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Words preview
underground tube distinction distant boundary transport vehicle choke n. 地铁 n. 地铁;管,管子 n. 声誉,名声;区别,差别 adj. 远的,遥远的 n. 边界,分界线 vt. & n. 运输,运送,输送,搬运 n. 车辆,交通工具 vt. & vi. 阻塞;(使)窒息,(使) 呛

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shuttle n. 短程往返运行的公共汽车 (或火车等);梭,梭子;航天飞机 beneath prep. & adv. 在……之下 carriage n. (火车的)车厢;四轮马车; 运输工具,车辆 comparatively adv. 比较而言地,相对地 narrow adj. 窄的,狭窄的;狭隘的 section n. 部分;(文章等的)段落,节; 地区,区域,地段

Words preview
district pace acquisition
board authority expansion architect

n. 区,管区,行政区;地区,区域 n. 步伐,速度 n. (尤指通过努力)取得,获得; 学到 n. 委员会;理事会;董事会 n. 权利;权利机构;权威;权限 n. 扩充,扩展,扩大,发展;膨胀 n. 建筑师

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function anti-aircraft minister administration anniversary network permit vi. 起作用;工作,活动,运转 adj. 防空的 n. 部长,大臣 n. 行政部门;行政;管理,经营 n. 周年纪念;周年纪念日 n. 网络 vt. & vi. 允许,准许,许可 n. 许可证;执照;通行证

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sightseeing n. 观光,游览 horrible adj. 可怕的,恐怖的;极其讨厌的, 让人非常难受的,特别糟糕的 damp adj. 潮湿的 dozen n. 一打,十二个;十几个,十来个; 许多,好多 union n. 联合,合并;联盟,协会 discount n. 折扣,打折 album n. 相册;集邮册;一套唱片,一套 录音带

Expressions preview
choke off link up at a discount 阻塞 连接,会合,联合 打折

When we talk about London,

what will you think of?

Some scenic spots in Britain
Buckingham Palace

Big Ben

London Tower

The City of Smog (smoke & fog)

Some outstanding people

Queen Elizabeth

David Beckham

When visiting London, you can take…

Old fashioned taxicab

Two-story bus

The oldest and the best underground system in the world:

London Tube

Reading Comprehension I

1. When was the first underground system opened? In 1863. 2. Why was the Victoria Line important? Because it linked with other lines at almost every station, making the system more user-friendly.

Scanning Reading Comprehension I
3. What did Charles Holden do? He is the architect that designed many of the new stations built between 1918 and 1938. Many of the stations are still in use today.

Reading Comprehension II Listen to the tape and find the information to match the year.
Date 1854 1863 1868 1884 1933 1918-1938 After 1945 1977 Event

Check your answers:
Date 1854 Event


An underground railway was decided to be built. The first tunnels were opened. The next section of the underground system was opened.

1884 1933 19181938 After 1945 1977

Event The underground service was provided in the middle of the city. A public organization was created. London Transport was expanded. More people traveled on the underground and more lines were added. The last line was added.

Read again to get general ideas

Reading Comprehension I I I

Go through the passage and find out how many parts the passage can be divided into.

Main idea of the passage Main idea of Part 1 Reasons why the first underground in the world (paragraph 1) was developed Main idea of Part 2 Developments of the first (paragraphs 2-4) underground before World War II Main idea of Part 3 Some unusual uses of the first underground during (paragraph 5) World War II Main idea of Part 4 Expansion and popularity of (paragraphs 6-7) the first underground system

Answer the following questions. (P52 Part C1) (1) Why was an underground system first developed in London? Most railway tracks did not go into the London city centre, so buses were required. This increased traffic on the road. The underground system transported more people without increasing traffic on the road.
ce eferen r

(2) What was the London Underground like in 1863? The carriages did not have windows and were pulled by steam engines through narrow tunnels. (3) What did Charles Yerkes do to improve the underground? He bought many of the different lines and set up the Underground Group.
e ferenc re

ce eferen r

(4) What are some of the different things that the underground has functioned as?

The underground has functioned as a bomb shelter, an aeroplane factory, an anti-aircraft centre and meeting rooms for the government administration.

(5) What happened to the London Underground after World War II?

ce eferen r

After World War II, more lines were added because more people traveled on the underground.
(6) What does it mean when the brochure says that the underground system is user-friendly?

It means that many of the lines are linked at many stations. Therefore, it is very convenient for riders to go to different places in the city from any station.

Answers to Part D (P52) 1d 2e 3b 4f 5c 6h 7g 8a Answers to Part E (P53) 1 Underground 2 oldest 3 complex 4 1863 5 boundary 6 1977 7 carriages 8 user-friendly 9 World War II 10 bomb shelters

Language points

Text Review
Fill in the blanks with proper words according to the reading material.

The London underground system has the (1) distinction of being the _________ oldest and most complex underground system in the world. Before 1850, train services to London had already been (2) developed __________, but people couldn’t build railways into the city because doing that would cause great (3) damage ________ to many historic buildings.

So many buses were needed to (4) transport __________ people to the city centre, choked off which, however, often (5) __________ traffic. This problem led to the development of the underground system. In 1854, Metropolitan Railway Company was allowed to build an underground railway and the first tunnels were opened section in 1863. In 1868, the next (6) __________ of the underground system was opened by another company called the Metropolitan District Railway.

