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13.1定语从句


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名词性从句

定语从句

状语从句
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?考向一 定语从句 考点1: 关系代词that与which的

用法区别

①先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等。
All that we have to do is to practise English.
我们不得不做的一切是练习英语。 ②先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。 The first letter that I get from him will be kept. 我所收到的他的第一封来信将要被保存。

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?考向一 定语从句

③先行词被all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some等修饰时。 I've eaten up all the food that you gave me.
我已经吃光了你给我的所有食物。

④先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。 He is the very person that I am waiting for. 他正是我在等待的人。
⑤先行词既有人又有物时。

They talked about persons and things that they met. 他们谈论了他们遇到的人和事。
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?考向一 定语从句 ⑥若关系代词在从句中作表语,一般需用that。 Mary is no longer the girl that she was. 玛丽不再是过去那个女孩了。 ⑦当主句是以who或which开头的特殊疑问句 时,关系代词用that。 Who is the man that is giving the class? 给我们上课的那个人是谁?

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?考向一 定语从句

①关系代词前有介词,先行词指物时只用which。

This is the college in which I am studying. 这是我正在就读的大学。
②引导非限制性定语从句时只用which。 Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. 全世界都在踢足球,它是一项非常有趣的运动。

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?考向一 定语从句

高 考 about later, I ended up working very (2012.全国卷II, 8) 链 late. 接 A. that B. which C. what D. when

That evening, ___ I will tell you more

答 案 解 析

句意:稍后我会告诉你更多关于 那晚的事,那晚我工作到很晚。 本题考查定语从句。先行词that evening在定语从句中作about的 宾语指物,排除C、D项。又由于 引导非限制性定语从句,故排除 选项A.答案:B

对 All ______you said at the meeting has 应 nothing to do with us. 训 练 A. what B. that C. which D. it 一

答 案 解 析

句意:你在会上所说的话与 我们无关。先行词all属于不

定代词,所以定语从句应用
that引导。答案:B

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?考向一 定语从句

对 Is oxygen the only gas ____helps fire 应 burn? 训 练 A. that B. / C. which D. it 二 对 The first lesson_____ I learned will 应 训 never be forgotten. 练 A. which B. what C. that D. it 三

句意:氧气是唯一助燃的气体 答 案 吗?先行词gas前有the only 解 修饰,所以定语从句只能用 析 that引导。答案:A

答 的第一课。先行词lesson前有序 案 解 数词the first修饰,所以定语从 析 句只能用that引导。答案:C

句意:我将永远不会忘记学过

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?考向一 定语从句

对 应 训 练 四

When she came back from abroad,

Lucy told us about the cities and the
people____ she had visited. A. that B. who C. where D. which

答 案 解 析

考查定语从句的引导词。当

先行词有人有物时,引导定
语从句常用关系代词that。 答案:A

对 Which of the books ____I borrowed 应 训 from the library do you want to read? 练 A. that B. which C. what D. it 五

答 案 解 析

句意:我从图书馆里借来的 书中你想读哪一本?此句是 以which 开头的特殊疑问句, 所以为了避免重复关系代词 用that。答案:A

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?考向一 定语从句

对 应 训 练 六

Everything can change over twenty 答 句意:20年里,一切都会改变。 years. He is no longer the boy____ he 案 他不再是过去那个男孩了。关 used to be. 解 系代词在从句中作表语,因此 A. who B. which C. that D. whom 析 用that引导定语从句。答案:C
关系代词which引导非限制性定语 从句,指代先行词the Science Museum, 同时在从句中作visited

对 应 during a recent trip to Britain, is one 训 of London's tourist attractions. 练 七 A. which B. what C. that D. where

The Science Museum, _____we visited

答 案 的宾语。where为关副词,不能作 解 宾语;that不引导非限制性定语从句 析
what不能引导定语从句。 答案:A

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?考向一 定语从句 考点2: 关系代词as与which的用法区别

1 as一般放在句首或句中,which置于句中。

As we know, the earth is round. 正如我们所知,地球是圆的。 The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。

2 as可引导非限制性从句,常常有“正如”之意;which

可以表示主从句之间的因果关系。
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?考向一 定语从句

As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。 He was always late, which made his teacher very angry. 他经常迟到使他的老师很生气。

3 当先行词被 as, so, such , the same 修饰时,关系代词常

This is the same pen as I used yesterday.

用as。 (as 表示同样的钢笔 ) 这支钢笔和我昨天用的那支一样。

This is the same pen that I used yesterday. That's as good a place as I can find. 这是我能找到的好地方。 (that 意为同一支钢笔 ) 这就是我昨天用的那支钢笔。 I've never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听说过像他讲的这种故事。

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?考向一 定语从句

My friend showed me around the town, ____was very kind of him.(2009.全国II卷) A. which B. that C. where D. it
句意:我的朋友真不错,他带我绕城转了一圈。句中was 前缺少主语,排除关系副词where; it不能引导定语从句,故排 除D项;that不能引导非限制性定语从句,故排除B项。关系代词 which在此指代逗号前整个句子。答案:A

