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Sport and The Media


Sport and The Media - UK - January 2005

About this report Since 2003, the domestic sports media market has experienced growth and change through new products’ developments, brands’ disappearances and new customer needs caused by the popularity of certain sports and type of media. The global market born from the fusion of sport and media is increasingly profitable. The worldwide television audience for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games was 3.9 billion people compared to the 3.6 billion for the Sydney 2000 Games. The FIFA World Cup media rights’ value rose to US$879 million for the 2006 tournament, a 15% increase since 2002. Using the latest consumer research, market size data and trend analysis, this report provides vital new insight into the current state of the market and its prospects, investigating its drivers, segmentation, supply structure, distribution, advertising spend and sales forecasts. Mintel’s findings offer you a unique way of understanding consumer trends and the attitudes of the market’s key target audiences, enabling you to tailor your marketing to real demand, both tactically and strategically. Use Mintel’s research to avoid market pitfalls, discover sector opportunities, identify growth potential and achieve the best possible results.
Contents

Introduction and Abbreviations The domestic sports media market has experienced growth and considerable change since Mintel last analysed this market, in May 2003. A number of sports media brand owners have been transformed or have developed new products, whilst others have disappeared. The needs and preferences of the customer have also evolved, as the popularity of certain sports and type of media has changed. The fusion of sport and media has helped create a lucrative global market that continues to grow. The worldwide television audience for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games was 3.9 billion people, a sizeable increase from the 3.6 billion who watched coverage of the Sydney 2000 event. The value of media rights for the FIFA World Cup has risen from $763 million in 2002 to $879 million for the 2006 tournament. Other reports of relevance include:
? ? ? ? ?

Football Business (The) – UK, Leisure Intelligence, December 2004 Sports Clothing – UK, Leisure Intelligence, November 2004 Multichannel vs. Terrestrial Household Lifestyles – UK, Special Report, July 2004 Leisure on the Internet – UK, Leisure Intelligence, June 2004 Leisure Promotion – UK, Leisure Intelligence, January 2004

and the forthcoming:
?

Golf – UK, Leisure Intelligence, February 2005

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Motor Sports – UK, leisure Intelligence, February 2005 Spectator Sports – UK, Leisure Intelligence, April 2005 Leisure Business (The) – UK, Leisure Intelligence, May 2005 Sports Participation – UK, Special Report, July 2005 Children’s Leisure – UK, Leisure Intelligence, June 2005 Satellite & Cable TV – UK, Leisure Intelligence, August 2005 Dog and Horse Racing – UK, leisure Intelligence, September 2005 Extreme Sports – UK, leisure Intelligence, October 2005 Live Entertainment – UK, Leisure Intelligence, December 2005.

Definition
In line with the usual focus of Leisure Intelligence, this report concentrates largely on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards the sports media. However, considerable attention is also paid to the supply side of the market to point out the breadth and nature of the ever expanding range of sports coverage available in the modern media. For the purposes of this report, the definition of sport encompasses both those that are predominantly of the spectator variety – such as football and cricket – and those that are more participatory in character – eg cycling and fishing. The media are considered to comprise print, broadcast and online sectors. The print sector is made up of national newspapers (broadsheet, mid-market tabloid and popular tabloid) and specialist magazines, broadcasting covers terrestrial television, cable/satellite television and radio, while online media covers Internet websites.

Consumer research
Lifestage and Special Groups In addition to the standard breaks, Mintel also analyses the consumer research in the following manner. Lifestages are derived from analysis of the exclusive consumer research and are split into four main groups: % of population

Pre-/no family

aged under 45 who are not parents any age with at least one child aged under 16 still at home aged 45-64 with no children aged under 16 aged over 65 with no children aged under 16

28

Family

28

Third age

25

Retired

20

As part of an ongoing policy to find new ways of analysing data, Mintel has created Special Groups of consumers to typify consumer habits in the early years of the 21st Century. Unlike the lifestage groups, these groups represent only sections of the population and do not account for all adults. % of population

Internet users

All Internet users at home, work or elsewhere Read Daily Telegraph, Financial Times, Guardian, Independent or The Times Read Daily Express or Daily Mail Read Mirror, Daily Sport, Daily Star or The Sun Have satellite/cable/digital TV Have a mobile phone

39

Broadsheet readers

19

Mid-market tabloid readers

22

Popular tabloid readers

33

Satellite/digital TV viewers

45

Mobile phone users

68

ACORN
Some reports also use consumer research analysed by ACORN category. ACORN is a geo-demographic segmentation method, using census data to classify consumers according to the type of residential area in which they live. Each postcode in the country can, therefore, be allocated an ACORN category. The classification is a more powerful differentiator of consumer behaviour than traditional socioeconomic and demographic indicators. The categories, and their components, are as follows: ACORN Category ACORN Group % of GB

pop. 2004

Wealthy Achievers – Category 1 A – Wealthy Executives B – Affluent Greys C– Flourishing Families

26.5 9.5

7.6

9.4

Urban Prosperity – Category 2 D– Prosperous Professionals E – Educated Urbanites F – Aspiring Singles

11.1 2.3

4.8

4.0

Comfortably Off – Category 3 G – Starting Out H – Secure Families I – Settled Suburbia J – Prudent Pensioners

26.9 2.2

17.4

5.2

2.0

Moderate Means – Category 4 K – Asian Communities L – Post Industrial Families M – Blue Collar Roots

14.7 1.7

5.7

7.3

Hard Pressed – Category 5 N– Struggling

20.9 14.4

Families O– Burdened Singles P – High Rise Hardship Q – Inner City Adversity 3.3

1.1

2.0

For further details of the ACORN classification, including the ACORN profile of local areas, please contact CACI Limited on 020 7602 6000 or visit www.caci.co.uk. Value figures throughout this report are at retail selling prices unless otherwise stated. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen?s Printer for Scotland.

Abbreviations
3G ATP Third generation Association of Tournament Professionals Audit Bureau of Circulations British Market Research Bureau Consumer Expenditure

ABC

BMRB

ConExp

DAB DSL DTT ECB

Digital Audio Broadcasting Digital Subscriber Line Digital terrestrial television England and Wales Cricket Board Entertainment and Sports Programming Network European Union Football Association Union of European Football Associations Free-to-view High-definition Television International Association of Athletics Federations International Cricket Council Internet Service Provider Market & Opinion Research International

ESPN

EU FA FIFA

FTV HDTV IAAF

ICC

ISP MORI

NBA

The National Basketball Association National Football League National Rugby League National Readership Survey Office of Communications Personal Digital Assistant Personal Disposable Income Pay-per-view Premium TV Personal Video Recorders Radio Joint Audience Research Rugby Football League Rugby Football Union Rugby World Cup Sports Industry Research Centre

NFL NRL NRS OFCOM PDA PDI PPV PTV PVR RAJAR

RFL RFU RWC SIRC

SMS TGI

Short Message Service Target Group Index. For further details concerning this information, including data on readership patterns of users/purchasers and details of brands, please contact Phil Greenslade at BMRB International on 020 8566 5000 or via email at phil.greenslade@bmrb.co.uk Federation of International Football Associations Video-on-demand Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Fidelity World Rally Championship Women?s Tennis Association

UEFA

VOD WAP

Wi Fi WRC WTA

Market Factors The UK sports media market is influenced by a variety of factors, ranging from the popularity of sport to the penetration of media formats.

Interest in sport
Consumer interest in sports is a key factor in determining the scale of the sports media market. Figure 1 highlights the trends of the UK's most popular sports from 2001-04.

FIGURE 1: Interest in named sports/pastimes among UK adults, 2001-04 2001 2002 2003 2004 % point change 200104

Base: adults aged 15+

25,493

24,659

25,191

23,424

%

%

%

%

Football Rugby union Snooker Cricket Motor racing Tennis Rugby league Athletics Golf Horse racing

33.7 21.6 26.6 22.5 22.6 19.7 16.0 20.0 17.1 14.2

35.7 23.5 27.3 24.1 22.9 20.9 17.4 20.4 17.4 14.3

37.7 25.3 26.0 24.9 23.1 20.6 19.2 23.8 19.9 15.9

44.2 30.6 25.4 25.2 21.8 21.6 21.2 20.8 18.5 15.8

+10.5 +9.0 -1.2 +2.7 -0.8 +1.9 +5.2 +0.8 +1.4 +1.6

Boxing Darts Marathon running* Motorcycle racing Skiing Motor rallying American football Bowls Cycling Swimming Showjumping Ice skating Wrestling Extreme sports (eg BMX, skateboarding)

15.7 12.0 8.4

16.3 12.4 9.4

16.4 13.6 14.8

14.3 13.6 13.2

-1.4 +1.6 +4.8

12.2

12.4

12.9

12.3

+0.1

10.7 11.0 7.1

12.4 11.0 7.4

12.2 11.1 7.0

10.5 10.2 7.8

-0.2 -0.8 +0.7

8.8 6.3 7.4 8.4 10.6 7.6 5.9

9.2 6.7 7.2 8.1 11.4 7.5 6.2

9.7 8.8 10.7 7.6 9.2 6.3 6.1

7.7 7.7 7.5 6.8 6.4 5.9 5.8

-1.1 +1.4 +0.1 -1.6 -4.2 -1.7 -0.1

Greyhound racing Basketball Snowboarding Ice hockey Badminton Stock car racing Fishing – coarse* Table tennis Billiards Fishing – sea* Mountain biking Hockey Fishing – trout/game* Squash Chess

5.8

5.8

5.9

5.8

-

5.4 5.5 5.0 3.4 5.0 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.2

5.5 6.7 6.1 3.5 4.6 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.2

5.3 5.9 5.6 4.9 3.7 3.4 4.6 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.9 3.0

5.1 5.0 4.8 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9

-0.3 -0.5 -0.2 +0.3 -1.6 -0.3 -0.3 -0.1 -0.3

2.3 1.8

2.3 1.8

2.8 1.7

2.1 1.3

-0.2 -0.5

Note: netted responses to the statements, 'paid to watch', 'watch on television' or 'read about? in the last 12 months * net of ?like to watch on television? and ?read about? only Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults Source: GB TGI, BMRB 2001-Autumn 2003 & 2004/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The UK's two most popular sports continue to grow at a faster rate than any others, with football and rugby union now the clear market leaders. Other popular sports, such as cricket and rugby league, have increased in popularity, whilst a large number of minority sports have become less popular. This suggests that the UK sports market is becoming polarised.

Sports participation levels
Participation will also influence the sports media market, as those who play a sport are likely to be consumers of media relating to their participation. Unlike the trends for interest in sports, participation in almost all sports has grown, although the rates of growth have been more modest. Figure 2 highlights the participation levels in sport in the UK. FIGURE 2: Regular participation in sports, 2001-04 2001 2002 2003 2004 % point change 200104

Base: adults aged 15+

25,493

24,659

25,191

23,424

%

%

%

%

Swimming Cycling Golf Football

6.9 4.2 3.4 2.9

10.3 5.4 4.6 4.1

10.6 5.6 4.8 3.5

9.8 5.2 4.7 4.4

+2.9 +1.0 +1.3 +1.5

(Association) Snooker Darts Bowls Badminton Tennis Fishing – coarse Cricket Mountain biking Fishing – trout/game Skiing Squash Billiards Fishing – sea Athletics 2.3 1.9 1.8 1.3 0.9 1.5 0.9 0.8 0.9 3.4 2.4 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.3 1.3 1.2 3.0 2.4 1.9 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.0 2.8 2.2 2.0 2.3 1.8 1.9 1.2 1.2 1.0 +0.5 +0.3 +0.2 +1.0 +0.9 +0.4 +0.3 +0.4 +0.1

0.6 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.4

1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8

1.0 1.2 0.6 1.0 0.7

1.2 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.9

+0.6 +0.1 +0.1 +0.5

Rugby union Extreme sports (eg BMX, skateboarding) Table tennis Chess Basketball Hockey Boxing Motor racing Rugby league Motorcycle racing Ice skating Marathon running Showjumping Wrestling

0.7 0.3

0.7 0.7

0.7 0.9

0.7 0.7

+0.4

0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3

0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.7 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.3

0.7 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3

+0.2 +0.4 +0.1 +0.1 +0.1 +0.1 -

0.1 0.3

0.3 0.3

0.5 0.3

0.5 0.2

+0.4 -0.1

0.1 0.2

0.3 0.3

0.1 0.3

0.2 0.4

+0.1 +0.2

Motor rallying Snowboarding Stock car racing American football Ice hockey

0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1

0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0

+0.1 -0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

+0.1

Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults Source: GB TGI, BMRB 2001-Autumn 2003 & 2004/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Swimming clearly remains the UK?s leading participation sports, with almost 10% of the population claiming to swim on a regular basis. It also has the largest increase in participation from 2001-04 and, like cycling, will have benefited from an enhanced media profile from the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Whilst playing football appears to be more popular during years in which the UEFA European Championships and FIFA World Cup are staged, there is no evidence of any immediate uptake in rugby union following England's victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC).

Sports paid to watch
The popularity of spectator sports is essential to those media companies who are attempting to translate the tens of thousands of sports fans in an arena or stadium into millions of viewers, listeners, readers or subscribers. The UK trends for paying to watch live sport from 2001-04 are presented in Figure 3. FIGURE 3: Paid to watch sporting events, 2001-04 2001 2002 2003 2004 % point change 200104

Base: adults aged 15+

25,493

24,659

25,191

23,424

%

%

%

%

Football (Association) Horse racing Greyhound racing Rugby union Cricket Motor racing Boxing Rugby league Motorcycle racing Stock car racing Ice hockey Tennis Golf Wrestling

8.4

8.7

8.6

9.9

+1.5

3.2 2.6

3.0 2.5

3.0 2.7

3.7 2.9

+0.5 +0.3

2.0 2.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.0

2.2 2.1 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.9

2.3 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.0

2.5 2.3 1.1 0.5 1.1 0.9

+0.5 +0.1 -0.2 -0.8 -0.2 -0.1

0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.4

0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4

+0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -

Motor rallying Basketball Snooker Athletics Bowls Darts Showjumping Swimming Ice skating American football Badminton Billiards Cycling Hockey Skiing

0.4 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

0.4 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1

0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1

+0.1 -0.1 +0.1 -0.1 -

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0

0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1

-0.1 -0.1 -

Squash Table tennis

0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1

0.1 0.1

0.0 0.0

-0.1 -0.1

Note: refers to live at the event or PPV television Taken from the TGI survey of around 25,000 adults Source: GB TGI, BMRB 2001-Autumn 2003 & 2004/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] As with the data for sports interest, the popularity of spectator sports is becoming polarised, with few sports sustaining sizeable growth. Football has extended its dominance with almost 10% of the population paying to watch the sport, whilst rugby union appears to have enticed more spectators than players as a result of England's 2003 RWC victory. Sports that are associated with betting, such as horse and greyhound racing, have also increased in popularity. This will be of some interest to those media companies seeking to generate secondary revenue from gambling services.

