这种动作或状态可能是一次性,也可能经常发生。 ① 表示过去具体时刻发生的一次性动作时,时间状语有: at (eight) (yesterday morning) , (ten minutes) ago, when 引导的时间状语从句。 如: I got up at 6: 00 this morning. / Little Tom broke the window at half past nine this morning./ When he went into the room,he saw a stranger talking with his father. ② 表示过去一段时间内不知何时发生的一次性动作时,时间状语有:yesterday, last (year 等), in (1998 等) 。如: He came to our city in the year 2000. ③ 表示过去一个阶段中经常发生的事情时 , 时间状语有: last…, in…, from…to…, for ( 10 years ) ,often,usually,
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sometimes, always, never 等。 如: Mr Jackson usually went to evening schools when he was young. / Every day he went to the rich man and borrowed books from him. ④ 讲故事、对过去经历的回忆、双方都明白的过去事件等一般用过去时,而且经常省略时间状语。如:I happened to meet Rose in the street. (3)一般将来时 表示将来某一时刻或经常发生的动作或状态。 ① 一般将来时的时间状语有:tomorrow,this (afternoon),next (year),one day,now,soon, someday,sometime, in the future, when 引导的从句等。 ② 用 will 构成的将来时,表示动作与人的主观愿望无关。 “shall” 用于第一人称“ , will” 用于所有人称。 如: I will graduate from this school soon./ You will stay alone after I leave. ③ “am/is/are going to+动词原形”表示打算或准备要做的事情,或者主观判断即将要发生的事情,而“am/is/are to + 动词原形” 表示安排或计划中的动作。 如: A man told them that the woman was to give birth to the special baby. / It’s going to rain soon. ④ 表示一个人临时决定要做某事,可以用 will 表达。 如: I will go to the lab to get some chemicals (化学药剂) . So please wait until I return. ⑤ 现在进行时、一般现在时也可以表示将来。 (见相应时态) ⑥ shall 和 will 在口语的一些疑问句中相当于情态动词。 Shall 一般与第一人称连用,will 与第二人称连用。如: Shall we go to the zoo next Saturday?/ Will you please open the door for me? ⑦ “be to +动词原形”表示按照计划将要发生的事情。如:An angel came to tell her that she was to have this special boy. (4)现在进行时 现在进行时表示现在正在进行的动作或是现阶段正发生而此刻不一定在进行的动作。 ① 现在进行时由“助动词 be (am is are) +现在分词”构成。 ② 现在进行时的时间状语有: now, this …, these…等,但经常不用。 如: What are you doing up in the tree?/ I am writing a long novel these days. ③ 表示即将发生的动作,一般指近期安排好的事情。 常见的动词有: come, go, stay, leave, spend, do 等。 如: I’m coming now. / What are you doing tomorrow? / He is leaving soon. ④ 表示频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与 always 等频度副词连用,以表示赞扬、不满或讨厌等感情色彩。如:He is always borrowing money from me and forgetting all about it some time later.

练一练

1. I will tell him as soon as he ________ back A. come B. comes C. will come D. came

2. Mary ________ on shoes when she ________ them. A. tries…buys B. tries… buies C. trys… buys D. trys… buies

3. The girl often ________ cold when she ________. A. cathcs… dances B. catches…dances C. catchs… dancees D. catches…dance

4. ________ he ________ himself there? No, I don't think so. A. Do…enjoy B. Does…enjoies C. Does…enjoys
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D. Does…enjoy
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5. ________ your teacher ________ from them very often? Certainly. A. Do…hear B. Does…hear C. Do…receive D. receive

6. ________ your mother ________ some cleaning on Sundays? A. Does…does B. Do…does C. Does…do D. Do…do

7. ________ Tom ________ to work hard to help his family? Yes, he ________. A. Has…x…does C. Does…has…has B. Has…x…does D. Does…have…does

8. Which teacher ________ lessons to you every day? A. does …gives B. does…give C. do…give D. gives

9. Smith does not go fishing on weekdays, ________? ________, he does. A. does he…No B. does he…Yes C. doesn't he…No D. doesn't he…Yes

10. Mr Black often ________ fishing on Sundays, ________ he? A. goes…doesn't C. doesn't go…does 11. He usually ________ TV on Sunday evening. A. watch B. watches C. watching D. is watching B. goes…isn't D. doesn't go…is

12. We'll go to play with snow if it ________ tomorrow. A. snow B. snows C. will snow D. snowed

13. Neither I nor he ________ French. A. speak B. doesn't speak C. speaks D. doesn't speak

14. Nobody ________ how to run this machines. A. know B. have known C. knows D. is knowing

15. The Young Pioneer ________ water for the old man every day. A. carry Keys: 1-5 BABDB 6-10 CDDBA 11-15 BBCCD B. bring C. takes D. carries

