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C hapter 16: Cash books and cash
discounts
Contents of chapter
This chapter looks at the grouping of cash accounts and bank accounts into one cash book and also introduces the

use of folio columns. This chapter also examines the nature of cash discounts and the writing up of a threecolumn cash book. The posting of discounts to a discounts received account and a discounts allowed account is demonstrated.

Notes for teachers
1 2 Rather than dealing with three-column cash books immediately, it is better if students first learn how to enter two-column cash books. Explain the use of folio columns: (i) Without them we would not be able to easily trace the other half of the double entry. (ii) Without them it would not be easy to ensure that double entry had been completed. Students often confuse discounts allowed and discounts received. If the word ‘we’ is put after discounts for each type, the meaning becomes obvious: Discount we allowed. Discount we received. The discounts columns in the cash book should be seen as being simply listing columns. They are not part of double entry. To ensure that students enter discounts on the correct sides: (i) Discounts we allowed are expenses. Therefore enter on the same side as expenses, i.e. debit side of the discounts allowed account. (ii) Discounts we received are revenue. Therefore enter on the same side as revenues, i.e. credit side of the discounts received account. Ensure that students can bring down overdraft balances of the bank column in the cash book. The bank is a creditor for the money, and therefore it is a credit balance in the bank column. Pay special attention to Section 16.11 The importance of cash discounts. This is the kind of short essay question that any examiner would like to set. It is also a very important part of the financing of businesses, but not understood by a lot of businesspeople who should know better.

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4 5

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Answers to MCQs and exercises
16.1 16.8
Cash Book 20X5 May 1 " 3 " 5 " 7 " 11 " 15 " 16 " 22 " 30 Cash $ 100 98 62 53 65 50 66 100 363 731 363 731 Bank $ 500 20X5 May 2 " 4 " 9 " 16 " 19 " 30 " 31 " 31 Cash $ 10 22 50 100 100 97 184 466 Bank $ 65 A

16.2

B

16.3

C

16.4

A

16.5

B

16.6

D

16.7

A

Capital Loan from F Lai Sales P Mou Sales C Ng Cash Sales Bank

Rent W Chun Y Yue Bank Loan from F Lai Cash Wages Balance c/f

16.9X
Cash Book 20X9 Jan 1 " 6 " 7 " 10 " 13 " 18 " 20 " 31 Feb Cash $ 5,000 680 Bank $ 7,000 460 1,250 730 500 320 870 7,600 1 Balance b/d 2,740 9,210 4,590 20X9 Jan 2 " 4 " 15 " 20 " 24 " 27 " 28 " 31 Cash $ Rent Purchases Wages Cash Stationery Computer Drawings Balance c/d 3,500 900 320 160 2,800 300 2,740 7,600 4,590 9,210 Bank $ 1,500

Capital Sales K Tse Sales Y Ng Loan from T Wong Bank Sales

16.10
Cash Book 20X8 Mar 1 " 5 " 9 " 13 " 13 " 13 " 18 " 28 Discount $ Balance b/f H Poon Sales S Su F Tao W Ping Sales Loan from L Yeung Cash $ 1,560 Bank $ 3,820 145 770 441 576 468 500 165 2,210 6,720 20X8 Mar 2 " 2 " 2 " 11 " 15 " 21 " 23 " 31 " 31 Discount $ 15 13 22 Cash $ Bank $ 285 247 418

49 64 52 650

W Dai C Kwok D Chung Insurance Motor expenses Salaries Rent Stationery Balance c/f

160 290 1,500 840 70 850 2,210

50

4,270 6,720

87

General Ledger Discounts Allowed 20X8 Mar 31 Total for the month $ 165 Discounts Received 20X8 Mar 31 Total for the month $ 50

16.11
(a) 20X6 May 1 " 2 " 4 " 8 " 15 " 19 " 19 " 19 " 28 Discount $ Balance b/f Capital Sales Sales Bank L Young C Chen H Tung Cash Cash $ 360 220 500 400 16 10 14 304 190 266 330 Cash Book Bank $ 4,000 20X6 May 1 " 3 " 6 " 6 " 6 " 12 " 15 " 16 " 23 " 26 " 28 " 31 " 31 Discount $ Balance b/f Fixtures A Fung K Ho T Tai Utilities expenses Cash Drawings Salaries Insurance Bank Cleaning expenses Balance c/f Cash $ Bank $ 1,470 780 585 216 360 400 200 800 350 330 20 129 1,480 300 629 5,090

65 24 40 130

40 General Ledger

1,480

5,090

Discounts Allowed 20X6 May 31 Total for the month $ 40 Discounts Received 20X6 May 31 Total for the month (b) $ 129

See the text, Section 16.11.

16.12X
Cash Book 20X8 Jun 1 " 2 " 2 " 2 " 2 " 3 " 10 " 12 " 23 " 27 " 30 Discount $ Balance b/f R Ho C Wong S Kong Y Tam Sales Sales D Fan B Yuen Sales Balance c/f 100 28 31 60 630 6 360 225 1,915 2,505 6,690 294 200 Cash $ 925 Bank $ 1,170 900 252 279 540 550 20X8 Jun 5 " 7 " 7 " 7 " 14 " 17 " 17 " 20 " 30 " 30 Discount $ Rent J Chan W Lau D Sun Wages J Shek D Fung Fixtures Stationery Balance c/f 20 32 48 840 30 50 60 235 180 1,915 6,690 620 970 3,200 Cash $ 780 Bank $ 380 608 912

88

General Ledger Discounts Allowed 20X8 Jun 30 Total for the month $ 225 Discounts Received 20X8 Jun 30 Total for the month $ 180

16.13X
(a) 20X9 May 1 " 4 " 5 " 5 " 5 " 5 " 6 " 15 " 16 " 31 Discount $ Balance b/f Sales F Chu C Hong L Lo P Wan H Fu Capital Cash Balance c/f Cash $ 595 640 Cash Book Bank $ 20X9 May 1 " 3 " 10 " 11 " 11 " 11 " 11 " 16 " 20 " 25 " 29 " 31 " 31 Discount $ Balance b/f Purchases Fax machine L Woo R So M Wong T Chung Bank Bank charge Wages Drawings Fixtures Balance c/f Cash $ Bank $ 3,220 2,000 3,340 361 1,045 228 627 265 1,200 500 6,000 1,515 119 6,515 18,286

56 108 48 36 280 5,000

504 972 432 324

19 55 12 33 4,500

4,500 11,554

248 (b) General Ledger

6,515

18,286

Discounts Allowed 20X9 May 31 Total for the month $ 248 Discounts Received 20X9 May 31 Total for the month $ 119

16.14X
Because you cannot pay out more cash than you have received. Proof – you have $20 cash in hand and then receive $5,000 = total $5,020 cash. It is then impossible to spend more than the $5,020 in cash. There is nothing there to pay any extra. You can, however, have a credit balance on a bank column, as it will be a bank overdraft.

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