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历年大学英语六级考试阅读理解题汇编备考2017年6月大学英语六级——阅读理解


历年大学英语六级考试阅读真题 备考 2017 年 6 月大学英语六级考试(阅读理解) Reading Comprehension 2015.12 - 1
Section A

As it is, sleep is so undervalued that getting by on fewer hours has become a badge of honor. Plus, we live in a culture that 26 to the late-nighter, from 24-hour grocery stores to online shopping sites that never close. It's no surprise, then, that more than half of American adults don't get the 7 to 9 hours of shut-eye every night as 27 by sleep experts. Whether or not we can catch up on sleep——on the weekend, say--is a hotly 28 topic among sleep researchers. The latest evidence suggests that while it isn't 29 , it might help. When Liu, the UCLA sleep researcher and professor of medicine, brought 30 sleep-restricted people into the lab for a weekend of sleep during which they logged about 10 hours per night, they showed 31 in the ability of insulin ( 胰岛 素 ) to process blood sugar. That suggests that catch-up sleep may undo some but not all of the damage that sleep 32 causes, which is encouraging given how many adults don't get the hours they need each night. Still, Liu isn't 33 to endorse the habit of sleeping less and making up for it later. Sleeping pills, while helpful for some, are not 34 an effective remedy either. "A sleeping pill will 35 one area of the brain, but there's never going to be a perfect sleeping pill, because you couldn't really replicate ( 复制 ) the different chemicals moving in and out of different parts of the brain to go through the different stages of sleep," says Dr. Nancy Collop, director of the Emory University Sleep Center. A) alternatively B) caters C) chronically D) debated E) deprivation F) ideal G) improvements H) necessarily I) negotiated J) pierce K) presumption L) ready M) recommended N) surpasses O) target Section B Climate change may be real, but it's still not easy being green How do we convince our inner caveman to be greener? We ask some outstanding social scientists. [A] The road to climate hell is paved with our good intentions. Politicians may tackle polluters while scientists do battle with carbon emissions. But the most pervasive problem is less obvious: our own behaviour. We get distracted before we can turn down the heating. We break our promise not to fly after hearing about a neighbour's trip to India. Ultimately, we can't be bothered to change our attitude. Fortunately for the planet, social science and behavioural economics may be able to do that for us. [B] Despite mournful polar bears and charts showing carbon emissions soaring, most people find it hard to believe that global warming will affect them personally. Recent polls by the Pew Research Centre in Washington, DC, found that 75-80 per cent of participants regarded climate change as an important issue. But respondents ranked it last on a list of priorities. [C] This inconsistency largely stems from a feeling of powerlessness. "When we can't actually remove the source of our fear, we tend to adapt psychologically by adopting a range of defence mechanisms," says Tom Crompton, change strategist for the environmental organisation World Wide Fund for Nature. [D] Part of the fault lies with our inner caveman. Evolution has programmed humans to pay most attention to issues that will have an immediate impact. "We worry most about now because if we don't survive for the next minute, we're not going to be around in ten years' time," says Professor Elke Weber of 1

the Centre for Research on Environmental Decisions at Columbia University in New York. If the Thames were lapping around Big Ben, Londoners would face up to the problem of emissions pretty quickly. But in practice, our brain discounts the risks - and benefits - associated with issues that lie some way ahead. [E] Matthew Rnshworth, of the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford, sees this in his lab every day. "One of the ways in which all agents seem to make decisions is that they assign a lower weighting to outcomes that are going to be further away in the future," he says. "This is a very sensible way for an animal to make decisions in the wild and would have been very helpful for humans for thousands of years." [F] Not any longer. By the time we wake up to the threat posed by climate change, it could well be too late. And if we're not going to make rational decisions about the future, others may have to help us to do so. [G] Few political libraries are without a copy of Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness, by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein. They argue that governments should persuade us into making better decisions--such as saving more in our pension plans--by changing the default options. Professor Weber believes that environmental policy can make use of similar tactics. If, for example, building codes included green construction guidelines, most developers would be too lazy to challenge them. [H] Defaults are certainly part of the solution. But social scientists are most concerned about crafting messages that exploit our group mentality ( 心态 ). "We need to understand what motivates people, what it is that allows them to make change," says Professor Nell Adger, of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research in Norwich. "It is actually about what their peers think of them, what their social norms are, what is seen as desirable in society." In other words, our inner caveman is continually looking over his shoulder to see what the rest of the tribe are up to. [I] The passive attitude we have to climate change as individuals can be altered by counting us in--and measuring us against--our peer group. "Social norms are primitive and elemental," says Dr. Robert Cialdini, author of Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. "Birds flock together, fish school together, cattle herd together.. ., just perceiving norms is enough to cause people to adjust their behaviour in the direction of the crowd." [J] These norms can take us beyond good intentions. Cialdini conducted a study in San Diego in which coat hangers bearing messages about saving energy were hung on people's doors. Some of the messages mentioned the environment, some financial savings, others social responsibility. But it was the ones that mentioned the actions of neighbours that drove down power use. [K] Other studies show that simply providing the facility for people to compare their energy use with the local average is enough to cause them to modify their behaviour. The Conservatives plan to adopt this strategy by making utility companies print the average local electricity and gas usage on people's bills. [L] Social science can also teach politicians how to avoid our collective capacity for serf-destructive behaviour. Environmental campaigns that tell us how many people drive SUVs unwittingly ( 不 经 意 地 ) imply that this behaviour is widespread and thus permissible. Cialdini recommends some careful framing of the message. "Instead of normalising the undesirable behaviour, the message needs to marginalise it, for example, by stating that if even one person buys yet another SUV, it reduces our ability to be energy-independent." [M] Tapping into how we already see ourselves is crucial. The most successful environmental strategy will marry the green message to our own sense of identity. Take your average trade union member, chances are they will be politically motivated and be used to collective action--much like Erica Gregory. A retired member of the Public and Commercial Services Union, she is setting up one of 1,100 action groups with the support of Climate Solidarity, a two-year environmental campaign aimed at trade unionists. [N] Erica is proof that a great-grandmother can help to lead the revolution if you get the psychology right--in this case, by matching her enthusiasm for the environment with a fondness for organising groups. "I think it's a terrific idea," she says of the campaign. "The union backing it makes members think there must 2