Step 2 五种时态及被动语态学习
1、五种时态的具体用法 (1)过去进行时 过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作。 ① 过去进行时由“was(第一、三人称单数)或 were(第二人称单数和各人称的复数)+现在分词”构成。
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② 过去进行时的时间状语有:then, at that time, this time yesterday, at (eight) yesterday (morning), (a year) ago, 以及由 when 引出的时间状语从句。 如: He was cooking supper this time yesterday./ The little girl was playing with her toy when I saw her. ③ 用于宾语从句或时间状语从句中,表示与主句动作同时进行而且是延续时间较长。句子中通常不用时间状语。如: She was it happen when she was walking past. / They sang a lot of songs while they were walking in the dark forest. ④ 也可以表示过去一个阶段频繁发生或反复进行的动作,常与 always 等频度副词连用,以表示赞扬、不满或讨厌等 感情色彩。如:He was always borrowing money from me when he lived here. (2)现在完成时 现在完成时表示一个发生在过去的、对现在仍有影响的动作,或表示开始在过去,并且一直延续 到现在,甚至还可能延续下去的动作。 ① 在完成时由“助动词 have (has)+动词的过去分词”构成。 ② 表示发生在过去的对现在仍有影响的动作时,时间状语有:already, yet, just, once, twice,ever, never,three times, before 等。如:I have never seen such fine pictures before. / He has just gone to England. ③ 表示在过去开始一直延续到现在 (可能延续下去) 的动作或状态时, 时间状语有: for (two years) ,since 1990, since (two weeks ago)和 since 引导的状语从句。如:I have been away from my hometown for thirty years./ Uncle Wang has worked in the factory since it opened. ④ 口语中 have got 往往表示 have(有)的意思。如:They have got thousands of books in their library. ⑤ have been to 与 have gone to 的区别:have gone to( “已经去了” )表示人不在这里,have been to( “去过” )表示 人在这里。 如: --Where is Mr Li? –He has gone to the UK. / --Do you know something about Beijing? –Yes,I have been to Beijing three times. ⑥ 在完成时中,一个瞬间性动词(一次性动作)不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,此时须将该瞬间动词改为延续性 动词或状态动词。具体变化见下表: 瞬间性动词的完成时 have (already) gone to… has come to… left… arrived… died begun ended bought... borrowed… joined… 或者使用下面这个句型: It is / has been + (多久)+ since + 主语(人)+谓语(过去时)+……+过去时间状 语 [注意] 在其它的时态中也存在类似问题,记住,关键是:瞬间动词不能和表达一段时间的状语连用。如:How long may I keep the book? (句子中 keep 取代了 borrow) (3)过去完成时 过去完成时表示过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的动作。简言之, 过去完成时所表 示的时间是“过去的过去” 。 ① 过去完成时由“助动词 had+动词的过去分词”构成。 ② 过去完成时时间状语有:by (yesterday), by then, by the end of (last…)或者由 when,before 等引出状语从句。
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延续性动词或状态动词的完成时 have has been in / at … been here been in… → been dead been on been over had… kept… been in … for (two years) since(1990)

(had)

(had) been away from…

有时句子中会有 already, just, once, ever, never 等词语,也会有 for… 或 since…构成的时间状语。如:They had already finished cleaning the classroom when their teacher came./ The woman had left before he realized she was a cheat. ③ 过去完成时常用于宾语从句中、after 引导的从句中,或者从句是 before 引导的主句中。如:After I had put on my shoes and hat,I walked into the darkness. / He said that he had never seen a kangaroo before. (4) 过去将来时 过去将来时表示在过去预计将要发生的动作或存在的状态。 ① 过去将来时由“助动词 should(第一人称)或 would(第二、三人称)+动词原形”构成。在美国英语中,过去 将来时的助动词一律用“would +动词原形” 。 ② 过去将来时常由于宾语从句中,时间状语有:later, soon, the next (day). ③ 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中不可以使用过去将来时, 而应该使用一般过去时。 如: He promised that he would pay me a lot if I helped him with the project. / Every time when he was free,he would sit down and read some books. ④ 表示纯粹的将来时用 would 或 should,表示打算或主观认为的事情用 was/were going to (+动词原形) 。 如: She told me she would be 18 the next month. / She told me that she was going to have a walk with her pet dog. ⑤ 过去将来时还可以表示一个过去经常性的动作。 如: When it rained in the day, he would bring an umbrella with him. (5)现在完成进行时 现在完成进行时指一个从过去就开始一直延续到现在并由可能继续下去的动作,它具有现在 完成时和现在进行时双重特征, 结构是: “have/has + been +动词的现在分词” 。 如: I have been swimming in the cold water for about two hours. / How long have you been waiting here? 2、被动语态 (1)被动语态定义:被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,用来说明主语与谓语动词之间的关系。如果主语是动作的 执行者(即某人做某事) ,便叫主动语态;如果主语是动作的承受者(即某事被做) ,便叫被动语态。主动与被动的区 别不是词序的区别, 而是主语与谓语意义上的区别。 在英语中只有及物动词和一些相当于及物动词的词组才有被动语 态的形式。 (2)英语中被动语态由“助动词 be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词 be 有时态、人称和数的变化。被动语态后的 by 短语有时可省去。具体结构见下表: 现在时态 一般现在时 现在进行时 am is are 一 般 将 来 时 现在完成时 am is 谓语动词 are 构 成 will + be+p.p. +being+p.p. am have(has) + is + going to + be + been+p.p. p.p. are 过 去 将 来 时 过去完成时 would +be+p.p. + being + was had +been+ + going to + be + p.p. p.p. were