Cable/satellite television penetration
The non-terrestrial networks are exerting their increasing influence on the televised sports market. The two dominant channels, Sky Sports and Eurosport, are available via many satellite and cable platforms, including Sky, ntl and Telewest. The penetration of satellite, cable and digital terrestrial television in UK households is shown in Figure 4. FIGURE 4: UK multichannel households, by platform, 1998-2004 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004* % change 19982004

m

m

m

m

m

m

m

Analogue satellite Digital satellite

3.8

1.7

0.4

0.1

-

-

-

-

0.3

2.5

4.7

5.6

6.3

6.9

7.2**

+2,233.3

Total satellite

4.1

4.2

5.1

5.7

6.3

6.9

7.2

+70.7

Analogue cable Digital cable Total cable

2.9

3.2

2.6

2.1

1.3

1.0

0.9

-70.0

-

0.1

0.8

1.5

2.1

2.3

2.4

-

2.9

3.3

3.4

3.6

3.4

3.3

3.3

+13.8

DTT Other FTV Total DTT/FTV

0.1 0.1

0.5 0.5

1.0 1.0

1.1 1.1

1.1 0.6 1.7

3.3 0.2 3.1***

3.9 0.2 3.7**

+3,800 +3,600

Total** % penetration

7.1 29

8.0 33

9.5 38

10.4 44

11.4 47

13.3 54

14.0 57

+97.2 +96.6

*

up to third quarter 2004

**

fourth quarter 2004 figures (provisional) includes DSL TV

***

Source: Operating companies/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The UK non-terrestrial television market is dominated by BSkyB. The company has established its position by intensive promotion of films and its own Sky Sports channels, even though many of these channels are available via cable services. Unlike BSkyB, cable television operators such as ntl and Telewest have been unable to exploit the evolution from analogue to digital services, with penetration stagnating at around 3.3 million households. Sky Sports and Eurosport were also available via the Carlton and Granada joint venture digital terrestrial television (DTT) service, which was marketed using the ONDigital and ITV Digital brands. However, the venture failed because it attracted insufficient subscribers and overpaid for sports rights. DTT has since been revitalised with the Freeview service, although it cannot be used to access any sports channels other than Sky Sports News. Freeview is joint-owned and operated by BBC, BSkyB and the communications company Crown Castle UK.

Internet usage
The Internet is becoming a more important medium for fans to access video, audio and editorial content about sports events, teams and players. The focus of the first sports Internet services was editorial and some now offer audio content, but as more users upgrade to broadband it is likely that video will increase in quantity and quality. Figure 5 shows the penetration trend of the Internet from 2001-04. FIGURE 5: British Internet Penetration, by gender, 2001-04 Jan 2001 Feb 2002 Feb 2003 Jan 2004 April 2004 July 2004 Oct 2004 % point change Jan 01-Oct 04

Base: adults aged 15+

4,215

4,003

4,224

4,008

4,060

4,311

4,057

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

All

33

44

48

51

57

54

56

+21

Men Women

40 26

51 38

54 43

55 47

62 51

59 49

62 50

+22 +24

Note: specific responses were as follows: 2001 use the Internet at home/work/place of study or elsewhere use the Internet at home/work/place of study or elsewhere use the Internet at home/work/place of study or elsewhere use the Internet at home/work/place of study or elsewhere

2002

2003

2004

Source: MORI/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Over half of the UK adult population have access to the Internet, although there is some evidence that

penetration has peaked. The percentage of male adults that are online is slightly higher than female users. Men were early adopters of the Internet and sports content has continued to be a key application in enticing new users. Although the large male market is undoubtedly attractive to suppliers of sports Internet services, there has so far been limited success in generating sufficient revenues from such ventures. Many have not been as profitable as initially forecast, with a number of portals, Internet Service Providers (ISP) and media companies incurring huge losses. The sports Internet business model has also been affected by the growth of other forms of digital media, such as television and mobile phones.

Growth of television sports programming
Sport has always been a key form of content for television, with many of the largest viewing audiences in the UK being for events such as England football matches. However, the market has been transformed since the 1990s with the launch of cable and satellite services. Of the terrestrial channels, the BBC and ITV have increasingly focused on the acquisition of rights for high-profile sport events. The length and format of multi-sports programmes, such as BBC's Grandstand, have been adapted as the market for rights and other content becomes more competitive, whilst BBC Sportsnight and ITV's World of Sport have disappeared altogether. Conversely, the newer channels which broadcast 24 hours a day, such as Channel 4 and Five, have adopted more minority sports content. Sky Sports is the dominant player in the domestic cable and satellite market. Its portfolio of five channels consists of the anchor Sky Sports 1, 2, 3 channels, the Extra pay-per-view (PPV) service, and Sky Sports News, which is also available via Freeview. Eurosport is available in 54 countries and broadcasts in 19 languages. It claims to be available in 98 million households worldwide with 21 million viewers per day. It has a dedicated English-language British Eurosport channel. The data in Figure 6, which highlight annual coverage of sport on terrestrial and non-terrestrial television, will be affected by major events. However, neither the FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Championships nor the Olympic Games took place in either year. FIGURE 6: Sports coverage on television, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 hours % of all sports covered 2003 hours % of all sports covered % change 200103

BBC1 BBC2

530 835

1.7 2.7

513 847

1.6 2.6

-3.2 +1.4

ITV CH4 Five

692 1,151 1,531

2.2 3.7 4.9

749 1,038 1,493

2.7 3.1 4.5

+8.2 -9.8 -2.5

Total terrestrial

4,739

15

4,640

14

-2.1

Sky Sports Eurosport

20,277 6,390

64.6 20.4

21,809 6,588

66.0 19.9

+7.6 +3.1

Total cable/satellite

26,667

85

28,397

86

+6.5

Total all channels

31,406

100.0

33,036

100.0

+5.2

Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Terrestrial television sports coverage declined further during the period from 2001, with just 14% of all televised sports content being accessible to terrestrial viewers in 2003. The BBC consolidated its sports output of approximately 1,360 hours per annum on BBC1 and BBC2. ITV increased its sports schedules to almost 750 hours, with much of this being attributable to its extensive coverage of the RWC 2003. Both Sky Sports and Eurosport extended their services, with almost two thirds of televised sport in the UK being aired on the Sky Sports network. There have been no new channels during the period, which

may be a further indication that the sports television market has become saturated.

Newspaper circulation
Sport is essential content for all newspapers, with its influence extending from the back pages to the front pages and through the development of supplements and magazines. In addition to the dedicated sports pages, a number of titles now offer sports supplements. This is sometimes supplemented with regular football-only sections and special edition supplements for major events such as Wimbledon and the Ryder Cup. The format was developed further when The Observer launched a sports magazine. This was initially planned to evolve into a standalone title, but this strategy has not yet been implemented. The audited circulation figures for national daily newspapers are presented in Figure 7 and the Sunday editions in Figure 8. FIGURE 7: Leading national daily newspaper circulations, 2003 and 2004 Oct 04 (incl bulks) May-Oct 03 average May-Oct 04 average % change MayOct 03MayOct 04

The Sun The Mirror Daily Star Daily Mail Daily Express The Daily Telegraph

3,278,068 1,770,407 878,934 2,415,032 915,324 904,366

3,514,021 1,957,924 899,630 2,342,745 918,099 903,222

3,345,095 1,812,942 899,385 2,319,330 882,966 869,470

-4.8 -7.4 * -1.0 -3.8 -3.7

The Times The Guardian The Independent

656,462 378,426 266,038

593,540 373,402 183,954

614,059 351,240 228,903

+3.5 -5.9 +24.4

* less than 0.5% Source: ABC/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The daily newspaper market is dominated by the tabloids, with The Sun, the Daily Mail and The Mirror having much higher circulation figures than their competitors. However, all titles have suffered from a sizeable decrease in readership with the notable exception of The Independent and The Times. This can be attributed to the popularity of the tabloid-size format by The Independent, which was later copied by The Times, which has been particularly welcomed by commuters. FIGURE 8: Selected national Sunday newspaper circulations, 2002 and 2003 Title Nov 03 (incl bulks) Jun 02Nov 02 Jun 03Nov 03 % change

News of the World Sunday Mirror The People The Mail on Sunday Daily Star on Sunday The Mail on Sunday

3,998,185 1,588,071 1,036,289 611,182 540,516

3,975,949 1,751,373 1,274,949 651,168 -

1,928,393 1,623,292 1,096,858 620,108 529,475

-1.2 -7.3 -14.0 -4.8 -

2,413,707

2,303,909

2,276,737

-1.2

Sunday Express The Sunday Times The Sunday Telegraph The Observer The Independent on Sunday

961,187 1,395,374 715,676

903,724 1,372,229 743,711

895,579 1,350,176 692,576

-0.9 -1.6 -6.9

485,593 214,513

433,834 185,731

431,075 177,128

-0.6 -4.6

Source: ABC/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] None of the Sunday newspapers increased their circulation during the period, with The People losing almost 14% of its readers. It is probable that The People, as well as other popular tabloids such as Sunday Mirror, suffered most from the launch of the Daily Star on Sunday. The circulation figures for the Sunday newspapers tend to be similar to their daily sister titles, although neither The Independent on Sunday nor The Sunday Times have been able to innovate as successfully as their weekly equivalents.

Demographics
The size, age and gender of the population will influence the domestic sports market. The media companies will seek to target their core markets, which have traditionally been young and middle-aged male consumers. FIGURE 9: Total population, by age group and gender, 2000-08 Male 2000 2002 2004 (est) 000s 2006 (proj) 000s 2008 (proj) 000s

000s

000s

0-14

5,738

5,632

5,529

5,412

5,317

15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

1,839 1,720 4,179 4,279 3,839 3,024 3,872

1,926 1,806 4,122 4,439 3,790 3,220 3,977

1,990 1,882 3,946 4,514 3,782 3,395 4,090

2,016 1,944 3,840 4,529 3,876 3,519 4,192

2,010 2,025 3,769 4,467 4,022 3,583 4,343

Total male

28,491

28,911

29,127

19,329

29,536

Female

2000

2002

2004 (est) 000s

2006 (proj) 000s

2008 (proj) 000s

000s

000s

0-14 15-19

5,463 1,776

5,362 1,826

5,271 1,888

5,170 1,917

5,085 1,912

20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

1,746 4,344 4,376 3,904 3,122 5,423

1,819 4,149 4,530 3,857 3,322 5,453

1,867 3,994 4,618 3,852 3,510 5,487

1,905 3,914 4,648 3,949 3,648 5,516

1,975 3,860 4,587 4,112 3,723 5,605

Total female

30,153

30,318

30,486

30,666

30,857

Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The female population in each age group is slightly larger than the respective male segment. There are similar patterns in the trends for both male and female populations, with the largest 35-44 age group forecast to peak in 2006. Although these statistics offer a favourable market to the sports media industry, they do highlight that there is a wider audience that could be exploited, as long the core male-oriented customer is not alienated.

Income and expenditure
The economic factors that have the most influence on the purchase of sports media services are presented in Figure 10. FIGURE 10: Trends in personal disposable income and consumer expenditure, 1999-2009

Source: Mintel Suppliers of sports media services are offering a discretionary product that relies on personal disposable income (PDI), although sports fans may argue that the need to have live access to matches/events, particularly on TV, is a necessity. It is anticipated that the sums available to UK consumers will increase rapidly from 2004. Consumer expenditure is associated with PDI and will also continue to increase. However, the rate of growth will peak in 2005 as consumer confidence is affected by excessive personal credit and high interest rates.

Leisure time and spending
Consumption of sports media is often a leisure activity. Figure 11 highlights the average number of hours leisure time enjoyed per annum and the trends in the value and year-on-year growth in leisure spending. FIGURE 11: Annual hours of leisure, 1999-2008

Source: SIRC/Mintel

The UK consumer is expected to take advantage of increasing leisure time, with an extra 4.5 hours in 2008 compared to 1999. This can be attributed to the trend for more flexible work patterns, such as parttime and temporary employment status, and an increase in the number of retired people. The annual growth in value of the UK leisure industry is expected to be sustained with the total market value forecast to exceed ? 20 billion by 2005. This figure includes spending related to both sports participation and spectator events, and is thus a positive indicator for media companies that are able to capitalise on either or both of these customer segments.

Major events
Sports media consumption will increase during major events as sports fans use television, radio, newspapers, computers and other media to acquire coverage. The market for associated media rights has become increasingly competitive with the growth of media platforms such as satellite television, the Internet and mobile phones. The major events that will have influenced the UK sports media market in 2003 and 2004 are listed in Figure 12. FIGURE 12: Selected non-annual major international sporting events, 2003 and 2004 Year Event Venue

2003

Cricket: Cricket World Cup Athletics: IAAF World Championships Rugby union: Rugby World Cup

South Africa and Zimbabwe Paris, France

Australia

2004

Football: European Championships General: Olympic

Portugal

Athens,

Games Cricket: ICC Champions Trophy Golf: Ryder Cup Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

Greece England

Detroit, US

There have been two major cricket tournaments during the period. The Cricket World Cup was hosted by South Africa and Zimbabwe in February and March 2003, and the ICC Champions Trophy by England in September 2004. Matches were played at venues in London, Birmingham and Southampton. In August 2003, the athletics World Championships took place in France and, in November 2003, Australia staged the Rugby World Cup. Two major events were held in the summer of 2004. The UEFA Euro 2004 football tournament was hosted by Portugal in June and July. This was followed in August by the Olympic Games in Greece. Both events were broadcast extensively on terrestrial television. Golf's Ryder Cup was held in September 2004.

