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High Speed Rail in Japan


High Speed Rail in Japan (Shinkansen)

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Nationwide HSR network

1

Shinkansen network in service
JR East (980 km) JR Central (515 km) JR West (554km) ( ) JR Kyushu (127 km) Akita Shinjo Niigata Nagano g Hachinohe Morioka Seikan Tunnel

Total 2176 km
France(TGV)=1850 km Germany(ICE)=925 km

Sendai
Fukushima 1982

Hakata

Hiroshima

Nagoya
Yasshiro 2004 Kagoshima 1972 1965

Tokyo

Osaka

Total length of railway in Japan; 27,600 km

Undersea Tunnel for Shinkansen
Total length 54 km (m) 400 200 0 -200 -400 0 10 20
13.6 km 23.3 km 17.0 km

Main land

Hokkaido

1.2%

140 m 100 m Pilot tunnel

1.2% Emergency Station

30

40

50 (km)

1988 completion

2

Access time to Shinkansen station

Sendai

Hakata

Tokyo
Nagoya Osaka Area within 1 hour Area within 2 hours

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Competition with others
(Is Shinkansen competitive ?)

3

Share of transportation
Share and journey length in Japan
100 % 80
500 1,000 km

Vehicle
300km Railway has more than 50 % share

Air
1100km

60 50 % 40 HSR has more than 50 % share

20

Shinkansen
Other rail
200
Korat

0
Bangkok

400

600
Nong Khai

800
Chiang Mai

1000
Hat Yai

1200
Distance (km)

Competition with Airlines
Before and After Shinkansen service started
Tokyo ~ Akita
(Partial HSR. 663km)

Tokyo ~ Aomori
(Indirect. 675km)
Aomori Akita

1996
52% 48%

2004
45% 55%

2002 43%

2003 46% 54%

57%
Yamagat a

Niigata 301km

Tokyo ~ Yamagata
100 %
(Direct. 360km)
Nagano 226km
Tokyo

1991 24% 76%

2003 1% 99%

Shinkansen Airlines

4

Travel time and passengers
Rail is dominant over air for shorter than 3 hours travel.
76% 60% 65%

London 1hr 54min Brussels Osaka 2 hr 25 min 2hr 15min
70% 100%

Tokyo

1hr 22min Paris

Tokyo ~ Osaka
Shinkansen; 395,000 / 301 trains Air ; 22,300 / 43 flight

Capacity of Shinkansen
The seating capacity of a train and a jumbo jet E 4 (Double) deck)

1,634 person/train Series 700 1,323

Boeing 747- 400

569

0

500

1,000

1,500

5

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Transportation of HSR

Passengers of HSR in the world
300 (Million / year) 283 413

The num mber of HSR passengers

250

200

150

100 71 50 31 11
0

5 Spain

5

7 World

Germany France

Italy

Sweden Belgium Japan

As of 2000 from UIC Annual report.

6

Capacity of double-deck Shinkansen
HSR with the largest capacity in the world, Series E4 (JR East) (JR-East).
817 person/car x 16 cars/train

= 1,634 passengers / train Equal to

X 409 Taxies

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Operation

7

Shinkansen, the first High Speed Rail in the world

In 1964, opening , p g ceremony of Tokaido Shinkansen between Tokyo and Osaka.

Maximum speed was firstly 200 km/h and 210 km/h next year that had been the world highest speed until 1981.

Change in train diagrams
2 trains / hour Tokaido Shinkansen Headway at peak time 15 trains / hour 4 minutes interval

1964
60
trains / day y

2007
301
trains / day

8

The number of train in service
The number of tra ains/day
838 800
Tohoku /joetsu /Hokuriku

841

600

400 275 200 60 0 1964 1982
Kyusyu Tokaido /Sanyo

2004

2007
Tokyo

Punctuality, just on time
Average delayed time of Tokaido Shinkansen

1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

Just 10 seconds
2004 2006

9

The maximum speed
550 500
STAR21 300X

450 400 (km/h) 350 300 250 200 150 100 1980 2000 1985 Tohoku?Joetsu 240 210 220 325 230

425
Win350

443

350
Series 300

300 km/h
275 270

Tokaido-Sanyo

1990

1995 (Year)

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Rolling stock

10

EMU and Locomotive
Two types of the rolling stock for HSR
Locomotive EMU (Electric Multiple Unit)

Motor

Coach
Locomotive EMU
Shinkansen (Japan)

Coach

Motor

TGV (France) ICE (Germany) 1990's Thalys (EU) AVE (Spain) ETR (Italy)

TGV-R, D (France) Shinkansen (Japan) 2000's ICE-1,2 (Germany) AGV (France) KTX (Korea) ICE-3 (Germany)

In the near future, EMU will be standard in the world.

JR - Central

Series 0 (1964)

Series 100 (1985)

Series 300 (1990)

Series 500 (1997)

Series 700 (1999)

Series N700 (2007)

11

JR - East

Series 400 (1992)

Series E1 (1994)

Series E3 (1997)

Series E4 (1997)

The Interior

Standard class

Superior class

12

Brand new Shinkansen E-954 (JR-East)
Operation speed will be p p

360 km/h in 2011
(Vmax = 389km/h at the test run in 2005)

Light Shinkansen
Weight of a train with 16 cars
(ton)

1000 800 600 400 200

970

Total weight 925

27%
711 708

Traction Equipment

0 138
Series

94
Series

0

100

74 Series 300

62 Series 700

16

15

Axle load (t)

11.4

11.3

13

How to make it lighter
High power by lighter motor
DC Motor (1964) ( ) AC Motor (2007) ( )

185 kW / 875 kg

305 kW / 396 kg

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Special HSR
(Variable gauge car, Inspection car)

14

HSR with variable gauge system

Equipment for varying gauge
Standard gauge ( , (1,435 mm) )
Braking section

Converting section

Narrow gauge (1,067 mm)

15

Brand new Inspection car for Shinkansen

“East i ”, which covers track structure, power supply, signaling, communication etc.