________was expected, he failed in the exam. A. That B. As C. Which D. It
句意:正如所预料的那样,他考试没及格。as引导 非限制性定语从句,修饰整个句子,在从句中作主语。 which不能放在句首,故排除C项。答案:B
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?考向一 定语从句

The project turned out to be very good,____ was more than we could expect. A. what B. that C. which D. as
句意:这项工程结果很好,这远远出乎我们的意料。which 引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是主句整个句子。as也可以 引导非限制性定语从句,常带有“正如”之意。故排除D项。 答案:C

I have bought such a watch _____was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it
句意:我买了一块在电视上做过广告的手表。因先行词被 such修饰,所以引导定语从句的关系词要用as,在从句中作 主语。答案:C
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?考向一 定语从句 考点3:whose和of whom, of which引导的定语从句 whose是一个表示所属关系的词,在定语从句中作定语。 of which可以代替whose指物,词序一般是“名词+of which ” of whom可以代替whose指人,词序是“名词+of whom”。

He lives in a room whose window faces south. =He lives in a room the window of which faces south. 他住在窗户朝南的房子里。 This is the scientist whose name is known all over the country. =This is the scientist the name of whom is known all over the country. 这就是那位全国知名的科学家。
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?考向一 定语从句

A person ____email account is full won't 句意:一个人的电子邮件账户满 了,就不能收发任何邮件了。ebe able to send or receive any e-mails.
mail account前缺少定语,故用 (2009.天津卷) whose引导定语从句,相当于the A. who B. whom C. whose D. whoever e-mail account of whom.答案:C 解析/显隐
对 应 训 练 一

Xiaoming is the student _______
pronunciation is the best in our class. A. who B. whom C. whose D. his

句意:小明是我们班发音最
答 案 解 析

好的。句中定语从句缺少定

语,所以用关系代词whose指
代the student。答案:C

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?考向一 定语从句

对 应 训 练 二

Look out! Don't get close to the

house _____roof is under repair.
A. whose C. whom B. which D. what

答 案 解 析

句意:当心!不要靠近那座 屋顶正在修理的房子。定语 从句缺少定语,所以用关系 代词whose引导从句。 答案:A

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?考向一 定语从句 1.“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句时,介词的宾 语只能用which或whom。 She still remember the day on which she won the prize. 她仍然记得她获奖的那天。 The man with whom she entered the hall was her husband. 和她一起进大厅的那位男子是她的丈夫。 2.“名词/不定代词/数词+of which/whom”引导的 定语从句。 I read some books, the cover of which are old. 我读了一些书,它们的封面是旧的。 There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班上共有 40 名学生,其中大多数来自大城市。
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考点4: “介词+关系代词” 引导的定 语从句

?考向一 定语从句

高 Gun control is a subject ____Americans have argued for a 考 long time.(2009.陕西卷) 链 接 A. of which B. with which C. about which D. into which

答 句中先行词是Gun control,关系词在从句中作介词的宾语,介 案 解 词前置,介词与从句动词构成搭配argue about sth,故选C项。 析 句意:枪支的控制是很长时间以来美国人争论的话题。答案:C

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?考向一 定语从句

句意:我们不应该把钱花在对这 么多人的体检上,他们中大多数 testing so many people, most of____ 人是健康的。先行词 people 在句 中作介词of 的宾语,故用 most are healthy. of whom引导非限制性定语从句。 A. that B. which C. what D. whom that 不能引导非限制性定语从句, 解 析 故排除A项。答案:D

1. We shouldn't spend our money

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?考向一 定语从句

3.He was educated at the local high school, ______he went on to Peking University. A. after which B. after that

句意:他在地方高中接受教育之

后到北京大学就读。根据句意可
知,应用after which结构,引导非 限制性定语从句,which指代整

C. in which

D. in that

解析
解析

个主句的内容。答案:A
句意:那人取出一块金表,金表的 指针是用小的钻石制成的。由句 意可知,空格处可填入the hands of which 表示所属关系,相当于 whose hands.答案:D

4.The man pulled out a gold watch, _____were made of small diamonds. A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which

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?考向一 定语从句 考点5:关系副词when, where和why的用法比较 关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的 定语从句来表示。 1.关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I remember the day when(=on which) I first met her. 我记得第一次遇见她的那天。 2.关系副词where指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我出生的地方。

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?考向一 定语从句 3.关系副词why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这是他拒绝我们帮助的理由吗?

高考链接 2012.浙江卷, 9

We live in an age_____ more information is

available with greater ease than ever before.
A. why B. when C. to whom D. on which
解析/显隐

句意:我们生活在一个更多的 信息比以前任何时候都更容易 获得的时代。此题考查定语从 句,先行词是age,因为关系词在 定语从句中作时间状语,故用 when引导。答案:B

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?考向一 定语从句

2. We are living in an age _______

句意:我们正生活在一个许多

事情都在电脑上操作的时代里。

many things are done on computer. 先行词age在定语从句中作时间 A. which B. that C. whose D. when 状语,故选关系副词when.
解析/显隐

答案:D

3. I don't know the reason _____he 句意:我不知道他今天没来的

was absent today.
A. why C. in which B. which D. that
解析/显隐

原因。先行词reason在从句中
作状语,故选关系副词why=for which.答案:A

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本节讲解结束

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