当前位置:首页 >> 其它课程 >>

05 Perception and Individual Decision Making


Robbins & Judge

Organizational Behavior
13th Edition

Perception and Individual Decision Making

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-0

Chapter Learning Objectives
? After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
– Define perception and explain the factors that influence it. – Explain attribute theory and list the three determinants of attribution. – Identify the shortcuts individuals use in making judgments about others. – Explain the link between perception and decision making. – Apply the rational model of decision making and contrast it with bounded rationality and intuition. – List and explain the common decision biases or errors. – Explain how individual differences and organizational constraints affect decision making. – Contrast the three ethical decision criteria. – Define creativity and discuss the three-component model of creativity.
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall . 6-1

What is Perception?
? A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. ? Perception is the way people organize the massive amounts of information they receive into patterns that give it meaning. ? People will use their perceptions of reality, not reality itself, to decide how to behave.

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-2

What is he doing?

What image do you see in this figure?

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-4

What does this sign say?

I love Paris in THE THE springtime

Which one is bigger or longer?

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-6

What do you think is taking place?

Conclusions
? The world which you perceived ≠ The real world ? The world which you perceived≠ The world which others perceived ? Maybe both are not reality

Factors that Influence Perception

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-9

Attribution Theory: Judging Others
? Our perception and judgment of others is significantly influenced by our assumptions of the other person?s internal state.
– When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
? Internal causes are under that person?s control ? External causes are not under the person?s control

? Causation judged through:
– Distinctiveness
? Shows different behaviors in different situations

– Consensus
? Response is the same as others to same situation

– Consistency
? Responds in the same way over time
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-10

Elements of Attribution Theory

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-11

Errors and Biases in Attributions
? Fundamental Attribution Error
– The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others – In general, We blame people first, not the situation

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-12

Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d)
? Self-Serving Bias
– The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors – It is “our” success but “their” failure

Thought: When students get an 'A' on an exam, they often say they studied hard. (internal attribution) But when they don?t do well, self-serving bias is likely to have come into play if they say the examiner set a 'tough? exam. (external attribution)
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-13

Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
? Selective Perception
– People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.

? Halo Effect
– Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-14

Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others(cont’d)
? Contrast Effects
– Evaluation of a person?s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics

? Projection
– Attributing one?s own characteristics to other people

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-15

Another Shortcut: Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – a prevalent and often useful, if not always accurate, generalization ?Profiling
– A form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single, often racial, trait.

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-16

Specific Shortcut Applications in Organizations
? Employment Interview
– Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers? judgments of applicants – Formed in a single glance – 1/10 of a second!

? Performance Expectations
– Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities

? Performance Evaluations
– Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee?s job performance – Critical impact on employees
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-17

Perceptions and Individual Decision Making
? Problem
– A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state

? Decisions
– Choices made from among alternatives developed from data

? Perception Linkage:
– All elements of problem identification and the decision-making process are influenced by perception.
? Problems must be recognized ? Data must be selected and evaluated

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-18

Explain how perception affects the decision making process
Problem
A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state

Decisions
Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant

Perception of the Decision Maker

Outcomes

How Should Decisions Be Made?
Rational decision-making model Describes how individuals should behave in order to maximise some outcome The “perfect world” model: assumes complete information, all options known, and maximum payoff
Model Assumptions: ? Problem clarity ? Known options ? Clear preferences ? Constant preferences ? No time or cost constraints ? Maximum payoff

Rational Decisions: ? Consistent ? Value maximizing

The six steps in the rational decision-making model

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define the problem Identify the decision criteria Allocate weights to the criteria Develop the alternatives Evaluate the alternatives Select the best alternative.

An example of make rational decision-making

100 needles in a haystack

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-22

Another example of make rational decision-making
The six steps in the rational decision-making model ? 1、Define the problem ? A girl want to choose a boyfriend from several Candidate.