Listed events
A number of major sports events have been 'listed' in UK law as being reserved for the free-to-view terrestrial broadcasters. These events must be available via free-to-view terrestrial television and the rights cannot be acquired by subscription or pay-per-view channels. The listed events are categorised in Figure 13 as Group A Events, for which live rights must be offered to terrestrial broadcasters, and Group B events, for which live coverage on satellite channels is permitted if highlights are available on terrestrial channels. FIGURE 13: Listed major sporting events Group A Events Group B Events

Olympic Games

Cricket Test Matches played in England

FIFA World Cup Finals

Non-Finals Wimbledon matches All other matches in Rugby World Cup Six Nations Rugby matches involving Home countries Commonwealth Games World Athletics Championships Cricket World Cup Ryder Cup Open Golf Championships

FA Cup Final

Scottish Cup Final

Grand National

Derby

Wimbledon Tennis Finals

European Football Championships Final Rugby League Challenge Cup Final

Rugby World Cup Final Winter Olympics Source: OFCOM [ download into spreadsheet ] The impact of listing on the sports rights market was emphasised during 2003 and 2004, when all listed Group A events took place with the exception of the FIFA World Cup and Winter Olympics, both of which will be staged in Europe during 2006. The Commonwealth Games is the only Group B event that

was not staged during this period, although the UK did host the tournament in Manchester in 2002. Sport on Television Televised sports have continued their growth since the 1990s, with over 33,000 hours of coverage in 2003. Figure 14 shows the total sports coverage in the UK in 2001 and 2003. FIGURE 14: UK sports television output, 2001 and 2003 Terrestrial television sports coverage hours Satellite/cable television sports coverage hours Total

hours

2001 2003 Source: Sports Marketing Surveys [ download into spreadsheet ]

4,738 4,640

26,666 28,396

31,405 33,035

The increase in sports output from 2001-03 represents in excess of 30 hours per week of extra coverage. Although some of this variance can be attributed to the postponement of the 2001 Ryder Cup and the popularity of the 2003 Rugby World Cup, much of it is due to increased coverage of regular tournaments and events. The respective trends of terrestrial and non-terrestrial sports output have been accentuated, as the cancelled Ryder Cup was due to be televised on BSkyB's satellite platform and the 2003 Rugby World Cup on a terrestrial station. Despite ITV's extensive coverage of the RWC, terrestrial stations broadcast approximately two hours per week less coverage in 2003 than in 2001. No new sports channels have been added during this period, which suggests that channels such as Sky Sports and Eurosport are increasing their round-the-clock coverage.

Digital interactive services
As well as increasing sports output, some television broadcasters are extending their channels and services via digital and interactive television. Figure 15 highlights the percentage of adults in the UK who watch digital TV and use the associated interactive services.

FIGURE 15: Technology usage, 2002-04 Nov 2002 Oct 2003 Feb 2004 April 2004 July 2004 % point change Nov 02-

Base: adults aged 15+

2,072

2,098

1,977

2,049

2,058

%

%

%

%

%

July 2004

Digital TV Interactive service through digital TV

9

47 17

43 14

52 19

49 17

+8

Source: MORI/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Commercial media companies, such as BSkyB, are able to generate secondary revenues from interactive services such as betting, ticketing and other e-commerce activities such as sports merchandise. However, the BBC is also promoting interactive television and claims that nearly 58% of potential users hit the red button a total of 9 billion times during the Athens 2004 Olympic Games.

Television coverage of athletics
The BBC has covered all major athletics meetings staged in the UK from 1998 to 2003, thanks to a ? 15 million television deal signed with UK Athletics. The IAAF World Championships, staged in Paris in November 2003, were also shown on BBC2. Figure 16 shows the total coverage of athletics in the UK in 2001 and 2003. FIGURE 16: Television coverage of athletics, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change

Minutes

Minutes

200103

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

3,550 4,050 30 -

3,390 4,610 95

-4.5 +13.8 -

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

7,630 2.6

8,095 2.9

+6.1 +0.3*

BSkyB Eurosport

4,620 17,415

3,660 16,770

-27.3 -3.7

Total cable/satellite

22,035

20,430

-7.3

% of all cable/satellite sports coverage

1.4

1.2

-0.2*

Total % of all sports coverage

29,665 1.6

28,525 1.4

-3.8 -0.2*

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The extra ten hours of coverage on BBC2 are a consequence of its extended broadcasts of the IAAF World Championships. The BBC offered more athletics coverage than Sky Sports, who lost over a quarter of their content from 2001. However, armchair fans seeking the maximum amount of coverage would still need access to cable or satellite services, with Eurosport televising some 340 hours of athletics in 2003. Sky Sports has announced its intent to reverse the decline it its own athletics coverage by acquiring the rights to the prestigious TDK Golden League events from 2004. Channel 4, which did not show any athletics in either 2001 or 2003, will televise highlights.

Television coverage of cricket
Cricket was traditionally televised by the BBC up to 1998, when the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) signed a deal with BSkyB and Channel 4. Live coverage and highlights of all international and domestic cricket played in the UK were then shared between Sky Sports and Channel 4. Sky Sports has also broadcast all England overseas cricket tours since 1990 and the Cricket World Cup in 2003, with Channel 4 screening daily highlights of the 2002 Ashes Test Match series in Australia. There was an initial outcry when the BBC lost the rights to televise cricket, yet some observers now credit the new format of presentation that has been developed by Sky Sports and Channel 4 for attracting a new audience and creating a resurgence of interest in the sport. Figure 17 offers a comparison of televised cricket in 2001 and 2003. FIGURE 17: Television coverage of cricket, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change 200103

minutes

minutes

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

50 20,235 -

18,050 -

-10.8 -

Total terrestrial

20,285

18,050

11.0% -0.6*

% of all terrestrial sports coverage

7.1

6.5

BSkyB Eurosport

92,145 -

134,945 -

+46.5 -

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

92,145 5.8

134,945 7.9

+46.5 *

Total % of all sports coverage

112,430 6.0

152,995 7.7

+36.1 +1.7*

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Although Channel 4 monopolised terrestrial television rights for cricket in the UK, it dropped over 10% of its output from 2001. Although this still represented 300 hours, there was some evidence that cricket was being squeezed from the schedules, with matches starting and finishing at different times and coverage interrupted for other content such as horse racing. Conversely, BSkyB extended its commitment to the sport to almost 2,250 hours of cricket in 2003. In December 2004, the ECB announced that it had agreed a four-year ? 220 million rights package with BSkyB and Five, which will cover all live coverage of cricket on terrestrial television from 2006-09. Sky Sports will provide live coverage of international and county cricket, including all seven npower test matches, ten NatWest Series matches and all international Twenty20 matches. Five has gained the rights to televise highlights of npower test matches and the NatWest Series from Channel 4.

Television coverage of football
BSkyB has held the live rights for the FA Premier League since the inception of the tournament in 1992. The television rights became one of the most valuable media contracts in the world when BSkyB paid ? 1 billion for a three-year package in 2001. The number of live matches screened on Sky Sports has also increased, with 66 fixtures broadcast during the 2002/03 season. Although the BBC has retained coverage of major international tournaments (with ITV) and the FA Cup (with Sky Sports), it lost the rights to show highlights of the FA Premier League to ITV in 2001. ITV negotiated a three-year deal worth ? 61 million and also held exclusive rights to the UEFA Champions League, with some matches screened on ITV2 and ITV Digital. However, following the collapse of ITV Digital, ITV has had to relinquish its exclusive Champions League rights by sharing coverage with Sky Sports and, in 2004, BBC regained the Premier League highlights. However, ITV did secure a two-year package with UEFA to televise the UEFA Cup Final and UEFA Super Cup Final. The total airtime devoted to televised football in 2001 and 2003 is highlighted Figure 18, which shows it is the only sport that is broadcast on all five terrestrial channels. FIGURE 18: Television coverage of football, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 minutes 2003 minutes % change 2001-

03

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

10,300 795 23,295 13,490 26,385

9,960 870 24,875 7,130 28,645

-3.3 +9.4 +6.8 -47.1 +8.6

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

74,265 26.1

71,480 25.7

-3.8 -0.4*

BSkyB Eurosport

281,365 54,255

294,670 85,535

+4.7 +57.7

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

335,620 21.0

380,205 22.3

+13.3 +1.3*

Total % of all sports coverage

409,885 21.8

451,685 22.8

+10.2 +1.0*

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] ITV increased its output during its final year of televising highlights of the FA Premier League and also broadcasts some UEFA Cup and Carling League Cup fixtures. Channel 4 cut its football coverage by almost half after dropping its live coverage of Italian club matches and appears to be focusing on off-peak coverage of European and South American club matches, as highlighted by the addition in 2004 of French football to its portfolio. Five has also utilised content from abroad and has shown a selection of UEFA Cup and FIFA World Cup qualification fixtures. Sky Sports now accounts for almost two thirds of all televised football shown in the UK, with over 6,300 hours of football in 2003. It is anticipated that BSkyB will further increase its output having secured the live, near-live and pay-per-view rights for the FA Premier League from 2004/05 to 2006/07 for ? 1.1 billion. There is, however, some evidence that Sky Sports? average audience for the 2004/05 FA Premier League season is declining, although viewing figures for the big matches are increasing. This may be attributable to an increase in the number of live matches (138 in 2004/05 compared to 102 in 2003/04) and because the new Saturday kick-off times of 12.15pm and 17.45pm have so far proved to be unpopular.

Television coverage of golf
The key events in the golf calendar are the European and US professional tours, the Ryder Cup, and four annual ?Majors? (the US Open, US PGA championships, The British Open and the US Masters). As with cricket, terrestrial channels have limited scope for relaying live coverage of events, whilst sport-specific channels such as Sky Sports and Eurosport have sufficient airtime for extensive coverage. Golf is one of the most popular sports in the UK in terms of both general interest and participation. Only football receives more television exposure and the total television airtime devoted to coverage of golf in 2001 and 2003 is detailed in Figure 19. FIGURE 19: Television coverage of golf, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change 2001-

minutes

minutes

03

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

1,695 6,080 1,985

1,745 7,040 3,340 3,340

+2.9 +15.8 +68.3

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

9,760 3.4

12,125 4.4

+24.2 *+1.0

BSkyB Eurosport

195,575 5,610

202,550 3,910

+3.6 -30.3

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

201,185 12.6

206,460 12.1

+2.6 -0.5*

Total % of all sports coverage

210,945 11.2

218,585 11.0

+3.6 -0.2*

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Total golf coverage would have been much higher in 2001 but for the postponement of the Ryder Cup due to the terrorist attacks in the US. Sky Sports now televises 95% of televised golf in the UK and has sustained output at over 200,000 minutes per annum. In contrast, Eurosport has axed almost a third of its coverage, with Five complementing the BBC's coverage on terrestrial television. It is unlikely that either the BBC or Five will have much scope to increase their commitment to golf, although the BBC could utilise some of its digital channels to relay further programming.

Television coverage of horse racing
Horse racing is the second most popular spectator sport in the UK, with 3.7% of adults paying to watch the sport in 2004. Betting is a key element of the sport's appeal for many followers, and the development of gambling services accessible via digital television channels would appear to offer a lucrative opportunity for commercial media companies. The quantity of television airtime devoted to coverage of horse racing in 2001 and 2003 is detailed in Figure 20. FIGURE 20: Television coverage of horse racing, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change 200103

minutes

minutes

BBC1 BBC2

3,545 3,915

3,025 4,130

-14.7 +5.5

ITV Channel 4 Five

15,825 -

15,680 -

-0.1 -

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

23,285 8.2

22,835 8.2

-1.9 -

BSkyB Eurosport

24,870 -

22,530 90

-9.4 -

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

24,870 1.6

22,620 1.3

-9.0 -0.3*

Total % of all sports coverage

48,155 2.6

45,455 2.3

-5.6 -0.3*

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel

[ download into spreadsheet ] The data for 2001 were affected by the cancellation of a number of fixtures, including the Cheltenham Festival, because of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The decrease in output, most notably on the BBC and BSkyB, from 2001-03 could therefore have been even more pronounced. The At The Races joint venture, which was initially launched in May 2002 by BSkyB, Channel 4 and Arena Leisure PLC, has not had a positive impact in terms of television output. The consortium negotiated a ? 307 million ten-year rights package with 49 racecourses, but was forced to terminate the contract following an investigation by the Office of Fair Trading. The channel relaunched in June 2004 and is currently available as a non-subscription channel on Sky (separate from the Sky Sports package) and the ntl and Telewest cable services.

Television coverage of rugby league
Rugby league has continued to be a core product for Sky Sports since the formation of Super League. Although all live coverage of league matches is now restricted to non-terrestrial television, the sport's image has been revitalised and the BBC has enhanced its coverage of the prestigious Challenge Cup competition. Television airtime devoted to coverage of rugby league in 2001 and 2003 is highlighted in Figure 21. FIGURE 21: Television coverage of rugby league, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change 200003

minutes

minutes

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

620 470 90

585 500 -

-5.6 +6.4 -

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

1,180 0.4

1,085 0.4

-8.1 -

BSkyB Eurosport

50,635 150

53,760 -

+6.2 -

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

50,785 3.2

53,760 3.2

+5.9 -

Total % of all sports coverage Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

51,965 2.8

54,845 2.8

+5.5 -

No sport is more reliant on BSkyB than rugby league, with 98% of output broadcast on Sky Sports. The BBC has, however, retained and extended its coverage of the RFL Challenge Cup with live match coverage of the qualifying rounds and the showcase final. Super League signed a ? 53 million contract with BSkyB that offers exclusive live coverage of Super League and home international matches for five years from 2005. At the same time, the BBC negotiated a ? 10 million package to broadcast Super League highlights and live Challenge Cup matches, which included provision for rescheduling the cup competition in the rugby league calendar.

Television coverage of rugby union
The total television airtime devoted to rugby union coverage in 2000 and 2001 is detailed in Figure 22. The key event in this period was the 2003 Rugby World Cup, which was televised extensively on ITV. FIGURE 22: Television coverage of rugby union, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change 2001-03

minutes

minutes

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

2,825 1,970 290 60

2,745 1,910 5,935 -

-2.8 -3.0 +1,946.5 -

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

5,145 1.8

10,590 3.8

+105.8 +2.0*

BSkyB

43,585

44,595

+2.3

Eurosport

5,025

4,215

-16.1

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

48,610 3.0

48,810 2.9

+0.4 -0.1*

Total % of all sports coverage

53,755 2.9

59,400 3.0

+10.5 +0.1*

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Like cricket, rugby union is a sport that has traditionally been televised on BBC. From 2003, the BBC regained the rights to televise the Six Nations tournament from BSkyB. However, its output was dwarfed by that of ITV, which has secured the rights for the RWC until 2007. Eurosport has focused on the Heineken Cup European club competition, but has cut its coverage of the sport in 2003 with the BBC also televising the competition. Despite the loss of the rights to televise the Six Nations tournament, BSkyB has extended its rugby union programming, mostly through its live coverage of the Zurich Premiership league competition. In 2004 it secured a deal with the Rugby Football Union (RFU) and Premier Rugby to televise domestic and international matches from 2005/06 to 2009/10.

Television coverage of tennis
Terrestrial coverage of tennis in UK is dominated by the BBC and focuses predominately on one event, The All England Lawn Tennis Club Championships at Wimbledon. However, tennis has also been key shown on both Sky Sports and Eurosport, with extensive coverage offered of the Association of Tournament Professionals (ATP) and the Women?s Tennis Association (WTA) tour events. The total minutes of UK airtime utilised by terrestrial and non-terrestrial television channels for coverage of tennis in 2001 and 2003 is detailed in Figure 23.

FIGURE 23: Television coverage of tennis, by channel, 2001 and 2003 2001 2003 % change 200103

minutes

minutes

BBC1 BBC2 ITV Channel 4 Five

4,525 9,565 60 65

5,060 9,340 65 -

+11.8 -2.3 +8.3 -

Total terrestrial % of all terrestrial sports coverage

14,215 5.0

14,465 5.2

+1.8 +0.2*

BSkyB Eurosport

24,390 59,345

31,020 56,570

+27.2 -4.7

Total cable/satellite % of all cable/satellite sports coverage

83,735 5.2

87,590 5.1

+4.6 -0.1*

Total % of all sports coverage

97,950 5.2

102,055 5.2

+4.2 -

* percentage point change Source: Sports Marketing Surveys/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The BBC is increasingly enhancing its presentation of Wimbledon as it focuses more on its remaining high-profile sports properties. It extended its coverage of the 2003 tournament by increasing output on the flagship BBC1 channel. BSkyB once again increased its coverage of tennis and, in 2003, broadcast over 500 hours of the sport. Despite dropping almost 5% of tennis programming, Eurosport remains the key television channel for UK tennis fans, with over half of all tennis shown in the country being available on this channel. Sport Newspaper Coverage As with most forms of media, sport is key content for the newspaper industry. All titles include dedicated sports pages, with the traditional back pages being complemented with supplements and pullout sections. Many of these cover general sports but some newspapers offer sports-specific pullouts, such as football and horse racing. The data presented in Figures 24-30 highlight the volume of newsprint devoted to sport in a sample weekend during November. The three key days for sports coverage – Saturday, Sunday and Monday papers – were selected for analysis. FIGURE 24: Weekend newspaper sports coverage (Saturday-Monday), November 2004 Saturday number of pages Sunday number of pages Monday number of pages Average number of tabloid

pages of sports coverage % % % %

Popular tabloid newspapers (eg The Sun, The Mirror, News of the World) Mid-market tabloid newspapers (eg Daily Mail, Daily Express, The Mail on Sunday) Broadsheet newspapers (eg The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph, The Sunday Times)

29.0

25.6

22.8

25.8

29.1

25.4

35.3

29.9

18.0

13.6

17.3

16.3

Daily average

25.4

21.5

25.2

Note: For purposes of comparison, a broadsheet page is equivalent to two of tabloid size Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The weekend editions of the popular and mid-market tabloids contain very similar quantities of sports coverage. It is only on Monday that the mid-market tabloids, namely the Daily Mail and Daily Express, extend their coverage above that of the popular tabloids. Sport is covered on fewer pages in the broadsheets, although these figures may be affected by the new tabloid-size editions of The Guardian and The Sunday Times. Generally, sport receives less coverage in the Sunday editions than in the daily newspapers. This may be

due to the competition for space from other forms of editorial and advertising, rather than available content. Saturday is traditionally the busiest day of the sporting week, but many newspaper editors prefer to increase their coverage on Monday. Figures 25-27 show the percentage of newsprint devoted to the most popular spectator sports in the UK's national newspapers. The volume of coverage will be influenced by the sporting calendar. No major events were scheduled during the period of analysis although there was some editorial that reviewed the 2004 Olympic Games that had been staged in August 2004. A full programme of fixtures in the domestic football, racing and rugby union seasons were scheduled for the period of analysis. There were also events, either in the UK or abroad, taking place for all the other sports that were analysed. FIGURE 25: Percentage of sports coverage devoted to each major sport in Saturday newspapers, November 2004 Football Racing Cricket Rugby Rugby Motor Golf Tennis Athletics Fixtures/ union league sport results/ statistics

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Popular tabloids:

The Sun

71.1

19.3

5.7

1.0

-

-

-

-

1.7

1.3

The Mirror

77.0

-

1.8

13.2

-

-

0.4

-

7.7

-

Daily Star

49.7

43.2

-

-

1.6

-

-

-

-

5.5

Mid-market tabloids:

Daily Mail

82.7

4.7

9.3

-

-

0.7

-

0.7

1.9

-

Daily Express

55.9

21.8

4.4

10.0

-

-

5.5

1.1

-

1.4

Broadsheets:

The Daily Telegraph

49.2

12.4

2.1

29.8

1.7

-

0.8

-

-

4.1

The Times

35.9

33.6

5.1

9.2

-

-

1.2

-

11.3

3.7

The Guardian

42.9

16.1

8.0

14.7

-

3.2

-

-

11.3

3.8

The Independent

53.6

16.0

3.3

8.0

-

-

-

-

3.2

16.0

Note: Data may not sum due to rounding Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] All the Saturday editions focus their sports coverage on football. Three tabloids, The Sun and The Mirror and the Daily Mail, use football for over 70% of their sports content. The other tabloids, the Daily Star and Daily Express, cover football on approximately half of their sports pages, but also include detailed coverage of horse racing. The sports editors of the broadsheets take a more general approach to their output. Although football again dominates all the titles, there was considerable space offered to readers with an interest in horse racing, cricket, rugby union and athletics. There is a sizeable element of fixtures, results and statistics in The Independent, which is perhaps seeking to differentiate itself by offering more objective analysis to sports enthusiasts. FIGURE 26: Percentage of sports coverage devoted to each major sport in Sunday newspapers, November 2004 Football Racing Cricket Rugby Rugby Motor Golf Tennis Athletics Fixtures/ union league sport results/ statistics

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Popular tabloids:

News of the World

65.8

18.2

-

12.1

-

-

-

0.3

0.6

3.0

Sunday Mirror

84.5

9.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

4.6

1.8

Daily Star on Sunday

69.9

19.2

3.7

6.4

-

-

-

-

-

0.9

Mid-market tabloids:

The Mail on Sunday

56.1

12.1

4.0

-

-

-

4.0

6.7

0.8

-

Sunday Express

38.1

30.6

6.1

14.0

-

-

7.7

1.5

-

1.9

Broadsheets:

The Sunday Times

51.3

11.4

16.2

11.4

-

-

3.1

-

6.6

-

The Sunday Telegraph

50.0

4.5

13.6

18.2

-

-

2.3

-

9.1

2.3

The Observer

57.9

5.5

6.9

14.5

-

-

-

-

6.9

8.3

The Independent on Sunday

61.0

6.0

10.4

16.3

-

-

-

-

4.2

2.1

Note: Data may not sum due to rounding Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Like the content of the daily tabloids, the respective Sunday editions also focus on football. The Sunday Mirror contains almost 85% of football within its sports pages, whilst the Daily Star on Sunday and the Sunday Express again appear to be targeting horse racing enthusiasts. In November 2004, The Mail on Sunday launched a new football pullout section to attract more male readers. The Sunday broadsheets, as with their daily counterparts, also cover a breadth of sports as well as the core football element. All four titles, The Sunday Times, The Sunday Telegraph, The Observer and The Independent on Sunday, carry at least some news of horse racing, cricket, rugby union and athletics. The Sunday Times and The Sunday Telegraph offer the widest coverage in terms of the number of sports included by any of the Sunday editions. FIGURE 27: Percentage of sports coverage devoted to each major sport in Monday newspapers, November 2004 Football Racing Cricket Rugby Rugby Motor Golf Tennis Athletics Fixtures/ union league sport results/ statistics

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Popular tabloids:

The Sun

80.9

11.3

2.0

3.7

-

-

-

-

2.0

-

The Mirror

57.6

16.8

6.7

12.6

-

-

5.6

0.6

-

-

Daily Star

72.4

17.0

-

2.5

-

-

-

-

6.1

2.0

Mid-market tabloids:

Daily Mail

70.1

2.9

11.7

-

-

0.6

-

2.9

-

-

Daily Express

65.0

11.0

8.2

11.0

-

0.2

0.9

-

3.7

-

Broadsheets:

The Daily Telegraph

19.9

13.3

33.3

-

-

8.0

6.6

5.0

13.9

-

The Times

63.8

10.0

2.0

13.4

-

-

3.6

2.2

0.5

4.5

The Guardian

51.1

8.4

7.0

20.9

6.7

-

-

0.4

1.4

4.2

The Independent

59.8

6.3

5.6

22.4

-

-

1.0

-

-

4.9

Note: Data may not sum due to rounding Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The Monday editions tend to use a similar football-focused editorial policy as with the weekend editions, although there is more detail about other sports. This can be highlighted by the content of The Mirror, which includes much more editorial on sports such as horse racing, cricket, rugby union and golf.

The Daily Telegraph began its build-up to the England cricket tour to South Africa in November 2004 and coverage of the sport accounted for a third of all sports content. The newspaper also created a special supplement and website for the tour and signed a deal to be presenting sponsor of Sky Sports' live coverage. The other broadsheets maintained their breadth of coverage, with a particular focus on rugby union.

Football coverage in newspapers
Football is the UK's most popular sport in terms of both general interest and the number of spectators. The country's newspapers seek to exploit this interest to drive sales. The format of football coverage in the national newspapers is highlighted in Figures 28-30, using analysis that was conducted in November 2004. There were no major events, such as England matches or cup finals, during this period, and a full programme of domestic and European club matches was scheduled. Figure 28 details the different types of football coverage that were included in the sports pages of the national newspapers. FIGURE 28: Saturday newspaper football coverage, by type, November 2004
News Fixtures/ Premiership Premiership Championship Championship Star Features/ results/ match match match reports match columnists comment statistics reports previews previews

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Popular tabloids:

The Sun

2.9

12.1

-

60.2

2.4

7.2

-

15.2

The Mirror

0.9

1.9

-

80.0

6.9

10.3

-

-

Daily Star

9.5

6.3

-

71.1

-

5.2

-

7.9

Mid-market tabloids:

Daily Mail

12.4

1.9

-

54.1

9.0

-

2.8

19.7

Daily Express

6.5

1.7

-

58.5

7.3

9.7

-

16.3

Broadsheets:

The Daily Telegraph

7.6

-

-

70.6

-

-

13.4

8.4

The Times

2.9

5.6

-

63.8

5.6

-

13.6

8.5

The Guardian

3.1

-

-

68.8

3.1

-

-

25.0

The Independent

0.7

5.0

-

39.1

3.0

14.9

7.5

29.8

Note: Data may not sum due to rounding Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] All the Saturday editions focus on previewing FA Premier League matches, including those scheduled for Saturday and Sunday. Some titles, notably the broadsheets, do not preview Football League Championship fixtures, although most will include reports of matches that were played the previous Friday evening. The broadsheets instead prefer to reserve space for star columnists, who are notable absentees from most tabloid newspapers. Features and comments take up a large number of column inches in all newspapers with the exception of The Mirror. This newspaper is the most focused on the FA Premier League, with over 80% of its football content dedicated to the big teams and star players. This would suggest that The Mirror is seeking to drive sales through association with those columnists, teams and players who have a high media profile. FIGURE 29: Sunday newspaper football coverage, by type, November 2004
News/ Fixtures/ Premiership Premiership/ Champion- ChampionStar Features/comment gossip results/ match European ship match ship match columnists statistics reports match reports previews previews

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Popular tabloids:

News of the World

-

11.0

44.5

18.4

18.4

-

-

7.6

Sunday Mirror

-

10.8

50.4

12.9

23.7

-

2.2

-

Daily Star on Sunday

5.9

6.5

68.6

-

16.3

-

2.6

-

Mid-market tabloids:

The Mail on Sunday

7.2

20.1

32.4

12.9

12.9

-

-

14.4

Sunday Express

-

20.1

32.1

16.1

16.7

-

-

15.1

Broadsheets:

The Sunday Times

-

11.1

18.6

25.6

11.1

-

-

33.4

The Sunday Telegraph

-

18.1

41.7

34.1

6.0

-

-

-

The Observer

6.0

14.3

26.1

28.6

14.3

-

-

10.7

The Independent on Sunday

-

20.4

37.8

17.9

3.9

-

-

19.9

Note: Data may not sum due to rounding Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Despite the increase of televised matches played on Sunday and midweek, Saturday remains the day of the week when the majority of football matches are played. Coverage in the Sunday newspapers is therefore dominated by match reports, results and statistics from the previous day's fixtures. Although the FA Premier League still receives the most coverage, all sports editors reserve space for coverage of Football League Championship fixtures. The mid-market tabloids and The Independent on

Sunday provide at least 20% of their football coverage in the form of fixtures, results and statistics. However, some newspapers have merged match reports with results and statistics, thereby enabling them to offer more objective analysis and to cover more matches in detail. FIGURE 30: Monday newspaper football coverage, by type, November 2004
News Fixtures/ Premier- Premier- Champion- ChampionStar Features/ results/ ship ship ship match ship match columnists comment statistics match match reports previews reports previews

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Popular tabloids:

The Sun

26.7

-

48.3

-

25.0

-

-

-

The Mirror

8.7

-

73.8

-

17.5

-

-

-

Daily Star

6.6

3.5

55.3

-

27.7

-

-

6.9

Mid-market tabloids:

Daily Mail

11.1

8.4

73.2

-

-

-

-

7.4

Daily Express

-

7.3

75.9

-

16.9

-

-

-

Broadsheets:

The Daily Telegraph

12.9

6.7

53.6

-

26.8

-

-

-

The Times

2.3

7.0

49.4

-

18.6

-

5.2

17.4

The Guardian

0.8

16.3

57.1

-

16.3

-

-

9.4

The Independent

1.6

9.4

62.5

-

7.8

-

-

18.7

Note: Data may not sum due to rounding Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The Monday editions generally include more comment and quotes from the weekend's matches, as opposed to the blow-by-blow accounts and analysis preferred by the editors of the Sunday titles. Every newspaper published on a Monday devotes at least half of its football coverage to the FA Premier League, with The Mirror, the Daily Mail and the Daily Express offering approximately three quarters of its column inches to the top division. However, almost all titles provide at least some match reports of Football League Championship fixtures, with The Sun, the Daily Star and The Daily Telegraph all reserving over a quarter of their football pages to the Football League competition. Much more general news content is included on Monday, some of which is based on the results, postmatch comments and rumours that have occurred at football grounds during the preceding weekend. Specialist Sport Magazines Many specialist sports magazines are monthly publications which aim to offer readers more in-depth editorial than the content provided by newspapers, television, radio or Internet. However, magazines are unable to provide the same up-to-date content as other media, which now regularly provide real-time scores, results and statistics. In particular, those magazines that target sports spectators have had to evolve their content from fixtures, results, statistics and match reports to more focus on interviews, previews and features. For example, the country's most popular sports magazine that is aimed at spectators, FourFourTwo, does not include any football scores, league tables or match reports. All magazines specialise in one sport, or a genre of similar sports, such as equestrian and motor sport. There have been no general sports magazines since the closure of the Sported and Total Sport titles. The collapse of a number of high-profile sports websites, most notably sports.com and sportal.com, and the rebranding of the sports newspaper Sport First to the Football First masthead, is further indication that the UK consumer has limited desire for general sports media. The most recent circulation figures for the UK's most popular sports magazines are listed in Figure 31. The list is limited to those publishers who have had their sales officially verified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC). FIGURE 31: Leading sports magazines, 2004

Title

Sport

Publisher/circulation period

Total average net circulation per issue (UK & RoI)

Today?s Golfer

Golf

EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2004 to 30-Jun-2004 Haymarket Publishing Group Limited 01Jan-2004 to 30-Jun2004 NatMag Rodale, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2004 to 30-Jun2004 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003

98,521

FourFourTwo

Football

86,607

Runner's World

Athletics

70,229

Match

Football

69,067

Golf Monthly

Golf

68,964

Improve Your Coarse Fishing

Angling

68,858

Angling Times

Angling

67,997

Horse & Hound

Equestrian

IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 Haymarket Publishing Group Limited) 01Jan-2004 to 30-Jun2004 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 Future Publishing Ltd, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 Tennis GB Limited, 01-Jan-2004 to 30Jun-2004 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2004 to 30-Jun-2004 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003

67,060

F1 Racing (UK Edition)

Motor sport

53,939

Your Horse

Equestrian

53,177

Sea Angler

Angling

48,993

Mountain Biking UK

Cycling

46,689

Ace

Tennis

45,653

Angler?s Mail

Angling

45,200

Golf World

Golf

44,485

Rugby World

Rugby union

42,542

Dive

Watersport

Circle Publishing Ltd, 01-Jan-2003 to 31Dec-2003 Haymarket Publishing Group Limited) 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 EMAP Active Limited) 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 Future Publishing Ltd, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 BBC Worldwide, 01Jan-2004 to 30-Jun2004 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 EMAP Active Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 Haymarket Publishing Group Limited) 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003

37,680

Autosport

Motor sport

37,428

Trout & Salmon

Angling

36,181

Manchester United Magazine

Football

35,574

Match Of The Day Special

Football

35,013

Mountain Bike Rider

Cycling

34,832

Trout Fisherman

Angling

34,101

Sporting Gun

Shooting

32,746

Motorsport News

Motor sport

31,493

The Wisden Cricketer

Cricket

Wisden Cricketer Publishing Limited, 01-Jan-2003 to 31Dec-2003 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2004 to 30-Jun2004 Going for Golf Ltd, 01-Jan-2004 to 30Jun-2004 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 IPC Media Ltd, 01Jan-2003 to 31-Dec2003 Golf International (Services) Ltd, 01Jul-2004 to 30-Jun2004 Haymarket Publishing Group Limited) 01Jul-2003 to 31-Dec2003

31,122

World Soccer

Football

28,886

Going for Golf Magazine

Golf

28,611

Horse Magazine

Equestrian

28,291

Shoot

Football

25,433

Golf International

Golf

25,194

Motor Sport

Motor sport

21,562

Source: ABC/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The league table of sports magazines is dominated by titles aimed at sports participants rather than spectators. Although many of these magazines also cover spectator events, including professional sports, the focus is on the reader who participates. There are a number of golf, angling and equestrian titles that have some of the highest circulation figures of UK sports magazines. However, these do not represent the country's most popular participation sports. Although almost one in ten of the adult population claim to swim on a regular basis, there is no magazine, or at least none with a verified circulation, aimed at swimmers. Many of the other mass-participation

sports appear to be unrepresented on the newsagents' magazine shelves. Runner's World magazine is another title in the top ten which is targeted at participants, but the only titles aimed at sports fans with a circulation in excess of 50,000 are FourFourTwo and F1 Racing. The football magazine sector was transformed during the 1990s with FourFourTwo establishing itself as the most popular adult?s title following the closure of titles such as Goal and Total Football. Some of the bigger football clubs have been extending their media channels by publishing their own-branded titles. In addition, those clubs with national and international fan bases, such as Liverpool and Manchester United, have developed their official match programmes – which were traditionally only available from the stadium on the day of a match – into magazines that are available via subscription and from a limited number of newsagents. There is only one cricket and rugby union title in the top 33 of sports magazines, and none for rugby league spectators. However, Highbury House is launching a new cricket magazine called Spin, which aims to exploit the recent revival in popularity that the sport has enjoyed. It appears that they will be targeting the younger audience that has been attracted by Channel 4's coverage and the new Twenty20 format, whilst The Wisden Cricketer will still appeal to the sport's traditionalists. Although the circulation figures of the leading sports magazines are dwarfed by newspaper sales, they do compare favourably with other magazines. Magazines are often analysed by specific genres, such as women's and children's titles. Figure 34 lists the verified circulations of the UK's leading men's magazines in the first half of 2004. FIGURE 32: Leading men's magazines, January-June 2004 Title Current circulation Period on period change (%) Year on year change (%)

FHM Nuts Loaded Maxim

573,713 290,337 235,140 221,049

-4.6 -10.6 +0.3

-4.5 -10.2 +1.0

Men's Health Zoo GQ Wallpaper Front Bizarre Source: ABC/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

221,049 200,125 124,685 107,800 100,259 87,331

+0.3 +0.5 0.0 -2.9 -8.2

+1.0 +3.3 -2.8 -9,1 -13.7

This market was transformed in 2004 with the launch of two popular weekly titles, Nuts and Zoo, both of which secured sales in excess of 200,000 copies. This has further diminished the popularity of the leading 'lads? mags' monthly titles, which had themselves revolutionised the sector when they were launched. Nevertheless, sales of many of the monthly titles, such as Loaded, Maxim and Men's Health, still dwarf the leading sports magazines, whilst FHM still sells over half a million copies every month. FourFourTwo is aimed at adult football fans and is therefore arguably the sports magazine that is most comparable to the men's magazine genre. If it were to be listed as a men's magazine, it would be positioned just outside the top ten. Its monthly circulation of 86,607 represents just 700 fewer sales per month than Bizarre, which is currently the tenth most popular men's title. Sports Radio National sports radio is dominated by the BBC and talkSPORT, a commercial station owned by The Wireless Group. In 2002, the BBC complemented its Five Live AM frequency service with Five Live Sports Extra, a service that is only available via digital radio and the Internet. The BBC also operates a network of local stations, which are also available nationally and internationally via digital radio and the Internet. Some content is broadcast on BBC Radio 4, where the flagship cricket coverage is relayed using the established Test Match Special brand. BBC Radio Five Live predominantly broadcasts news, travel and weather information during weekday daytime, but focuses on sport during weekday evenings and weekends. This typically includes live commentaries, news, documentaries, magazine programmes, interviews and other sports-related content. Five Live Sports Extra currently only offers live commentaries, enabling the BBC to cover more than one high-profile event simultaneously.

TalkSPORT, which became a sports-only station when it rebranded from Talk Radio in 2000, relies more on rolling news and interaction with listeners with regular fan phone-ins. Figure 33 details the listening figures for BBC Radio Five Live, Five Live Sports Extra and talkSPORT. FIGURE 33: Listening figures, national sports-led radio stations, July-September 2004 Weekly reach Average hours Total hours Share of listening (%)

000

%

Head

Listener

BBC Radio Five Live BBC Five Live Sports Extra TalkSPORT

6,398

13.0

1.1

8.1

52,063

4.9

424

1.0

*

2.4

1,024

0.1

2,182

4.0

0.4

8.3

18,067

1.7

Weekly reach: Numbers/percentage of population listening for more than five minutes per week Average hours: Listening time per head of general population and of those listening to radio for more than five minutes per week Total hours: The overall number of hours of adult listening to a station in the UK/area in an average week. Share of listening: The percentage of total listening time accounted for by a station in the UK/area in an average week. * audiences in Local analogue areas excluded from all BBC network radio and all national commercial totals Source: RAJAR/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] According to Radio Joint Audience Research (RAJAR), BBC Radio Five Live generally attracts three times as many listeners as talkSPORT, with the BBC recording a weekly reach of almost 6.4 million compared to talkSPORT's 2.2 million. However, talkSPORT's owner, The Wireless Group, contests that RAJAR's methods of recording audience data are inaccurate and that it has more listeners. The BBC has broadcast commentary of the FA Premier League since the competition was formed in 1992. It retained the rights from 2002/03-2003/04 and has increased its live commentary output from

approximately 180 live commentaries per season to around 220 matches per season. In 2004, The Wireless Group filed an official complaint to OFCOM in response to the Football Association's decision to sell exclusive radio rights to the BBC for the FA Cup. It claimed that the deal was unfair as it reduced competition between talkSPORT and the BBC, and also prevented football clubs from selling the rights to their own matches. In 2004, the BBC retained the exclusive radio commentary rights for cricket with the ECB, thus securing the future of Radio 4's Test Match Special. However, talkSPORT did successfully negotiate the nonexclusive rights to Twenty20 fixtures. A number of sports clubs and national governing bodies now offer their own-branded radio stations, which are often available locally on FM frequencies and national and internationally via digital services and the Internet. Figure 34 identifies the number of adults that access digital radio, whether via a Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) receiver, digital TV or the Internet. FIGURE 34: Access to digital radio, 2002-04 Nov 2002 Base: adults aged 15+ 2,072 % Oct 2003 2,098 % Feb 2004 1,977 % April 2004 2,049 % July 2004 2,058 %

Digital radio – via DAB receiver, digital TV or Internet Source: MORI/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

-

16

13

18

15

Although the penetration of digital radio appears to be static, it is inevitable that the adoption rates will increase as more digital radio licences are offered and sales of DAB receivers increase. Two key drivers for the uptake of DAB technology will be the government's plans for switching off the analogue radio transmission service and the price of receivers. The Digital Radio Development Bureau forecasts that 1.2 million receivers will have been sold by December 2004. Sport on the Internet Sport remains one of the primary sources of content for Internet media providers. According to Mintel's Internet Quarterly – UK, September 2004, 24% of adult Internet users had visited a sports news website

in the preceding three months. Sport has also been a key driver in Internet usage and developments in services such as interactive services, ticketing and video-on-demand (VOD). The promoters of sports tournaments, clubs and athletes have benefited from the opportunity to establish their brands to a worldwide audience. For example, Eurosport claims that 6.9 million visitors made 8.2 million page impressions on its website during the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. This was a fourfold increase from their Internet audience during the Sydney 2000 event. The BBC?s own records indicate that its Olympic Games pages attracted 5.7 million unique users and 2.8 million VOD requests. UEFA has stated that over 40 million visitors made over half a billion page views of the Euro 2004 website. Almost 17 million page views were recorded for the England versus Portugal quarter final match alone. The total usage figures represent an increase of over 285% on the 128.8 million page views registered by the website for the Euro 2000 tournament. Despite being a European event, UEFA's data indicate that only 45% of visitors were in Europe, with 27% from Asia and 20% from North America. The UEFA 2004 portal provided football fans with live text commentary service, real-time statistics and photographs, an interactive forum with celebrity guests, and the opportunity to vote for the official man of the match award. This was supplemented with a broadband service developed in association with RealNetworks that offered fans access to live audio commentary and video highlights. UEFA claims that 75% of its visitors used a broadband connection. It is likely that such broadband services will shape the future of sports websites, as these will enable users to access higher-quality video and audio clips. Figure 35 highlights the number of UK adults who use Internet dial-up and broadband services at home. FIGURE 35: Usage of Internet dial-up and broadband services at home, 2002-04 Nov 2002 Oct 2003 Feb 2004 April 2004 July 2004 % point change Apr 04% point change Nov 02-

Base: adults aged 15+

2,072

2,098

1,977

2,049

2,058

%

%

%

%

%

Jul 04

Nov 04

Internet (dial-up) at home

40

38

34

38

34

-4

-6

Broadband Internet at home

-

12

14

19

21

+2

-

Source: MORI/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] Whilst the use of dial-up services appears to be declining, the number of consumers with access to broadband in their homes increased rapidly during 2004. In response to this trend, BSkyB relaunched its Sky Sports broadband service in April 2004, but still expects only slow growth in the number of users. The company's primary focus would appear to be its core subscription television channels, with Sky Sports now offering live, near-live and PPV coverage of the FA Premier League, with the number of live matches increasing to 138 during the 2004/05 season. Premium TV (PTV) has claimed some success in driving growth for the broadband, Internet and SMS services it has developed with 76 Football League clubs. However, the joint venture between the Football League and ntl has not generated the expected revenues since its launch in 2000 and, in 2004, the Football League bought ntl's stake with PTV becoming a service provider. In January 2004, PTV claimed to have 100,000 subscribers, compared to 40,000 as of January 2003. However, broadband and its associated services have yet to have a major impact on the general format of most sports websites. These sites can therefore still be classified by four categories:
? ? ? ?

general sports (eg sportinglife.com, bbc.co.uk/sport) sport-specific (eg football365.com, cricinfo.com) official club, player or event-specific (eg liverpoolfc.tv, wrc.com) fans (eg rivals.net, koptalk.co.uk).

General sports sites are often provided by existing national media providers, such as television stations (BBC and Sky Sports) or newspapers (The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph). However, very few standalone sports portals have developed a viable business model, as can be demonstrated by the value of UKBetting plc's portfolio of acquisitions since 2001. Sportal.com, a company which was once valued at ? 270 million, was acquired for ? 1, sportinglife.com was bought for ? 2, and sports.com cost ? 670,000. Sport-specific sites aim to offer a more comprehensive service than the general sports pages and there has been a tendency for such sites to focus on a specific market segment. For example, Football365 will appeal to younger, male football fans, whilst CricInfo is geared towards the cricket enthusiast seeking statistics and analysis. The official sites of clubs, players and events sometimes relay exclusive video or audio content. This is sometimes offered as a subscription service, with other sources of revenue including ticketing, merchandise and other e-commerce products and services. For example, the ticket agency Ticketmaster has secured agreements to provide online ticketing for the websites of 83 FA Premier League, Football League, Conference and Scottish Premier League clubs. Some of the larger sports rights holders have signed major partnership deals with portals and Internet Service Providers (ISPs), including FIFA with Yahoo! and ATP with AOL.