be something in it." She is expecting up to 20 people at the first meeting she has called, at her local pub in the Cornish village of Polperro. [O] Nick Perks, project director for Climate Solidarity, believes this sort of activity is where the future of environmental action lies. "Using existing civil society structures or networks is a more effective way of creating change.., and obviously trade unions are one of the biggest civil society networks in the UK," he says. The "Love Food, Hate Waste" campaign entered into a collaboration last year with another such network--the Women's Institute. Londoner Rachel Taylor joined the campaign with the aim of making new friends. A year on, the meetings have made lasting changes to what she throws away in her kitchen. "It's always more of an incentive if you're doing it with other people," she says. "It motivates you more if you know that you've got to provide feedback to a group." [P] The power of such simple psychology in fighting climate change is attracting attention across the political establishment. In the US, the House of Representatives Science Committee has approved a bill allocating $10 million a year to studying energy-related behaviour. In the UK, new studies are in development and social scientists are regularly spotted in British government offices. With the help of psychologists, there is fresh hope that he might go green after all. 36. When people find they are powerless to change a situation, they tend to live with it. 37. To be effective, environmental messages should be carefully framed. 38. It is the government's responsibility to persuade people into making environment-friendly decisions. 39. Politicians are beginning to realize the importance of enlisting psychologists' help in fighting climate change. 40. To find effective solutions to climate change, it is necessary to understand what motivates people to make change. 41. In their evolution, humans have learned to pay attention to the most urgent issues instead of longterm concerns. 42. One study shows that our neighbours' actions are influential in changing our behaviour. 43. Despite clear signs of global warming, it is not easy for most people to believe climate change will affect their own lives. 44. We should take our future into consideration in making decisions concerning climate change before it is too late. 45. Existing social networks can be more effective in creating change in people's behaviour. Section C Passage One More than a decade ago, cognitive scientists John Bransford and Daniel Schwartz, both then at Vanderbilt University, found that what distinguished young adults from children was not the ability to retain facts or apply prior knowledge to a new situation but a quality they called "preparation for future learning." The researchers asked fifth graders and college students to create a recovery plan to protect bald eagles from extinction. Shockingly, the two groups came up with plans of similar quality (although the college students had better spelling skills). From the standpoint of a traditional educator, this outcome indicated that schooling had failed to help students think about ecosystems and extinction, major scientific ideas. The researchers decided to go deeper, however. They asked both groups to generate questions about important issues needed to create recovery plans. On this task, they found large differences. College students focused on critical issues of interdependence between eagles and their habitats ( 栖 息 地 ). Fifth graders tended to focus on features of individual eagles ("How big are they?" and "What do they eat?"). The college students had cultivated the ability to ask questions, the cornerstone of critical thinking. They had learned how to learn. Museums and other institutions of informal learning may be better suited to teach this skill than 3