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Cost, Fund-raising and Management

16

Construction cost of HSR
Recent unit cost of HSR
50 (Million US $)

Construction cost per km r

42
40 30

38

38

40 30 19

20 10

6 Taiwan 345 km (2005) Korea 412 km (2010) China 412 km (2003) Italy 183 km (2004) France Germany 190 km 215 km (2011) (2002)

Japan Length 127 km (Year) (2004)

0

Note; These figures are rough estimate because construction cost largely depends on many conditions, such as major civil structure (tunnel or bank), station, local labor cost, land price etc.

Relation between Owner and User
Separation of construction and operation

JR company (Operator)
Lease

fees

JRTT (Builder & Owner)
Fund raising (example)
(Budget of construction in 2007; 2.2 billion US$)

JRTT: Japan Railway Construction, Transport and Technology Agency

Central government (1.46) 1

Local government (0.74) 2

17

Fund raising for infrastructure
TGV in France
Line South-East Atlantic Mediterranean East Eupope South Europe Atlantic Route Opening length Year (km) 1983 1990 2001 2007 (Plan) 2016 421 284 248 301 Cost 9.8 9 8 billion FF 10 billion FF 2.5 billion FF Fund raising Official (SNCF) Official (SNCF + Government) Official (RFF) Official (Government + Local Gov + EU + Luxemburg) PPP 7.2 billion ( 1.2 by RFF + 6.0 by Euro consortium)

308

PPP scheme has been adopted in France for the first time for South Europe Atlantic Line that is under construction.
Note;
SNCF; France national railway RFF; France railway infrastructure management public agency

HSR as a business
Labor force and income in HSR (JR-East in 2002) (JR2002)

Labor force

Income

2,600 Persons

150 1 0billion Baht

57 million Baht/person/Year

18

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Technology for environment

Energy Consumption
E n erg y co m su m p tio n o
(k c a l/p erso n/ k m 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400
247 580 394 295 100 123 1290

200 0

Private Taxi Public Railway Shin- Ferry Plane kansen car bus

19

Energy Consumption
Railway carries 27 by 6

% of all passengers

% energy consumption in Japan.
Railway
Bus

Energy Consumption

6% 2%

Vehicle; 74 %

Others;18%

Traffic volume (person-km)
27 % 5% 52 %

16 %

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Energy saving
Example; “Bangkok~Chiang Mai ( (751km)” needs 12,500 kwh. ) , 12,500 KWH

Energy Consumption =15.3 KWH /
person

(In case of E2 Model with 10 cars for 814 passengers】

1 / 14

1/5
Bus for 30 passengers

Vehicle

20

Improvement of energy consumption
Series 0
(1964) [100 ] [91]

Series 300
(1990)

Series 700
(1999)

[84] [68 ]

Series N700
(2007)

32 %

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Energy Consumption (Tokyo-Osaka) (Series 0 = 100)

CO2 emission
800

CO2 emission (Ratio) O

750

600 500 400 317 200 100 0 Shinkansen 150

Light rail

Public bus

Plane

Private car

Railway has a marked advantage over automobiles and airplanes in that the CO2 emissions of the Shinkansen are 1/8 those of automobiles and 1/5 those of airplanes.

21

Noise from Shinkansen
Sound Power at 25m away point from the track dB(A) k

90

89

Series 0
210 km/h

85 81 80 78 75
1964 1967 1975 1986

: Sparks : Aerodynamic (pantograph) : Aerodynamic (car body) : Concrete Structure : Lower parts of cars

Series 100
220 km/h

77

Series 300 270 km/h Series 700 275 km/h 75 74.5
1994 2000 (Year)

Noise Reduction Technology Sophisticated pantograph Aerodynamic body Noise barrier wall Rail grinding Resilient track

Noise barrier wall
Standard type

“Noise” is the decisive factor for operation speed in J i Japan.

Transparent wall Reverse L type

Fig.1 Fig 1 Standard type, walls L-type type Various noise barrier Reverse L type

Fig.2 Transparent type

22

Micro-pressure wave from tunnel
Tunnel entrance hood Tunnel

Sharp edge nose from aerodynamic analysis

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Maglev
(Magnetic Levitation)

23

Maglev in the world
JR-Maglev (Japan)

Transrapid (Germany, China)

HSST (Japan) (J )

The kind of Maglev
Name Name Vmax Levitation (km/h) height Magnet Levitation Operating site Coil JR- Maglev Magnet

Super conducting
(-269 ℃ helium)

550
Coil

10 cm
Repellence and Attraction

Japan (Yamanasi Test run site)

Normal conducting
Transrapid Magnet Guide plate

500

1 cm
Attraction

China (Shanghai)

Magnet

Coil

HSST, Linimo

Magnet

Reaction plate

Normal conducting

100

1 cm
Attraction

Japan (Nagoya)

Magnet

Guide rail

24

History of JR-Maglev
1962; Start of study of Maglev 1972; Levitation running by LSM-200 1979; 517 km/h by ML-500 (Unmanned) 1995; 1995 411 k /h by MLU-002N km/h b MLU 002N (M (Manned) d) 1999; 552 km/h by MLX-01 (Manned) 2003; 581 km/h world record (Manned) (Plan; Tokyo ~ Nagoya will be in service in 2025.)
ML500

ML100

MLU 002N MLX-01

Shinkansen Traction Substation

Thank you !

25


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