Unofficial fan sites have often derived from printed fanzines and include a similar editorial style that is more humorous and less formal than the official sites. Forums, guest books and chat rooms are included to offer supporters the opportunity to communicate with other fans. Some generate revenue through affiliate partnerships with Internet merchants. The measurability of website usage is one of the unique selling points of the Internet as an advertising medium. However, in comparison with other media such as newspapers and magazines, very few sports websites have audited circulation figures. Figure 36 details the traffic generated by a number of sports websites and indicates the number of page impressions and unique users as verified by ABC Electronic. FIGURE 36: Website traffic, selected football sites, 2001-03 Website 2001 average 2002 average 2003 average

page Users page impressions impressions per month per month (m) (m)

Users

page impressions per month (m)

Users

Rivals

33.0

749,965

69.0

1,950,600

60.7

2,119,242

Liverpool FC

13.9

970,468

13.0

769,817

14.7

661,086

Arsenal FC

4.2

381,956

7.2

540,252

7.0

569,991

ITV-F1

5.1

516,780

6.5

396,021

6.6

385,832

ITVfootball

1.1

141,427

4.2

193,185

3.3

183,674

Source: ABC Electronic [ download into spreadsheet ] Of the verified sports websites, Rivals is the clear market leader having almost trebled its number of unique users from 2001-03. However, the number of page impressions has only doubled in the same period, suggesting that newer users are visiting fewer sections of the site. The average number of page

impressions actually decreased from 2002-03. Rivals Digital Media was acquired by the sports content and gaming company UKBetting plc in 2003 and now forms part of the TeamTalk Media Group. Traffic to the official Arsenal website remained static in 2002 and 2003 with approximately 7 million page impressions made by 550,000 unique users. In comparison, Liverpool FC's official site has received more page impressions, but from an increasingly smaller number of unique users. This suggests that the loyal users are accessing more content of the official site. The trends of the site traffic for these portals may be attributable to the respective fortunes of the clubs, with Arsenal maintaining their dominance of the FA Premier League whilst Liverpool has failed to win a trophy. Both ITV's Football and F1 websites have suffered from stagnant or declining audiences. The image of Formula One has been diminished by the perception of many fans that the sport has become uncompetitive. Although the ITV Football portal has established a user base of almost 200,000 football fans, traffic to the site may be affected as ITV's football coverage evolves from a focus on the FA Premier League to the Football League Championship. ITV has an interest in both the Arsenal and Liverpool websites and is a sales agent for the associated advertising and sponsorship properties. The Arsenal portal is operated by Arsenal Broadband Limited, which is a joint venture between the Granada Media Group and Arsenal Football Club. ITV Network Limited operates the ITV F1 website, whilst Rivals Digital Media operates the ITV Football pages on behalf of ITV. As a comparison to the commercial services, the BBC claims that a total of 23.2 million page impressions were made by 503,610 unique users of its BBC Radio Five Live website in October 2003. In addition to the editorial content, the site generated 462,957 live listening hours plus a further 41,081 audio-ondemand listening hours. Sport and Mobile Phones Mobile phones are now established as a tool for accessing sports media. Content including real-time news and score text alerts, photographs, video, audio, betting, ticketing, ringtones, logos and games are now commonplace and accessible to many users. According to Mintel's Telecommunications Retailing – UK, Retail Intelligence, May 2004, sales of mobile phones in the UK rose to 17.1 million units in 2003, an increase of 20% when compared to the 14.3 million units sold in 2001. Figure 37 highlights the evolving trends of mobile phone usage from 2002-04. FIGURE 37: Technology usage, 2002-04 Nov 2002 Oct 2003 Feb 2004 April 2004 July 2004 % point change Apr 04% point change Nov 02-

Base: adults aged 15+

2,072

2,098

1,977

2,049

2,058

%

%

%

%

%

Jul 04

Nov 04

Mobile phone messaging (SMS) on a mobile phone Photo messaging on a mobile phone

74

78

79

81

81

-

+7

41

53

54

54

56

+2

+15

Source: MORI/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ] The usage rates indicate that mobile phones are no longer only used exclusively for voice communication, but are increasingly becoming an everyday medium for text and picture messaging. Just as broadband is expected to facilitate the development of Internet sports media, the implementation of third generation (3G) mobile services will be a key factor in the exploitation of sports media by mobile networks. However, despite a total ? 22.5 billion being invested in 3G licences in the UK since 2000, few mobile operators have yet to successfully implement a viable product. Some companies have cited the inadequate quality of handsets – in terms of price, aesthetics, size and features – for delays in launching their 3G services. Nevertheless, two of the major players in the mobile telecommunications market, Hutchison Whampoa and Vodafone, have jointly invested ? 100 million to become the official Mobile Network Partners of the FA Premier League for three seasons from 2004/05. It is intended that they will provide customers with services that include match round-up video clips, preview packages, archives, audio bulletins, real-time goal updates and near-live picture messages. Previously, the FA Premier League rights were held exclusively in a ? 35 million three-year deal by Hutchison Whampoa, who signed up a reported 361,000 customers by March 2004 for its services that are promoted using the 3 brand. The company has also signed similar deals with the Six Nations, UEFA Champions League and the Sports Network Limited boxing promoter. As well as being a joint partner with the FA Premier League, Vodafone has also invested heavily in sports rights and sponsorship. The company spent ? 6 billion to obtain its 3G licence but it was not until 2004 that it announced its plans to launch its service with a ? 13 million advertising campaign featuring the Real Madrid and England footballer David Beckham. Vodafone had previously established a ? 9 million per annum deal with Manchester United that covered team sponsorship and the development of the MU

Mobile branded service that includes games, pictures, alerts, ticket information, ringtones and video clips. In September 2003, it acquired wireless rights for the UEFA Champions League for three seasons from the 2003/04 season and in 2004 extended its sponsorship of the Ferrari Formula One team by an additional two years. The previous three-year deal had cost ? 110 million. T-Mobile was an official supplier to the UEFA Euro 2004 tournament and has a similar agreement for the UEFA Champions League. It activated its 3G network in February 2004 and also launched a non-3G service of pictures, text and video clips in December 2004 to leverage its sponsorship of the UEFA Champions League. The telephone company 02 has written off the ? 9 billion attributed to the value of its 3G licences, including ? 4 billion paid for the UK licence by former parent company BT. It launched a package of mobile services at the UEFA Euro 2004 tournament and has also exploited its sponsorship of Arsenal FC and the England rugby team, which included video downloads during the 2003 Rugby World Cup. Orange launched its 3G services in July 2004 and in the same month announced a partnership with Chelsea FC that included a package of video, audio and picture content such as delayed match highlights, live match commentary, news, ticketing and travel text alerts, competitions, interactive chat rooms, and man of the match voting. It also offered a news and betting service for the 2003 RWC that was developed with UKBetting plc. Profiles of Leading Sports Media

Cable/satellite television: Sky Sports
BSkyB's sports network, Sky Sports, broadcast almost 22,000 hours of coverage in 2003. The company produced almost two thirds of all televised sport in the UK, which represented an increase of 7.6% from its 2001 schedules. This helped the company to increase turnover by 15% to almost ? 3.7 billion in the year ended June 2004. Sky Sports was one of the five launch channels that was available when the station began transmission in 1991. All the existing channels, Sky Sports 1, 2 and 3, plus Sky Sports News and Sky Sports Extra, were added in the 1990s. Sky Sports News is also available as a free channel on the DDT service Freeview, whilst Sky Sports Extra is the home of much PPV content. The UK's inaugural PPV live event, the Frank Bruno versus Mike Tyson boxing bout in 1996, attracted 660,000 customers. This was beaten in 2002 when the network attracted its record PPV audience of 700,000 customer for the Lennox Lewis versus Mike Tyson event. Sky Sports had earlier launched its first PPV football service in 2001. In October 2004, Sky Sports screened the first PPV darts match, featuring the UK champions Andy Fordham and Phil Taylor. Football is the key content of Sky Sports with some 6,300 hours of the sport broadcast in 2003 alone. This includes coverage of club football in England, Scotland, Spain and Germany, which is supplemented with international qualification matches for the UEFA European Championships and the FIFA World Cup that feature teams from the home nations and the Republic of Ireland. From the 2003/04 season, BSkyB will also share live UEFA Champions League coverage with ITV and has invested ? 1.1 billion in the live, near-live and PPV rights for the FA Premier League from 2004/05 to 2006/07 for. Sky Sports now televises almost two thirds of all football shown in the UK. Although the rights to televise the Six Nations tournament have been regained by the BBC, BSkyB has

retained live coverage of the Zurich Premiership league competition. In 2004 it secured a deal with the Rugby Football Union (RFU) and Premier Rugby to televise domestic and international matches from 2005/06 to 2009/10. In addition to the Zurich Premiership, Sky Sports also covers the Tri-Nations and Super 12 series that include teams from Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The rights to Rugby World Cup, which is a listed event, have been retained by ITV. Rugby League comes from the domestic Super League club tournament, Great Britain international matches and the National Rugby League (NRL), which includes teams from Australia and New Zealand. The Rugby Football League's Challenge Cup, of which the final is another listed event, is covered by the BBC. In 2004, the Super League signed a ? 53 million contract with BSkyB that offered BSkyB exclusive live coverage of Super League and home international matches for five years from 2005. The company extended its coverage of cricket to almost 2,250 hours in 2003. In December 2004, BSkyB and Channel Five concluded negotiations with the ECB for a four-year ? 220 million rights package, which will see Sky Sports holding the exclusive rights to live coverage of cricket on terrestrial television from 2006-09. Sky Sports will provide live coverage of international and county cricket, including the all seven npower test matches, ten NatWest Series matches and all international Twenty20 matches. Sky Sports now televises 95% of televised golf in the UK and has sustained output at over 200,000 minutes per annum. The network owns the live rights to the PGA Tours in the US and Europe, plus the Ryder Cup, US Open and PGA Championship tournament. BSkyB's goal is to have 10 million subscribers by 2010. However, some industry analysts believe that the company will struggle to meet this target, not least because the Freeview DTT service is currently outselling Sky by a ratio of about ten to one. Some forecasters expect Freeview to be in more UK homes than Sky by the end of 2005. Retail data indicate that 5 million Freeview units had been purchased by 3.9 million household by the end of September 2004. This compares with the 7.4 million subscribers BSkyB claimed to have at the same date.

Radio: talkSPORT
TalkSPORT was launched in 2000 when the Talk Radio station was rebranded as a dedicated sports platform. It is owned by The Wireless Group and is currently the only national commercial sports radio station in the UK. The station does not own as many sports rights as the BBC but utilises rolling news and interaction with listeners via regular fan phone-ins. The station claims that 69% of its audience are male and that over a fifth of its audience are aged 16-34. The station generated an operating profit of ? 1.2 million for the year ended December 2003 and a further ? 1.2 million for the six months ending June 2004. The company attributed much of this success to the extra ? 1 million advertising revenue generated from its coverage of Euro 2004, which included a sponsorship partnership with The Times newspaper. In 2004, the station negotiated the non-exclusive rights to the Twenty20 fixtures. The company also launched talkSPORT on the Freeview platform in 2004. It had previously established its digital radio frequency via DAB receivers and Sky Digital. The Wireless Group has extended the brand on to television with talkSPORT TV, which is also available via the Sky Digital platform. This will initially broadcast for six hours and is intended as a marketing tool to extend the brand to a wider audience. The Wireless Group has stated its intention to focus on radio and is not currently intending to develop a TV channel. News Corporation, which owns 35.4% of BSkyB shares, also holds a 38% stake in

The Wireless Group through a subsidiary company. The Wireless Group is in dispute with RAJAR, which is owned by the BBC and Commercial Radio Companies Association, and is proceeding with litigation because they believe the diary-based methodology used for the official radio listening figures underestimates talkSPORT?s audience. The company further claims that it is losing ? 1.5 million per month in advertising revenue as a consequence of this alleged inaccuracy. Using the Gaff electronic measurement that they advocate, talkSPORT claims to have 5.4 million adult listeners, whereas the official RAJAR ratings report that it has only 2.1 million.

Specialist magazine: FourFourTwo
FourFourTwo was launched in August 1994 by Haymarket Publishing as the first monthly magazine aimed at adults. Until then, football magazines were targeted at children, with brands such as Shoot and Match being the market leaders. The new title was soon joined by IPC?s Goal and Future Publishing?s Total Football magazines, but these closed in 1998 and 2001 respectively. The BBC also ended publication of its Match of the Day magazine in 2001 following the loss of the FA Premier League highlights to ITV. Although the BBC retained the brand for its coverage of other football, such as the FA Cup and England matches, the loss of its flagship highlights programme meant that a regular magazine could no longer be justified. The BBC has not revived the monthly magazine following the return of FA Premier League highlights to BBC1, but it did publish two special editions in 2004. The first was a BBC Match of the Day Euro 2004 edition published in May and the second was BBC Match of the Day Guide to the Premiership 2004/05 published in August. Both magazines consisted of 132 pages and retailed for ? 3.95, which was slightly higher than the ? 3.50 cover price for FourFourTwo. According to official data published by ABC, the BBC Match of the Day Euro 2004 edition magazine had a verified circulation of 35,013. In comparison, Haymarket's FourFourTwo sold an average of 86,607 copies per month in the first half of 2004, making it the second most popular sports magazine in the country. Haymarket Customer Publishing, which is part of the Haymarket Publishing Group, has produced United Review, the official match programme for Manchester United FC since 2002, and developed the UEFA Champions magazine in 2003. The company has also previously published official programmes for Liverpool FC and the Masters Football tournament.

Terrestrial television: ITV Sport
In 2004, ITV negotiated the rights to a number of high-profile sports properties. It acquired the licence to broadcast the Oxford Cambridge Boat Race, which had previously been shown by the BBC, and secured coverage of both the Tour de France and the World Rally Championship (WRC), which had been televised by from Channel 4. ITV Sport also extended the rights to Formula One motor racing until 2010 with a ? 29 million per annum deal. However, the channel is still suffering from the domination of Michael Schumacher and the Ferrari team in Formula One. Furthermore, from the 2004/05 season ITV lost the FA Premier League football highlights to BBC and, having previously held exclusive rights, had to share its UEFA Champions League coverage with Sky Sports.

ITV Sport has benefited from England's involvement in two international tournaments in 2003 and 2004. Approximately 14.5 million viewers, an 82% share of the viewing audience, watched England win the final of the Rugby World Cup in Australia in November 2003. The tournament was televised exclusively by ITV. The following year, in June 2004, the England football team were less successful in the Euro 2004 event staged in Portugal. Nevertheless, the England versus France match ranked as ITV's most popular programme of 2004 with 17.8 million viewers and a 66% audience share.