? 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

5-23

2、Identify the decision criteria
criteria
1、Features 2、Height

weight

criteria
6、Excessive drinking 7、Smoker

weight

3、Weight
4、Family Background

8、
shortsightedness

9、

5、Property

10

3、Allocate weights to the criteria
criteria
1、Features

weight
0.5

criteria
6、Excessive drinking

weight
-0.2

2、Height
3、Weight 4、Family Background 5、Property

0.2
0.2 0.3 0.4

7、Smoker
8、Short sight 9、 10

-0.2
-0.1

4、Develop the alternatives
? ? ? ? Candidate A Candidate B Candidate C Candidate D

5、Evaluate the alternative
criteria
1、Features 2、Height 3、Weight 4、Family Background 5、Property 6、Excessive drinking 7、Smoker

Candidate A

Candidate B

Candidate C

Candidate D

8、Short sight
9、 10

An example of make rational decision-making(cont’d)
6、Select the best alternative Her choice is Candidate________

How are decisions actually made in organisations?
? Bounded Reality
– The “real world” model: seeks satisfactory and sufficient solutions from limited data and alternatives – Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-29

Reflection: Decision Making
Michael has just discovered he is registered for two classes at the same time and must make a decision about which one to take this semester. – He considers the lecturer teaching this semester, the time of the class, and the classes his friends are taking. – He then considers his options for when he can take each class again, as well as the costs and benefits for taking each this semester versus later next year. – He then makes his decision. Michael has just engaged in what?

Reflection: Decision Making
Michael engaged in the rational decision making model

? In making his decision, Michael forgot to consider the implications of the colour of paint in the room where each class was being offered. ? Given that room colour can influence mood, which can influence performance, why didn’t Michael consider it?

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-31

Reflection: Decision Making

He didn’t consider the paint colour of the rooms because he operates under the confines of :

bounded rationality.

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-32

How are decisions actually made in organisations?
? Intuition
– A non-conscious process created from distilled experience that results in quick decisions
? Relies on holistic associations ? Affectively charged – engaging the emotions

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-33

Intuition(cont’d)

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-34

Intuition(cont’d)
? Conditions Favouring Intuitive Decision Making:
– A high level of uncertainty exists – There is little precedent to draw on – Variables are less scientifically predictable – 'Facts' are limited – Facts don?t clearly point the way – Analytical data are of little use – Several plausible alternative solutions exist – Time is limited and pressing for the right decision

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-35

Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making
? Overconfidence Bias
– Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions – especially when outside of own expertise

? Anchoring Bias
– Using early, first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgments

? Confirmation Bias
– Selecting and using only facts that support our decision

? Availability Bias
– Emphasizing information that is most readily at hand ? Recent ? Vivid
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-36

More Common Decision-Making Errors
? Escalation of Commitment
– Increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that it is wrong – especially if responsible for the decision!

? Randomness Error
– Creating meaning out of random events – superstitions

? Winner’s Curse
– Highest bidder pays too much due to value overestimation – Likelihood increases with the number of people in auction

? Hindsight Bias
– After an outcome is already known, believing it could have been accurately predicted beforehand

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-37

Reflection: Perception
Your friend went to a dance on Saturday night and she noticed that everyone was wearing the same dress that she had on. Which perceptual shortcut may be occurring? ? ? ? ? Escalation of commitment Confirmation Bias Availability bias Hindsight bias

What the answer would be if your friend came home and said 'I just knew that everyone would buy that dress!'

Individual Differences in Decision Making
? Personality
– Conscientiousness may effect escalation of commitment
? Achievement strivers are likely to increase commitment ? Dutiful people are less likely to have this bias

– Self-Esteem
? High self-esteem people are susceptible to self-serving bias

? Gender ? Women analyze decisions more than men – rumination ? Differences develop early ? Mental Ability
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-39

Organizational Constraints
? Performance Evaluation
– Managerial evaluation criteria influence actions

? Reward Systems
– Managers will make the decision with the greatest personal payoff for them

? Formal Regulations
– Limit the alternative choices of decision makers

? System-Imposed Time Constraints
– Restrict ability to gather or evaluate information

? Historical Precedents
– Past decisions influence current decisions

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-40

Ethics in Decision Making
? Ethical Decision Criteria
– Utilitarianism
? Decisions made based solely on the outcome ? Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number ? Dominant method for businesspeople

– Rights
? Decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges ? Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals such as whistleblowers

– Justice
? Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially ? Equitable distribution of benefits and costs

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall .

6-41

Ethical Decision-Making Criteria Assessed
? Utilitarianism
– Pro: Promotes efficiency and productivity – Con: Can ignore individual rights, especially minorities

? Rights
– Pro: Protects individuals from harm; preserves rights – Con: Creates an overly legalistic work environment

? Justice
– Pro: Protects the interests of weaker members – Con: Encourages a sense of entitlement

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall .

6-42

Improving Creativity in Decision Making
? Creativity
– The ability to produce novel and useful ideas

? Who has the greatest creative potential?
– Those who score high in Openness to Experience – People who are intelligent, independent, self-confident, risktaking, have an internal locus of control, tolerant of ambiguity, low need for structure, and who persevere in the face of frustration

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-43

The Three Component Model of Creativity
? Proposition that individual creativity results from a mixture of three components
– Expertise is the foundation – Creative-Thinking Skills are the personality characteristics associated with creativity – Intrinsic Task Motivation is the desire to do the job because of its characteristics

Intrinsic Task Motivation

Expertise

CreativeThinking Skills

See E X H I B I T 5-4

Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

6-44

Global Implications
? Attributions
– There are cultural differences in the ways people attribute cause to observed behavior

? Decision Making
– No research on the topic: assumption of “no difference” – Based on our awareness of cultural differences in traits that affect decision making, this assumption is suspect

? Ethics
– No global ethical standards exist – Asian countries tend not to see ethical issues in “black and white” but as shades of gray – Global companies need global standards for managers
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-45

Summary and Managerial Implications
? Perception:
– People act based on how they view their world – What exists is not as important as what is believed – Managers must also manage perception

? Individual Decision Making
– Most use bounded rationality: they satisfice – Combine traditional methods with intuition and creativity for better decisions
? Analyze the situation and adjust to culture and organizational reward criteria ? Be aware of, and minimize, biases
Copyright ? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6-46


相关文章:
第五章练习题目
第五章练习题目_财会/金融考试_资格考试/认证_教育专区。Chapter 5 Perception and Individual Decision Making MULTIPLE CHOICE 2. What do we call the processCha...
...perception and rational decision making
managers should focus on both perception and rational decision making_管理学_高等教育_教育专区。It is generally believed that human are mostly be in ...
REVIEW
6. What is emotional intelligence, and why is it important? 7. Differentiate emotions from moods. CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING What...
risk perception
The writer points that recent models of risk perception and decision-making ...and an individual’s risk perceptions regarding the same disease can be ...
组织行为学课程教学大纲(双语)
2.Identify the shortcuts individuals use in making judgments about others. 第五章 Perception and Individual Decision Making 3.Explain the link between ...
1 page marketing
Perception 2. Learning and Memory 3. Motivation ...Individual Decision Making 2. Buying and Disposing...文档贡献者 菲琳是我 贡献于2015-05-09 专题推荐...
...Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes...
More recently, attention has turned to individual ...al., 2002, 2005; Parker & Fischhoff, 2005)....decision making, reflecting their perception of ...
Tutorial 3 – Perception and emotions
Tutorial 3 – Perception and emotions Question 1 There are two main points to reveal decision-making biases of Rommel’s quote about making a ‘sound ...
组织行为学:自变量与因变量
Perception, individual decision making, learning, motivation These characteristics are essentially intact when an individual enters the work force, and, for the...
CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING
individual level, attention can be paid to group, organizational, and ...Decision making - the ... 35页 免费 5 perception and indiv... 46页 ...
更多相关标签: