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高中英语人教社模块8unit1


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模块 8 Unit 1 A land of diversity
Ⅰ.单词荟萃 1.________ adj. 清晰的;明显的;明确的→_________n. 差别; 区分;卓著 2.________ n.手段;方法 → ________v . 意 思 是 ; 打 算 ; 意 味 着

→ ________n . 意 思 , 意 义 → _____________ adj. 有 意 义 的 → ______________adj.无意义的 3. ________n. 大多数; 大半→________ adj.主要的, 最重要的→________n. 少 数;少数民族 4.____________ n.百分比;百分率→________n.百分之几 5.________vt.指出;标示; 表明;暗示→___________ n. 象征;标示;表明;暗示 6.________ adj.人种的;种族的→________ n.种 族;比赛 7.________ n. 申请人→________v. 申请;应用→_____________n.申请;应用 8.________ n. 社会主义者;社会党人 adj.社会主义者的→________ n.社会主义→________ n. 社会 9.________ vi.发生; 出现→___________ n. 发生; 出现 10. ____________ adj.显而易见的; 显然的; 表面上的→____________adv. 显然地;显而易见地 Ⅱ.短语检测 1.用??方法;借助?? 3.与某人合作或一起工作 _____________2.坚持;维持;沿袭(风俗、传统等) ______________________4.包括;吸收 _________________ ______________________ ____________________

5.继续存在 ________________________6.习惯于新的生活方式、工作等 7.申请;请示得到 _________________________8.背靠背 _9.画线;标出??界线 Ⅲ.佳句再现 _____________________10.许多

______________________ _____________________________

1.______________,the cable car system was invented by Andrew Hallidie,who wanted to find a better form of transport than horse - drawn trams. 缆车系统建立于 1873 年 2 . However, ____________________ Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago. 然而,美洲土著人很可能在至少 15,000 年前就在加州生活着。3.______________ today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language.那就是今天有超过 40%的加利福尼亚人把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的原因。 4. ________________before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups,but simply a mixture of many races and cultures.人们认为,要不了多久 5.…it was the building of the rail network from the west to the east coast ____________even larger numbers to California in the 1860s. ??更大批量的移民却是在 19 世纪 60 年代为了修建贯穿美国东西海岸的铁路而来到加州的。 6. Exactly when the first people arrived in ____________________California, no one really knows. 没有人真正知 道,第一批开拓者到达我们现在称之为加利福尼亚的确切时间。 Ⅳ.单元语法(名词性从句) 1.After ________ seemed an endless wait, it was his turn to enter the director's office. A.that B.it C.what D.which 2.With time going by, we have come to realize that creativity is ________ it takes to keep a nation highly competitive. A.what B.how C.why D.that 3.________ leads a life full of love is rich even though he doesn't have much money. A.Whenever B.However C.Whatever D.Whoever 4. It's no longer a question now ________ man can land on the moon. A. that B. which C. whether D. what 5.The newcomer went to the library the other day in search of ________ he could find about Mark Twain. A.wherever B.whatever C.whoever D.however ◇ 单词点睛 ◇ 1 means n. (a method or way of doing sth)手段;方法(单数和复数形式相同)by means of 用??办法; 借助??by all means 一定,务必;好的,当然可以 by no means 决不,一点儿也不 by every means 用 尽一切可能的办法[温馨提示] (1)means 表示“方式,方法”时,单复数同形。当 means 作主语且有 every, each 等修饰时,谓语动词用单数;由 some,several,few,many 等修饰时,谓语动词用复数。(2)当短语 by no means 置于句首时,句子要用部分倒装结构。 【易混辨析】method, way, means, approach 与 manner(1)method 指有系统、有条理地办事或解决问题的 方法。尤指有次序的、有计划的方法,较正式,常和介词 of 搭配。(2)way 是常用词,可指一般的方法,有 1