Newspaper: The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph is now owned by Telegraph Group Limited following the sale of the newspaper and its sister edition The Sunday Telegraph for ? 665 million to Sir David and Sir Frederick Barclay in June 2004. The official circulation figures, as verified by ABC, for the first half of 2004 were 842,266 for The Daily Telegraph and 647,234 for The Sunday Telegraph. According to the National Readership Survey (NRS), readership for the respective titles was estimated at 2,275,000 and 2,080,000. As of December 2004, the cover price was 60 pence for the weekday editions, ? 1 for the Saturday edition of The Daily Telegraph and ? 1.20 for The Sunday Telegraph. The company has initiated sports sponsorship projects ranging from a ? 50,000 Golf Roots community programme in 2003 through to a partnership with Sky Sports that linked to the England cricket tour to South Africa in 2004/05. This included a special supplements and dedicated Web pages. The newspaper also originated the Fantasy Football format, which has since been adopted by a number of newspapers, magazines and websites. It was the first national newspaper to launch a standalone sports section, when the Sport Monday supplements were added to The Daily Telegraph in March 1990. A similar addition was included with the Saturday edition in January 1998, and to The Sunday Telegraph from October 2003. Sections were added to the remaining daily editions in May 2001. Keith Perry is sports editor of The Daily Telegraph and Jon Ryan holds the same post at The Sunday Telegraph.

Internet: BBC Sport
The BBC Sport website was launched in 2000 to complement television and radio coverage of the Olympic Games in Sydney. It is part of an online portfolio which, following a redesign in 2003, now includes the BBC News, Weather and Sport websites. The site offers editorial, text commentaries and VOD, but not of event highlights. Audio is also accessible on the site either on demand or live via the BBC Radio Five Live and BBC Five Live Sports Extra radio stations. In 2003 a dedicated disability sport section was added in anticipation of increased awareness from the Athens 2004 Paralympic Games. However, in 2004, the BBC announced that the US sports section would be closed because of replication with commercial sites offering similar content. It is not yet clear what effect, if any, the planned relocation of the entire BBC Sport operation from London to Manchester will have on the company's Internet services.

BBC Sport's next major international event will be the Germany 2006 FIFA World Cup which, unlike the 2002 tournament, will be broadcast during peak evening times. In June 2002, the BBC Sport website received more than 250 million page impressions, with 185 million of those being made on its World Cup pages. However, in comparison the official FIFA portal claimed more than 1.7 billion page impressions, with traffic exceeding 125 million views on some days. The official site has been developed with Yahoo! and, unlike the BBC, is able to offer a video highlights subscription service. The Consumer This section of the report analyses data from exclusive research carried out for Mintel by BMRB. The research, taken from a nationally representative sample of 2,003 adults aged 15+, provides an insight into the nature of the sports media market and the attitudes of consumers towards it.

Sports media consumption habits
The first question asked, to determine sports media consumption patterns, was: “In which of the following media do you regularly follow sport? By regularly, I mean either buy more than once a week, subscribe to or log on to.” Figure 38 displays the topline figures for sports media consumption of UK adults. FIGURE 38: Sports media consumption, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ %

Tabloid newspapers (eg The Sun, Daily Mail) Terrestrial television (eg Grandstand, Match of The Day) Satellite/cable television (eg Sky Sports) BBC national/local radio (eg 606, local commentary) Broadsheet newspapers (eg The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph)

28 27 19 13 10

Internet (eg Sporting Life, Football365) Commercial national/local radio (eg talkSPORT, Capital Gold) Sports newspapers (eg Sport First, The Green 'Un) Specialist magazines (eg FourFourTwo) Mobile phone (eg WAP) I never follow any sport

8 5 3 2 2 39

Don't know None of these Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

4

The most popular forms of media for consuming sports coverage are those that are easily accessible, such as newspapers, terrestrial television and radio. As a result, those media that require additional hardware or incur a subscription fee, such as satellite/cable television, the Internet and mobile phones, tend to be used by fewer sports fans. Terrestrial television is still a popular source of sports coverage even though 86% of televised sport is broadcast via satellite/cable television stations. This is because terrestrial television is present in almost all UK households, whilst only 14 million homes have any form of satellite or cable receiver. Furthermore, the country's most popular sports events are protected and must be broadcast on stations such as BBC and ITV. Two forms of new media are very popular with sports fans. The Internet was used by 8% of adults in 2004, which is more than the 5% who listen to commercial radio stations. Mobile phone sports content was accessed by as many consumers as the specialist sports magazines, at 2%.

Demographic analysis of most popular forms of sports media
Figures 39-42 offer a demographic analysis of viewers, listeners and readers of the four most popular

forms of sports media in the UK. FIGURE 39: Most popular forms of sports media, by gender, age, socio-economic group, marital and working status, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Tabloid Terrestrial Satellite/cable BBC newspapers television television (eg national/local (eg The (eg Sky Sports) radio (eg Sun, Daily Grandstand, 606, local Mail) Match of commentary) The Day)

%

%

%

%

All

28

27

19

13

Men

39

36

28

20

Women

18

18

11

7

15-19

39

22

26

7

20-24

37

23

20

10

25-34

25

23

21

12

35-44

27

29

26

18

45-54

31

27

20

16

55-64

23

26

16

14

65+

27

33

10

10

AB

22

28

21

18

C1

28

27

19

11

C2

31

28

20

14

D

34

24

21

11

E

27

29

9

10

Marital status:

Married

27

27

20

14

Not married

30

26

17

12

Working status:

Working

31

27

24

16

Not working

25

27

14

10

Retired Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

23

32

10

13

The number of male sports media consumers is at least twice as many as women for all types of media. Satellite and cable television is even more biased towards the male sports fans, whilst the BBC's radio stations attract almost three times as many male listeners as females. Tabloid newspapers appeal to a younger audience whilst terrestrial television becomes more popular as sports fans grow older. This may be because the format of tabloid newspapers appeals to those people who are commuting or who have young children, whilst terrestrial television is typically a form of inhome entertainment. Despite the cost of satellite and cable equipment and their associated subscription fees, there is only limited variance in the popularity of non-terrestrial television sports channels between all social groups other than the E grouping. Subscribers are much more likely to be working than either not working or retired. Only 10% of those who use cable/satellite television for sports media are retired, compared to 32% of those who enjoy terrestrial television sports coverage. This indicates that there is an unfulfilled market for operators such as Sky Sports. Terrestrial television is a popular medium with all social groups. FIGURE 40: Most popular forms of sports media, by detailed lifestage groups, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Tabloid Terrestrial Satellite/cable BBC newspapers television television (eg national/local (eg The (eg Sky Sports) radio (eg Sun, Daily Grandstand, 606, local Mail) Match of commentary) The Day)

%

%

%

%

All

28

27

19

13

All pre-/no family

35

25

23

15

Pre-/no family singles

39

26

26

15

Pre-/no family couples Pre-/no family – two earners

29

24

19

15

31

25

19

18

Pre-/no family working

38

27

24

18

All families Families – two earners

23

26

24

14

31

31

31

13

Working mother

15

14

14

8

Families with under-10s only

20

22

20

12

Families with 10-15s

33

31

28

15

Parents aged under 35

19

19

18

9

Parents aged over 35

25

30

27

17

All third age

27

26

17

14

Third age singles

24

21

12

13

Third age couples Third age – two earners

25

27

16

14

28

27

20

15

All retired

27

33

10

10

Retired couples

31

33

13

14

Retired singles Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

23

33

7

6

The popularity of sports media is highest amongst pre-/no family singles and young families. This trend is particularly evident for tabloid newspapers and non-terrestrial television. Those families with a working mother tend to have less sports media consumption and this may be attributable to the female consumer having less interest in sport than male consumers. Figure 40 further emphasises the variation between the preferences of retired people when watching sport on terrestrial and non-terrestrial television channels. The data highlight that only 7% of retired people living alone watch sports on satellite/cable television compared to the 33% who watch terrestrial channels such as the BBC and ITV. There is also a notable decline in popularity from pre-/no family and family households to third age consumers. FIGURE 41: Most popular forms of sports media, by region and ACORN categories, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Tabloid Terrestrial Satellite/cable BBC newspapers television television (eg national/local (eg The (eg Sky Sports) radio (eg Sun, Daily Grandstand, 606, local Mail) Match of commentary)

The Day)

%

%

%

%

All

28

27

19

13

London

25

19

17

10

South

27

28

21

11

East/Midlands

31

27

18

13

Wales/West/South West

20

27

19

15

Yorkshire/North East

28

29

20

19

North West

36

34

22

15

Scotland

29

40

26

15

ACORN categories: A – Wealthy Achievers

24

29

17

14

B – Urban Prosperity C – Comfortably Off D – Moderate Means E – Hard Pressed Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

18

28

18

16

26

29

21

13

39

21

18

12

32

25

20

13

There is a trend for sports media to be more popular in the North of England and Scotland than in Wales, the Midlands and the South. Watching televised sport is even less popular in London than in the rest of the South, with only 19% of Londoners claiming to watch terrestrial coverage compared to 28% of those who live in southern counties. Over twice as many Scottish viewers as those in London watch sport on channels such as BBC and ITV. The reasons for this variance may be attributable to regional interest in the major listed sports events that are preserved for terrestrial television channels. FIGURE 42: Most popular forms of sports media, by newspaper readership, commercial TV viewing, supermarket and Internet usage, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Tabloid Terrestrial Satellite/cable BBC newspapers television television (eg national/local (eg The (eg Sky Sports) radio (eg Sun, Daily Grandstand, 606, local Mail) Match of commentary) The Day)

%

%

%

%

All

28

27

19

13

Newspapers:

Daily Express

43

26

16

12

The Mirror

47

27

25

14

The Daily Telegraph

19

30

17

23

The Guardian

9

23

6

13

Daily Mail

51

32

23

18

The Sun

52

28

30

13

The Times

16

31

18

20

Commercial TV viewing:

Light

20

28

9

15

Medium

27

27

18

13

Heavy

37

28

31

12

Supermarket usage:

Asda

32

28

21

15

Marks & Spencer

26

24

21

12

Morrisons

29

25

18

13

Safeway

26

29

19

20

Sainsbury's

25

26

20

15

Tesco

28

26

21

15

Internet usage: Any Internet users 27 27 23 15

Any home users

27

28

24

16

Any work users Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

24

32

25

21

There is only limited variance in the consumer preferences of terrestrial television viewers, with minimal differences in their choice of newspapers, commercial television viewing, choice of supermarkets or Internet usage. However, satellite/cable television viewers are much less likely to be readers of The Guardian newspaper. This is perhaps unsurprising as the newspaper has often campaigned against the influence of the News International empire, which includes BSkyB. However, readers of News International's national newspapers, The Sun and The Times, are no more likely to watch BSkyB's Sky Sports channels than readers of their main competitors, such as The Mirror and The Daily Telegraph. Sky Sports does often advertise in newspapers that are not owned by News International; for example, it has developed a promotional campaign for the 2004/05 England cricket tour of South Africa with The Daily Telegraph. Listeners to sports output transmitted by the BBC's national and local radio stations are much more likely

to be readers of broadsheet newspapers, such as The Daily Telegraph and The Times. This may be a consequence of the more analytical sports coverage of BBC radio and the broadsheets.

Next most popular forms of sports media examined by demographic sub-group
A demographic analysis of viewers, listeners and readers of the next most popular forms of sports media is contained in Figures 43-46. FIGURE 43: Next most popular forms of sports media, by gender, age, socio-economic group, marital and working status, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Broadsheet Internet (eg Commercial I newspapers Sporting national/local never (eg The Life, radio (eg follow Guardian, Football365) talkSPORT, any The Daily Capital sport Telegraph) Gold)

%

%

%

%

All

10

8

5

39

Men

15

13

8

21

Women

5

2

2

56

15-19

3

12

7

43

20-24

11

9

6

39

25-34

6

11

3

42

35-44

10

14

6

36

45-54

12

7

7

36

55-64

10

3

4

44

65+

11

-

2

37

AB

18

11

4

38

C1

10

9

4

37

C2

5

6

6

38

D

5

5

5

43

E

4

2

3

45

Marital status:

Married

11

8

4

38

Not married

8

7

5

41

Working status:

Working

11

10

6

37

Not working

8

4

3

42

Retired Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

12

1

2

39

Both broadsheet newspapers and the Internet are a more popular source of sports content for ABC1 social groups than for those consumers from lower-income households. However, the two formats differ in terms of age groups, with the broadsheets appealing to older readers and sports websites to a younger audience. The Internet is the form of media that has the strongest bias towards the male sports fan. Over six times as many male visitors use sports websites compared to women. In terms of age, the publishers of broadsheet newspapers are the most effective at retaining an even distribution of users in each age group. Very few fans aged 65+ will visit a sports website and commercial radio stations also attract a younger audience. FIGURE 44: Next most popular forms of sports media, by detailed lifestage groups, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Broadsheet Internet (eg Commercial I newspapers Sporting national/local never (eg The Life, radio (eg follow Guardian, Football365) talkSPORT, any The Daily Capital sport Telegraph) Gold)

%

%

%

%

All

10

8

5

39

All pre-/no family

9

13

7

34

Pre-/no family singles

9

12

7

34

Pre-/no family couples Pre-/no family – two earners

11

14

5

35

14

16

4

33

Pre-/no family working

12

12

6

29

All families Families – two earners

8

11

4

44

7

17

8

38

Working mother

5

4

2

63

Families with under-10s only

7

10

3

49

Families with 10-15s

10

11

7

39

Parents aged under 35

5

6

2

53

Parents aged over 35

10

13

6

39

All third age

10

4

5

40

Third age singles

8

3

5

47

Third age couples Third age – two earners

13

5

2

40

13

9

6

38

All retired

11

-

2

37

Retired couples

13

-

3

30

Retired singles Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

9

-

2

45

The data in Figure 44 confirm the popularity of broadsheet newspapers with older readers and, in particular, with retired couples. The large-format newspapers are least popular with families, although there is some evidence that pre-/no family preferences are revived in third age households. This can be attributed to the pressure on family households to utilise media, such as the Internet, that appeal to children. Sports websites are most popular with pre-/no family and family households. It is probable that older third age and retired consumers will be late adopters of Internet technologies, and sports fans in these lifestage groups will have a preference for more traditional forms of media such as broadsheet newspapers. FIGURE 45: Next most popular forms of sports media, by region and ACORN categories, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Broadsheet Internet (eg Commercial I newspapers Sporting national/local never (eg The Life, radio (eg follow