+p.p.

过去时态 一般过去时 was 谓语动词 构 成 were

过 去 进 行 时 was

+p.p.
p.p. were

[注] p.p.表示过去分词。 (1)被动语态的用法: ① 不知道谁是动作的执行者 (即不知道谁做) 时用被动语态, 省略 by 短语。 如: A man was killed in the accident./ This window was broken yesterday. ② 不说或者众所周知是谁做时, 用被动语态, 省略 by 短语。 如: Rice is also grown in this place. / A railroad will be built here in three years. ③ 强调动作的承受者,句尾加 by 短语。如:It was written by Lu Xun./ A pet dog is never killed by its owner. (2)主动语态如何改写为被动语态:
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主动句:

主语(人/物) + 谓语(及物动词) + 宾语(人/物) + 其他 + 状语 (动作的执行者) (各种时态形式) (动作的承受者)

被动句:

主语(人/物) + 谓语(及物动词) + by +人 / 物 + 其他 + 状语 (动作的承受者) (be +过去分词) (动作的执行者)

(3) 注意点: ① “动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”改为被动时,可以用间接宾语做被动句的主语。如: His teacher gave him a dictionary.→He was given a dictionary by his teacher. 也可以用直接宾语做被动句的主语,但是需用 to 或者 for 引出原句的间接宾语。如:His teacher gave him a dictionary.→A dictionary was given . to him by his teacher. /His father made him a kite.→A kite was made . for him by his . . . father. ② “动词+宾语+动词原形”改为被动时,动词原形前要加 to.如:The boss made the poor man work 12 hours a day. →The poor man was made . to work 12 hours a day. . ③“动词+…+介词”改为被动时,介词一般在原位不动。如:The girl takes good care of her little brother.→The girl’s . . little brother is taken good care o f by her. . . ④“be+过去分词”未必表示被动语态,而可能是系表结构。如: He is pleased / worried / tired /…….(系表) (他高兴/焦虑/疲劳……) He was hit / knocked down / told / shot / …….(被动) (他被击中/撞倒/关照/射中……)

练一练

1. When they ________ through the forest, a bear ________ at them. A. walked…was coming C. were talking…comes B. were walking…came D. walk…is coming

2. A young man ________ her while she ________ her work. A. watched…was finishing C. watched…finished B. was watching…finished D. was watching…was finishing

3. While mother ________ some washing, I ________ a kite for Kack. A. did…made C. was doing…was making B. was doing…made D. did…was making

4. I ________ myself French from 7 to 9 yesterday morning. I ________ to work.

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A. was teaching…didn't go C. was teaching…went D. taught…went

B. taught…didn't go

5. He ________ a model plane when I came to see him. A. makes C. was making 6. I ________ a letter at nine last night. A. is writing C. wrote B. was writing D. is writing B. is making D. made

7. The teacher ________ us a history lesson when Tom walked into the classroom. A. gave C. was given B. is giving D. was giving

8. There will be a football match in two days, that is ________. A. last Sunday C. every Sunday 9. We ________ class meeting this November. A. had C. will have B. have D. are having B. next Sunday D. this Sunday

10. He ________ in his garden every morning next year. A. will work C. worked 11. Be careful. The train ________. A. will come C. comes B. D. is coming B. works D. is working