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时也指个人的方法或方式,也可指特殊的方式或方法,常和介词 in 搭配。(3)means 指为达到某种目的或目 标而采用的方法、手段或途径,常和介词 by 搭配。(4)approach 指从事某事的特别方法、途径,常与介词 to 搭配使用。 (5)manner 指为人处世的方式、待人接物的方式。 【活学活用】 (1)[2013?重庆卷?阅读 E] In other words, English weather-speak is a means of social bonding.换句话说, 英国谈 论天气是一种社交联系的方式。(2)The water can be carried ________________a pipe.水可以用管道输送。 (3)This is ________________ the first time you have been late.这绝不是你第一次迟到了。 (4)Every possible means has been tried, and we find only by this means ________________ to persuade him. 一切 可行的方式都试过了,结果我们发现只有用这种方法才可能劝得动他。 2 majority n. (the larger number or amount, especially of people)大多数;大半(1)be in the/a majority 构成大部分/大多数 a majority over sb 超过对方的票数(2)major adj. 较大的;主要的 n. 主修课程;专 业课 v. 主修,专攻 major in 主修,专攻(3)minority n. 少数;少数民族;未成年[温馨提示] (1)the majority of sb/sth,其后的谓语动词取决于 of 之后的名词;the majority 作主语时,谓语动词用单数或复 数皆可。 (2)majority 的反义词是 minority, 意为“少数; 少数派;少数人; 少数民族”, 复数形式是 minorities。 【活学活用】 (1)[2012?四川卷?阅读 E] Predicting species' reaction to climate change is a major challenge in ecology. (2)What are we to do next under the assumption ______________________________ the plan? 假设大多数人反对这个计 划,我们下一步该怎么办?(3)What subject did you________________ when you were in university? 你在大学 主 修 的 科 目 是 什 么 ? (4)Part-time workers, __________________________ are women, are at double disadvantages.兼职工作者多数为女性, 她们处于双重的不利条件下 3 elect v. (choose by voting)选择;决定;选举 elect sb (as/to be) 选举某人(为)?? elect sb to… 选举某人进入??elect to do sth 选择或决定做某事 【活学活用】(1)[2012?浙江卷?自选模块] The goose would need some salt, so I was elected to go into Dad's barn(谷仓) for it. (2)He was the first black________________ Mayor. 他是第一个被选为市长的黑人。 (3)Is there any possibility ____________________ the next Korea's president?她有可能会当选为下一届的韩国 总统吗?(4)__________________________________________________________________made us think of a lot.他当选为我们的主席让我们想起了许多。 4 occur vi. (occurred, occurred; occurring)(happen)发生;存在;出现(1)…occur/come to sb 某人突然 想起??(2)…strike/hit sb 某人突然想起??(3)It occurs to sb that… 某人突然想起??It strikes/hits sb that… 某人突然想起??[温馨提示] occur 是英语中很重要的动词, 它用法灵活,常作为命题点来考查。 经常考查的角度是 sth occurs to sb 或 It occurs to sb that…以及 occur,happen, take place 等动词或动词短 语的意义和用法辨析 【活学活用】(1)[2012?辽宁卷?阅读 A] A thought suddenly occurred to Annika.“Did you…You recognized the man in the car, didn't you?” (2)His name just did not ________________ my memory. 我就是想不起他的名字 来。 (3)____________________________ he might be falling in love with her. 他从未想过自己会爱上她。 (4)I was going along the street looking for a place to park ____________________________ .我正在街道上找地方停车 的时候,事故发生了。 5 indicate vt. (show sth, especially by pointing or suggesting the possibility) 指出;标示;表明;暗示 indicate sth (to sb) 向(某人)表示某事;把??指给(某人)看 indicate that… 表示??;示意?? 【活学活用】(1)[2012?浙江卷?阅读 C] A report on violence among middle school and high school students indicates that most violent incidents between students begin with a relatively minor insult( 侮辱).(2)With a nod of his head he ________________ me where I should sit. 他点头示意我应坐的地方。 (3)He shook his head ________________ he did not know it. 他 摇 摇 头 表 示 自 己 不 知 道 这 件 事 。 (4)Kingston-upon-Thames, __________________, is situated on the bank of the Thames. 泰晤士河畔金斯顿,正如其名称所示,坐落在 泰晤士河畔。 6 slip vi. (slipped,slipped;slipping)(lose one's balance; fall or almost fall)滑动;滑行;滑跤 n. 滑倒; 小过失; 滑动 slip into 悄悄进入, 溜进去; 悄悄塞进 slip away 悄悄溜走 slip out of 意外地从??滑出, 掉出;溜出去 slip down 滑倒 let…slip 错过??;失去??[温馨提示] slide 和 slip 都有“滑”之意,但是 slide 是有意地“滑,平稳而顺畅地滑行”,slip 则指的是不由自主地“滑,滑倒”。 【活学活用】(1)She looked round before pulling out a package and slipping it to the man. 她四下里看了看,然后拿出一个包裹,偷偷地塞给了那个男人。(2)He________________ the house without being seen.他趁人不注意就溜进了那间屋子。(3)用 out of, down, away,into 填空。 ①My aunt has slipped ________in the High Street and hurt her ankle, so I have to take her to the doctor. ②I have 2