Guardian, Football365) talkSPORT, any The Daily Capital sport Telegraph) Gold)

%

%

%

%

All

10

8

5

39

London

12

7

4

37

South

15

9

3

37

East/Midlands

10

7

7

38

Wales/West/South West

10

7

1

39

Yorkshire/North East

8

10

6

43

North West

8

7

4

38

Scotland

10

7

6

41

ACORN categories: A – Wealthy Achievers

15

9

3

37

B – Urban Prosperity C – Comfortably Off D – Moderate Means E – Hard Pressed Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

15

9

4

37

9

7

5

40

7

6

6

40

4

8

5

41

Broadsheet newspapers are less popular with sports media users in London than in the rest of the South. This statistic may change as and when the new tabloid format of titles such as The Independent and The Times is adopted by more readers in the capital. Commercial radio is extremely unpopular with Welsh sports fans, with just 1% of adults listening to national or commercial stations to access sports content. This cannot necessarily be attributed to any English bias from the UK's only national commercial sports station, talkSPORT, because the number of listeners in Scotland is comparable to those from a number of regions in England. FIGURE 46: Next most popular forms of sports media, by newspaper readership, commercial TV viewing, supermarket and Internet usage, October 2004 Base: 2,003 adults aged 15+ Broadsheet Internet (eg Commercial I newspapers Sporting national/ never (eg The Life, local radio follow Guardian, Football365) (eg any The Daily talkSPORT, sport Telegraph) Capital Gold)

%

%

%

%

All

10

8

5

39

Newspapers:

Daily Express

8

3

6

31

The Mirror

7

9

5

31

The Daily Telegraph

39

12

6

31

The Guardian

39

6

5

43

Daily Mail

10

7

5

29

The Sun

5

11

5

27

The Times

37

13

7

35

Commercial TV viewing:

Light

15

8

3

45

Medium

9

7

4

38

Heavy

5

9

6

36

Supermarket usage:

Asda

8

9

5

37

Marks & Spencer

13

4

3

40

Morrisons

9

7

3

40

Safeway

11

6

4

36

Sainsbury's

12

8

5

39

Tesco

10

9

5

39

Internet usage:

Any Internet users

12

15

5

37

Any home users

13

16

5

36

Any work users Source: BMRB/Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

19

22

6

32

Readers of The Times, The Sun and The Daily Telegraph are much more likely to access sports websites than those that read the mid-market tabloids. This is perhaps not surprising as the publishers of these titles have yet to develop a sophisticated online presence. The Daily Express aborted its online version of the newspaper and it was only in 2004 that the Daily Mail introduced news content to its Internet portal. Only 6% of adults who read The Guardian newspaper also access the Internet as a source of sports media. This may be of some concern to the publishers, who were early pioneers in developing news and sports Internet portals. Mintel is able to offer further analysis of its exclusive research, tailored to individual clients? needs. It is

possible, for example, to net and/or combine codes to create new attitudinal, usage or demographic groups, and cross-analysis can show how the answers to any questions or categories are related. For further details and a quote, please call our statisticians – Peter Ayton and Shaheed Alam – on 020 7606 4533 The Future The owners of sports properties and media brands will need to maintain a mutually beneficial relationship to optimise their market value. Sports organisations, including national governing bodies, clubs, event promoters and athlete representatives, need media coverage to entice and maintain interest from spectators and participants, and to provide sponsors with media exposure for their brands. Sport is also key content for many media organisations, in terms of maximising audience, circulation, listener figures and generating revenue from these customers.

Legal challenges
The intellectual property of many sports organisations is its most valuable assets. As digital media formats develop, it is likely that many brands will need to protect these resources. Already, a number of governing bodies and clubs, including FIFA and Liverpool FC, have had to issue legal proceedings to retrieve Internet domain names that have been registered by other users. FIFA and Major League Baseball in the US have also had to use litigation to prevent piracy of their online content, such as images, video and audio output. Electronic media have widened the audience for many sports and have therefore increased the value of data associated with certain sports. In 2004, the FA Premier and Football League sought to introduce more stringent controls on the distribution of fixtures, which are increasingly being used to generate revenue from services such as subscription and fantasy football games. Sports media that are aimed at the domestic consumer can also be sourced by an international audience. Furthermore, sports fans in the UK have increasing access to international coverage. This has further added to the complexity of legislation that will continue to affect the industry. For example, the European Court upheld the rights of France, and other European Union (EU) member states, to ban alcohol advertising and sponsorship. Brands and their legal representatives will seek to overcome EU law. The sponsors of the Heineken Cup were able to rebrand the competition as the 'H Cup' in France, although Liverpool FC were not permitted to replace the Carlsberg logo with the brand's slogan 'Probably' when they played a match in the same country. Similar legislation has already been introduced for tobacco marketing and, with increasing concerns about obesity and diet, there is likely to be a more vociferous lobby to curtail the promotion of junk food and confectionery via sports properties.

Technology and digital convergence
The sports media industry has been transformed by changes in technology. The primary influences have been the development of new media formats and the continuing convergence of digital media, including television, Internet, radio and mobile services.

Satellite, cable and digital terrestrial television have been key drivers in raising the profile, and the associated rights values, of sports properties in the UK. Some providers are developing an array of tools, including interactive services, multiple camera views (which have proved particularly popular for sports such as football and motor sport) and real-time statistics. It is likely that these tools will become more sophisticated as the number of users and levels of usage increase. Another technology that will be adopted by more users is high-definition television (HDTV). Special cameras and broadcast equipment are used to produce television pictures of a superior quality to those that are currently available, but viewers will need to upgrade their hardware. It is believed that sport will be a major driver and, in particular, that the 2006 FIFA World Cup will generate increased sales of HDTV sets. Sky Sports has stated that its priority will be to cover all FA Premier League football matches in high definition and the service could be introduced by August 2005. The technology will benefit coverage of high-speed sports such as motor sports and ice hockey. More viewers are now using personal video recorders (PVRs), such as Sky+, to record and watch television output. PVRs use a hard disk, as opposed to the traditional video cassette tape, that enables a viewer to record, pause and replay television programmes. This will transform the way that fans will watch sport, but there are concerns that the value of sponsorship and advertising will be diminished, as viewers will have tools that will enable them to avoid commercial breaks. Broadband will have a major impact on Internet sports and will increase the scope for transmitting live coverage or VOD of sports events. This will create a new channel for rights holders and is likely to be utilised by owners from minority sports as well as by the promoters of global tournaments. In the UK, non-league conference football is already available online via PPV, whilst FIFA is further enhancing its partnership with Yahoo! to develop a subscription service for all matches in the 2006 FIFA World Cup.

Mobile on the move
Whereas in-home media channels are forecast to merge, there is evidence that the number of mobile platforms is increasing. These include mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), laptop PCs and Apple eBooks, digital radios, iPods and other audio players, and even handheld video game consoles such as Game Boys. The transmission of sports content has yet to be developed for many of these formats. Mobile phone providers are expected to further utilise sports content. The roll-out of 3G technology has been delayed due to concerns about the costs of licences, the quality of the 3G network and handsets, and consumer scepticism from the unpromised potential of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). However, all the major operators will be developing their 3G services in 2005. Mobile technology is also being used to enhance the experience of those attending sports events. The use of electronic media in sports stadia has previously been restricted to Internet services media centres or airline-style seat consoles in VIP areas. However, 3G and Wi Fi applications will enable all fans to access real-time data, audio and video content. This will be particularly beneficial to spectators of sports that include multiple events, such as track and field athletics, or those that are difficult for an individual to follow from one location, such as motor sports and golf. Another channel is being developed by Microsoft. In 2004 the company launched a smart watch in North America. It has already negotiated a partnership with the sports content provider ESPN to supply news, score updates and statistics.

Extra sources of revenue
Media companies and rights holders will seek to develop new sources of revenue from their network of resources and extensive customer base. Sports organisations will have to balance the objectives of either securing revenue from media companies, who in turn generate fees from subscription or PPV services, or the potential for increased exposure and sponsorship from free-to-air broadcasts. The lack of a subscription or PPV facility on Freeview may affect the quantity and quality of sports content that will be available on DTT in the UK. League operators and club owners are also beginning to compete with the established media networks. Some domestic organisations are attempting to replicate the business models of organisations such as the major league operators in the US. The National Basketball Association (NBA) launched NBA TV in 2003 and the National Football League (NFL) did likewise in 2003. In 2004, Major League Baseball launched the Baseball Channel. However, the Scottish Premier League has already aborted attempts to introduce a similar platform in the UK. Some football clubs have established their own television and radio stations. The most successful of these, in terms of content and accessibility, is MUTV. This is joint venture between Manchester United FC and BSkyB plc. Media companies such as BSkyB and Granada also own stakes in a number of football clubs, but have yet to maximise the potential of club-branded media. Forecast Given the consumer-based nature of this report Mintel has produced a forecast of consumer typologies, which have been compiled based on consumer attitudes towards sport and the media. This will be important in gauging interest towards sport in the media and perhaps give pointers to how the media should target consumers over the next five years. The consumer typologies are as follows: Sport Addicts (12%) are the most keen on watching, reading about or listening to sport. Part-time Supporters (9%) will dip into a number of sports, with a particular eye on their favourite team or sport. Disillusioned (15%) feel disillusioned by the overexposure of sport in the media, particularly that of football. Unsporting (64%) are generally disinterested in sport. Using certain assumptions three scenarios of the number of people within these typologies have been produced, and compared with the changes to the overall 15+ adult population. Scenario 1 This scenario takes the penetration of the four groups by age, socio-economic group and lifestage, and by using the expected changes to these demographic groups up to 2009, a forecast of the number in each of the groups is produced. In this scenario it is assumed that the proportion of people within the groups

will remain the same over the forecast period. This scenario sees the Disillusioned consumers show the fastest rate of growth, increasing by 3.5%, higher than the rate of growth for the overall adult population (+3%). The Part-time Supporters and Unsporting groups are forecast to grow only slightly behind the rate for all adults (2.9%). The Sport Addicts, the key consumer group for sport and the media, will show the least growth of 2.4% over the 2004-09 period. FIGURE 80: Forecast of sport and the media typologies, Scenario 1, 2004 and 2009 Base: adults aged 15+ 2004 2009 % change 200409

m

m

Sport Addicts Part-time Supporters Disillusioned Unsporting

5.65 4.51 7.55 31.11

5.79 4.64 7.81 32.02

+2.4 +2.9 +3.5 +2.9

Total adults Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

48.81

50.26

+3.0

It will be a worry to the industry that if attitudes towards sport and the media were to remain the same among the demographic groups, the Disillusioned group will show the greatest rate of growth and the Sport Addicts the lowest. This can be attributed to the fact that Disillusioned consumers are skewed towards the ABs, because the upward movement in social scale will mean that more people will be in this Disillusioned group. On the other hand, the Sport Addicts are skewed towards the C2Ds, which will clearly have the opposite effect of dampening growth in the number of people in this group.

The Part-time Supporters average rate of growth (+2.9%) is a reflection of the fairly consistent penetration rates among the age, socio-economic and lifestage group. Meanwhile the Unsporting will show the same rate of growth, but it is by some distance the largest of the groups, consisting of those who are a cold target market. Scenario 2 Scenario 2 also takes the penetration of the groups by age, socio-economic group and lifestage. However, here it is assumed that there will be a decrease in the proportion of Disillusioned and Unsporting consumers, and a subsequent increase in the proportion of Sport Addicts and Part-time Supporters. So it is assumed that there will be a 2-percentage point decrease within each of the demographic groups of people who are Disillusioned and Unsporting. For the other two groups there will be a 2-percentage point increase. This is a more positive scenario for the sport market as it will give a potentially larger target market who will be interested in the consumption of sport via the media. The key consumer group, the Sport Addicts, will increase by 20.2% over the 2004-09 period, so that they reach 6.8 million, matching the number of Disillusioned consumers who will fall by 9.8%. The Part-time Supporters will show the fastest rate of growth, increasing by just over a quarter but will remain the smallest of the groups. The Unsporting will continue to make up the majority of the population with the number of people in this group remaining fairly static, only showing a minimal decline of 0.3%. FIGURE 81: Forecast of sport and the media typologies, Scenario 2, 2004 and 2009 Base: adults aged 15+ 2004 2009 % change 200409

m

m

Sport Addicts Part-time Supporters Disillusioned Unsporting

5.65 4.51 7.55 31.11

6.80 5.64 6.81 31.01

+20.2 +25.2 -9.8 -0.3

Total adults Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

48.81

50.26

+3.0

Despite the Unsporting consumers remaining by far and away the largest group, this scenario sees a more positive outlook for sport and the media, with a greater potential target market who will read about, watch or listen to sport via various media. Perhaps the most interesting feature of this scenario is the decline in the Disillusioned, who are particularly concerned with the overexposure of football. So for this scenario to come to fruition a better balance of coverage would be required for the Disillusioned to become either Sport Addicts or more likely Part-time Supporters. The development of new media formats, as explained in The Future section, should help this, with consumers being able to access a wider range of sports. So the lesson here for media outlets is to use the new media to not only promote the major sports, most notably football, but also give more of their resources to the so-called minority sports which would widen the target market. Scenario 3 Scenario 3 assumes the opposite in that there will be a decrease in the proportion of Part-time Supporters and Sport Addicts and an increase in the proportion of Disillusioned and Unsporting consumers. It is assumed that there will be a 2-percentage point decrease within each of the demographic groups of people who are Part-time Supporters and Sport Addicts, while the Disillusioned and Unsporting are both assumed to show 2-percentage point increase over the 2004-09 period. Clearly this is a pessimistic scenario for sport in the media with more people turning away from it. The Disillusioned are forecast to show the most growth in this scenario, increasing by 16.5% to some 8.8 million people, while the Unsporting consumers reinforce their dominance, rising by 6.2%. On the other hand the Part-time Supporters will fall by 19.4%, and the Sport Addicts by 15.4%. FIGURE 82: Forecast of sport and the media typologies, Scenario 3, 2004 and 2009 Base: adults aged 15+ 2004 2009 % change 200409

m

m

Sport Addicts Part-time Supporters Disillusioned Unsporting

5.65 4.51 7.55 31.11

4.79 3.63 8.79 33.02

-15.4 -19.4 +16.5 +6.2

Total adults Source: Mintel [ download into spreadsheet ]

48.81

50.26

+3.0

There will always be a hardcore group of people who are simply just not interested in sport (ie the Unsporting), but there is the danger that the overexposure of sport in the media will make more of the Part-time Supporters into Disillusioned ones, which is assumed in this scenario, and is therefore something that the industry needs to be wary of.


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