In 1884, these two companies (7) linked up __________ and provided the underground service in the middle of the city. advanced With the development of the (8) __________ ways of digging tunnels, the first railway tunnel under the River Thames was dug in 1884, and over the next 25 years, six (9) independent ___________ deep underground lines were made. But because they were (10) separately __________ owned and far away from each other, traveling on these lines was inconvenient (11)_____________.

Having seen the situation, Charles Yerkes tried to improve the system. He bought many of the different lines and set up the Underground Group. In 1933, organization a public (12) ___________ called the London Passenger Transport Board was created, which eventually became London Transport. From 1918 to 1938, expanded the system (13) __________ a lot. During World War II, the underground unusual system had some (14) _________ uses.

For example, many underground stations functioned once (15) __________ as bomb shelters. After the war, more lines were added. Now, the network of the underground system includes 12 lines and goes 26 miles out of central London. Three million people travel on the underground every day. Can you imagine what London would be if there were no such underground system?

? 1. distant (Line5) adj. far away

in the distant past/future: far away in the past or future: distance n. [C or U] the amount of space between two places: He travels quite a distance (= a long way) to work every day. Does she live within walking distance of her parents?

? The faces of four famous American presidents on Mount Rushmore can be seen from a _____ of 60 miles.(2004全国) A. length B. distance C. way D. space

2. boundary: n. -- the edge (Line5) The mountain becomes the national ~ for both countries. The fence serves as a ~ between the two buildings. the boundaries of knowledge

3. historic: adj. -- having importance in or influence on history (Line 6) 11 November 1918 is a ~ day as it represents the end of World War I. Can you tell me when the ~ meeting between the two great leaders was held? This building is of ~importance.

historic / historical: Historic and historical are differentiated in usage, though their senses overlap. Historic refers to what is important in history: the historic first voyage to outer space It is also used of what is famous or interesting because of its association with persons or events in history: a historic house

Historical refers to whatever existed in the past, whether regarded as important or not: a historical character Historical refers also to anything concerned with history or the study of the past: a historical novel historical discoveries The differentiation between the words is not complete. They are often used interchangeably: historic times or historical times

? 4. choke (Line8) n. [C] v. 窒息;堵塞;阻塞 1). The child swallowed a pen and chocked to death. 2). The roads to the coast were choked with traffic. 3). At lunchtime the streets were choked with traffic. 4). Children can choke on peanuts. ? 引申: chock back 忍住,抑制 chock up 因激动等说不出话来

? During the rush hours the roads are usually _____ up with traffic. ? A. chocked B. crowded ? C. blocked D. checked

? 5. link (Line21) v. [T] to make a connection between two or more people, things or ideas: 1.The explosions are not thought to be linked in any way. ? link up: to form a connection, especially in order to work or operate together: 2.The organization's aim is to link up people from all over the country who are suffering from the disease. 3. They linked up two areas by telephone. ? 用法拓展:be connected with 与……相接, 和……有联系

6. place: v. --to be in a state or situation (Line 36) 1) She placed a tape recorder in front of her on the table. 2) His uncooperative attitude placed us in an embarrassing situation. 3) This job places great demands on the workers, which can be quite stressful.

7. be responsible for: be in charge of (L39) 1) The driver is responsible for the passengers’ safety. 2) Philip is the project manager. He is responsible for anything concerning the project. 3) Who is responsible for making the dinner reservation?

8. function as: serve as (L42) My living room also functions as a study. The room functioned as a store room for keeping all our collection. The beautiful leaf functioned as a bookmark.

? 9. permit (L57) v. -tt- [T] to allow sth.: The regulations do not permit much flexibility. [+ ing form of verb] The prison authorities permit visiting only once a month. [+ object + to infinitive] The security system will not permit you to enter without the correct password.

10.honor: a quality that combines respect,

pride and honesty:

a man of honor We fought for the honor of our country.
n. [C] a reward, prize or title that publicly expresses admiration or respect:

She received an honor for her services to the community.
in honor of sb./ sth. in order to celebrate or show great respect for someone or sth.:

a banquet in honor of the president

My sister was against my suggestion while my brother was ______ it. (2006陕西) A. in favor of B. in memory of C. in honor of D. in search of

11. order: n. [U] 顺序

in order of: 以……的顺序 out of order: 杂乱无序 The children lined up in order of age/height. I can't find the file I need because they're all out of order (= they are no longer arranged in the correct way). Put the files in alphabetical order.

You have been sitting on my hat and now it is badly out of ______. (2006广东) A. date B. shape C. order D. balance

12. refer to: phrasal verb 1 to talk or write about someone or sth., especially briefly: 提到,谈到

In her autobiography she occasionally refers to her unhappy schooldays.
2 If writing or information refers to someone or sth, it relates to that person or thing: 涉及到,与某人或某事相关

The new salary scale only refers to company managers and directors.

(2007上海) ______ he referred to in his article was unknown to the general reader. A. That B. What C. Whether D. Where

13.discount: n. [C] a reduction in the usual price: 折扣 They usually give you a discount if you buy multiple copies. They offer a 10 percent discount on rail travel for students. at a discount: 打折

They sell the sweater _______ a discount of 30 percent. A. on B. for C. at D. with

公司距离我家五英里远。 The company is five miles distant from my home.

两艘宇宙飞船将于轨道上(互相)连接。 The two spacecraft will link up (with each other) in orbit.
这些货物将打折出售。 These goods will be sold at a discount.

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