12. Look at those clouds. It ________ soon, I'm afraid. A. is going to rain C. will rain B. is raining D. won't rain

13. The radio says it ________ the day after tomorrow. A. is going to snow C. will snow B. is snowing D. snows
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14. ________ he ________ some shopping tomorrow afternoon ? A. Will…does C. is…doing B. is going to do D. Shall…do

15. What day ________ it ________ tomorrow? Wednesday. A. is…going to be C. shall…be 16. The boy ________ sixteen years old next year. A. is going to be C. will be 17. ________ you ________ me up at six, please? A. Are…going to wake B. Are…waking C. Will…wake D. Do…wake B. is growing to be D. is B. will…be D. does…be

18. If he ________ to college, he ________ a lot more. A. will go…will learn C. is going…is going to learn B. will go…is going to learn D. goes…will learn

19. When she ________ next time, I ________ her everything. A. is going to come…shall tell C. comes…will tell B. will come…shall tell D. come…will tell

20. What day ________ it ________ tomorrow? It ________ Tuesday. A. is…going to be…is B. will…be…will C. is…going to be…is going Keys: 1-5 BDCAC 6-10 BDDCA 11-15 DACBB 16-20 CCDC D. will be…will be

Step 3 阅读训练
计划与愿望

词数 218

难度 ★★★

建议用时 4′30〞实际用时 _______

When people become good at doing the things they like to do, they have found themselves. Many young people are good at doing things they do not like. Some young people would like to do something that they are not good at. Also some of them don't think they are good at anything and don't know what they would like to do. None of them are happy.
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It is impossible to decide whether one likes something until one has tried it. Trying something new is important. Give each idea a fair chance. If you have decided to try out something new, also decided how long you will keep trying it, then you can make a fair decision. The best thing to judge isn't the final result but the work, which takes you to reach the goal. Almost everybody would like to be highly skilled in something. But becoming highly skilled in anything calls for a great deal of time and work. "Finding oneself means not only discovering what one is good at and what one likes, but also discovering what one isn't good at and one doesn't like. So trying something and failing can have its good point. It tells you that you are not fit for that particular field and should not take it as your goal. 生词速查 judge 判断 ( goal 目标

)1. People are happy when they______________ . A. are good at doing things they do not like B. don't think they are good at anything C. do something that they are not good at D. are doing well in the things they like

(

)2. According to the passage, "finding yourself" does NOT mean ____________________ . A. finding what you can do well B. discovering what you want to do C. understanding how you can do things well D. knowing your likes and dislikes

(

)3. The third paragraph tells us ______________ . A. it's important to try something new B. time takes you to reach the goal C. what you need to be highly skilled D. everyone can be highly skilled in something

(

)4. Which of the following is NOT true? A. Trying something and failing can be good for us. B. If people have found themselves, they may be happy. C. Much time and work can make people become skilled in anything. D. We can decide whether we like something before we've tried it.

(

)5. The best title of this passage is " ______________ ". A. Have a try C. Make a decision B. Become happy D. Become highly skilled

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词数 239

难度 ★★★

建议用时 5′

实际用时 _________

阅读短文,将选项中的五个句子还原到短文当中。 A. B. C. D. E. we learn to behave in different difficult situations at first you won't take it seriously there is always something getting in our way only that will make you happy and that goes on endlessly 6 ,

We all probably have a long list of dreams or simply things that we would like to do. But unfortunately, work and dream balance. Having problems in our lives doesn't have to necessarily be a bad thing. By solving problems 7

usually some kinds of problem or trouble that we want to get rid of before we start working on our dreams, before achieving .We learn to

live under stress and that is very important. Dealing with problems can only be learnt if you experience it. But real problems happen when we stop thinking about our dreams because after each solved problem comes another one. And after that one, one more, on your dreams, 9 8 . However, we have to stop it and start working on our wishes and dreams. What we really need is achieving work and dream balance. Learn when to work on your problems and learn when to work . You have to know when to do what and that comes with experience. If you don't let your 10 , but after some time you will realize that you are wasting your life. dreams enter your everyday life, 生词速查 get rid of solve 消除 achieve 完成

解决

6. ______7. ____________

8. ________

9. ________

10. ________

1. D 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. E 9. D 10. B

据第一段得知答案。 finding yourself 应该是“给自己定位”的意思。 第三段讲的是把工作做好。 据第二段 It is impossible…得知答案。 文章讲的是要找准自己的位置,就要尝试。 总会遇到一些障碍。 克服困难中我们学会了如何应对各种困难处境。 这样重复永无止境。 只有这样才能使你幸福。 起初你并不会认真对待。

Step 4 小结
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思考回忆所学知识点,并将所学知识点列在下面

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