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to come late, so I'll slip________ the room at the back, if you'll save me a place. ③I'll slip________ the meeting as quietly as I can. I have a train to catch so I can't stay to the end. ④I hope we can slip ________before she notices. ◇ 短语储存 ◇ 1 keep up (使)不倒下(不下沉);保持,不减弱;跟上,赶上;保养,维修;使熬夜 keep up to… 保 持与??一样高 keep up with 跟上,不落后;与??并肩前进 keep up one's spirits 振作精神 keep up to date 使跟上时代 keep it up 坚持下去,坚持不懈 【活学活用】(1)We have to work hard to keep up with these excellent students. 为了跟上这些优秀学生,我们得 努力学习了。(2)指出 keep up 在句中的不同含义。 ①We are very anxious to keep up the reputation of the firm._________________________________ ②In spite of the unfavourable weather, the grain output of the farm kept up and even increased a little.________________________ ③ The work is too difficult for me and I am not able to keep up.____________________④I don't want to keep you up; you look very sleepy.________ ⑤The surviving sailors managed to keep up for several hours and were eventually picked up by a lifeboat.________ ⑥The historic mansion was presented by the owner to the city, and is now kept up by the local authorities.______________ (3)[2012?湖北卷] Walking alone in the dark, the boy whistled to________his courage. A.hold up B.keep up C.set up D.take up 2 team up with (cooperate with)相称, 合伙; 合作, 协作 keep up with 跟上 catch up with 赶上____ up with 忍受;容忍 end up with 以……结束 【活学活用】(1)It's a pleasure to team up with such excellent workers.和这样出色的工人一起干活真愉快。(2) 用 team up with, keep up with, put up with ,end up with 的适当形式填空。 ①She always stays up late to study in order to ______________ the others. ②It's too delightful of you to be so nice to him, and ______________ all his tiresome stories. ③The party ______________a song that everyone is familiar with. ④I need to______________ your firm in a business project. Could you put me through to your boss? (3)The agreement indicates that the two companies will ________ with each other again. A.team up B.turn up C.look up D.pick up 3 mark out 画线; 标出??的界线; 规划 mark out for 看中; 选定 mark down 写下, 记下; 降低?? 的价格;打低分 be marked with… 标记着??;被标上??记号【活学活用】(1)When planting seedlings I prefer to mark out the rows in advance.种树苗的时候,我更喜欢事先标出行来。(2)指出 mark out 在句中的不 同含义。①The site of the new chemical fertilizer plant has been marked out.___________ ②The directions of urban development have been marked out._____________③He was marked out as the most promising young soldier in the whole army._____________(3)It does not appear to possess any of the obvious signs that would mark it________as a restaurant. A.down B.up C.out D.with 4 take in 包括;吸收;接纳;欺骗;缩小(尺寸)take apart 拆开;剖析,抨击(论点等);轻易打败 take down 拿下,取下;拆卸;记下 take back 取回,带回;收回说过的话;使??回忆 take up 开始 从事;占用(时间或空间);着手处理;继续(中断的话),接下去讲 take over 继承;接收,接管 take off 脱 下(衣服等);起飞;腾飞 take on 承担,从事;呈现【活学活用】用 take 短语的正确形式填空。 ①I'm sorry I was rude; I ___________ everything I said.②We find it difficult to ________what he teaches. ③ The company decided to________ a new secretary.④When the picture was__________, the wall looked very bare. ⑤Would you like me to ___________the driving for a while? ⑥Bill Gates is really a great man, whose career________ in his early thirties.⑦England was really____________ by Italy in last night's match. ⑧I'll _____________ the story where I finished yesterday. 5 表示“许多”的单词和短语: 修饰可数名词 many a good/great many (of) many a(n) a large/great number of quite a few 修饰不可数名词 much a large amount of a great deal of large amounts of 二者皆可 a lot of/lots of a large quantity of quantities of masses of plenty of 【易错警示】 a good/great many 后接复数名词, 但 a good/great many 后接 of 时, of 后的名词前必须加限定词 these/those/the/one's 等, 然后再加复数名词。 [温馨提示] (1)a large amount of 修饰不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式,而 large amounts of 修饰不可数名词时,谓语 动词用复数形式。 如: A large amount of money was spent on the bridge. Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.修建这座桥花费了大量的金钱。(2)quantities of 无论修饰可数名词复数还是修饰不可数名词, 谓语动词都用复数形式。如:Quantities of paper are wasted because of the use of copy machines. Quantities of nuts were on the table. In the 2006 Guangdong Industrial Fair, ________ electronic equipment, good in both quality and style, will be shown. A.a good many B.masses of C.a large number of D.quite a few (3)________the buildings were knocked down in the earthquake. A.A great many B.The number of C.A great many of D.A great deal of 3

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◇ 句型透视 ◇ 1. Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows.没有人真正知道,第一批开拓者到达我们现在称之为加利福尼亚的确切时间。句型公式 what 在名 词性从句中的语义和语法功能【句式点拨】这是一个多重复合句, what 在本句中引导宾语从句,作介词 in 的宾语,意为“所??之事”。what 用作代词,在意义上译法非常灵活,它可以指“??的东西;??的 人;??的时间;??的地点”等;在句法中可以作主语、宾语、表语,相当于定语从句中的“先行词+关 系代词”。具体用法如下:(1)指代“??的东西”,意为“什么;多少;怎么;??的;所??的 ”,相当于 something that。如:It matters not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think.重要的不仅仅是你怎么想,而是别人认为你怎么想及你认为他们认为你怎么想。 (2)指代“??的人”,意为 “??的样子;面貌;状况”,相当于 the person that/who。如: —In my opinion, you should owe your success mostly to your parents. —You are right. They have brought me up and made me what I am.“我认为你的成功主要归功于你的父 母。 ”“对, 是他们把我培养成我现在的样子。”(3)指代 “??的地方”,相当于 the place that。如:A modern city has been set up in what was a wasteland ten years ago.一座现代化城市已在十年前还是一片荒地的地方 建起来了。 (4)指代“??的时间”, 相当于 the time that。 如: After what seemed to be a long time, the soldier came back to life.似乎过了很长时间之后,这名士兵才苏醒了过来。 【活学活用】(1)We are proud of what we've achieved in the past ten years. (2)Will you give us some ideas of ______________________ at the next meeting? (take up)下次会议要讨论什么, 你能给我们一些建议吗? (3)_______________ was that they have all suffered a lot. (strike) 给我很深印象的是他们都受过很多苦 (4)[2013?北京卷] ________ makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer. A.That B.What C.Who D.Which likely possible probable ①it is likely+that 从句②sb is likely to do sth 但一般不用于 it is likely for sb to do sth ①it is possible (for sb) to do sth②it is possible+that 从句但不用于 sb is possible to do sth 常用于:it is probable+that 从句

【活学活用】(1)If you're reading this article, it's likely that you spend a fair amount of time online. =If you're reading this article, you are likely to spend a fair amount of time online. (2)It is likely that many have not heard of the car accident.=Many are likely not _______________ the car accident.可能许多人还没有听说过这起汽车 事故。 (3)How is it ________ for people from such diverse cultures to agree broadly on who is beautiful and who is not? 来自各种文化的人们怎么可能对谁是美女有着如此广泛的认同呢(4)Ronaldo was ________ to win the race, but he fell to the ground and missed the chance. A.possible B.probable C.likely D.maybe 单项填空 1. Social________ are very different from one country to another and we should always remember : when in Rome, do as the Romans do. A.customs B.comments C.habits D.cultures 2.Our government is trying its best to ________ the social security system to protect people's rights. A.balance B.reform C.conduct D.press 3.To all the ________,previous teaching experience is a necessary qualification for this job. A.applicants B.employers C.employees D.interviewers 4 . With everything arranged properly , the project is surely to ________ smoothly as planned step by step .A.improve B.increase C.progress D.occur 5.It's a pity that research________ that 81% of teachers are dissatisfied with their salary. A.summarizes B.suggests C.infers D.indicates 6.Many people think it's very difficult to ________ a conversation with someone who only says “yes” or “no”.A.break off B.focus on C.keep up D.listen to 7. The professor's lecture was so complicated that I simply couldn't ________ at all. Will you please explain it to me? A.move it in B.bring it in C.take it in D.cut it in 8.The participants were encouraged to ________ others in the class to do the project, and the entire team would get credits. A.keep up with B.team up with C.come up with D.put up with 9.Although the necklace is not made of real crystal,the shape and its size still ________ many young people to buy it .A.appeal to B.fit for C.go with D.apply for 10.The large wooden boxes were so heavy that the workers had to lift them ________ a crane. A.by means of B.in exchange for C.in terms of D.in favour of 11.His shop was so well managed that he sold in just 5 months ________ his competitor sold in a year. A.how B.what C.whether D.why 12.Local studies show that students from Shiyan High School are more ________ to be admitted into key universities .A.sure B.possible C.probable D.likely

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