elementary and secondary schools. At the Exploratorium in San Francisco, we recently studied how learning to ask good questions can affect the quality of people's scientific inquiry. We found that when we taught participants to ask "What if?." and "How can?" questions that nobody present would know the answer to and that would spark exploration, they engaged in better inquiry at the next exhibit--asking more questions, performing more experiments and making better interpretations of their results. Specifically, their questions became more comprehensive at the new exhibit. Rather than merely asking about something they wanted to try, they tended to include both cause and effect in their question. Asldng juicy questions appears to be a transferable skill for deepening collaborative inquiry into the science content found in exhibits. This type of learning is not confined to museums or institutional settings. Informal learning environments tolerate failure better than schools. Perhaps many teachers have too little time to allow students to form and pursue their own questions and too much ground to cover in the curriculum. But people must acquire this skill somewhere. Our society depends on them being able to make critical decisions about their own medical treatment, say, or what we must do about global energy needs and demands. For that, we have a robust informal learning system that gives no grades, takes all comers, and is available even on holidays and weekends. 46. What is traditional educators' interpretation of the research outcome mentioned in the first paragraph? A) Students are not able to apply prior knowledge to new problems. B) College students are no better than fifth graders in memorizing facts. C) Education has not paid enough attention to major environmental issues. D) Education has failed to lead students to think about major scientific ideas. 47. In what way are college students different from children? A) They have learned to think critically. C) They are curious about specific features. B) They are concerned about social issues. D) They have learned to work independently. 48. What is the benefit of asking questions with no ready answers? A) It arouses students' interest in things around them. B) It cultivates students' ability to make scientific inquiries. C) It trains students' ability to design scientific experiments. D) It helps students realize not every question has an answer. 49. What is said to be the advantage of informal learning? A) It allows for failures. C) It charges no tuition. B) It is entertaining. D) It meets practical needs. 50. What does the author seem to encourage educators to do at the end of the passage? A) Train students to think about global issues. B) Design more interactive classroom activities. C) Make full use of informal learning resources. D) Include collaborative inquiry in the curriculum. Passage Two "There's an old saying in the space world: amateurs talk about technology, professionals talk about insurance." In an interview last year with The Economist, George Whitesides, chief executive of spacetourism firm Virgin Galactic, was placing his company in the latter category. But insurance will be cold comfort following the failure on October 31st of VSS Enterprise, resulting in the death of one pilot and the severe injury to another. On top of the tragic loss of life, the accident in California will cast a long shadow over the future of space tourism, even before it has properly begun. The notion of space tourism took hold in 2001 with a $20 million flight aboard a Russian spacecraft by Dennis Tito, a millionaire engineer with an adventurous streak. Just half a dozen holiday-makers have reached orbit since then, for similarly astronomical price tags. But more recently, companies have begun to plan more affordable "suborbital" flights--briefer ventures just to the edge of space's vast darkness. Virgin Galactic had, prior to this week's accident, seemed closest to starting regular flights. The company has already taken deposits from around 800 would-be space tourists, including Stephen Hawking. 4

After being dogged by technical delays for years, Sir Richard Branson, Virgin Galactic's founder, had recently suggested that a SpaceShipTwo craft would carry its first paying customers as soon as February 2015. That now seems an impossible timeline. In July, a sister craft of the crashed spaceplane was reported to be about half-finished. The other half will have to wait, as authorities of America's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and National Transportation Safety Board work out what went wrong. In the meantime, the entire space tourism industry will be on tenterhooks ( 坐 立 不 安 ). The 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act, intended to encourage private space vehicles and services, prohibits the transportation secretary (and thereby the FAA) from regulating the design or operation of private spacecraft, unless they have resulted in a serious or fatal injury to crew or passengers. That means that the FAA could suspend Virgin Galactic's licence to fly. It could also insist on checking private manned spacecraft as thoroughly as it does commercial aircraft. While that may make suborbital travel safer, it would add significant cost and complexity to an emerging industry that has until now operated largely as the playground of billionaires and dreamy engineers. How Virgin Galactic, regulators and the public respond to this most recent tragedy will determine whether and how soon private space travel can transcend that playground. There is no doubt that spaceflight entails risks, and to pioneer a new mode of travel is to face those risks, and to reduce them with the benefit of hard-won experience. 51. What is said about the failure of VSS Enterprise? A) It may lead to the bankruptcy of Virgin Galactic. B) It has a strong negative impact on space tourism. C) It may discourage rich people from space travel. D) It has aroused public attention to safety issues. 52. What do we learn about the space-tourism firm Virgin Galactic? A) It has just built a craft for commercial flights. C) It was about ready to start regular business. B) It has sent half a dozen passengers into space. D) It is the first to launch "suborbital" flights. 53. What is the purpose of the 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act? A) To ensure space travel safety. C) To legalize private space explorations B) To limit the FAA's functions. D) To promote the space tourism industry. 54. What might the FAA do after the recent accident in California? A) Impose more rigid safety standards. B) Stop certifying new space-tourist agencies. C) Amend its 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act. D) Suspend Virgin Galactic's licence to take passengers into space. 55. What does the author think of private space travel? A) It is worth promoting despite the risks involved C) It should be strictly regulated. B) It should not be confined to the rich only. D) It is too risky to carry on.

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Section A According to a report from the Harvard School of Public Health, many everyday products, including some bug sprays and cleaning fluids, could lead to an increased risk of brain and behavioral disorders in children. The developing brain, the report says, is particularly 36 to the toxic effects of certain chemicals these products may contain, and the damage they cause can be 37 . The official policy, however, is still evolving. Health and environmental 38 have long urged U.S. government agencies to 39 the use of some of the 11 chemicals the report cites and called for more studies on their long-term effects. In 2001, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency 40 the 5

type and amount of lead that could be present in paint and soil in homes and child-care 41 , after concerns were raised about lead poisoning. The agency is now 42 the toxic effects of some of the chemicals in the latest report. But the threshold for regulation is high. Because children's brain and behavioral disorders, like hyperactivity and lower grades, can also be linked to social and genetic factors, it's tough to pin them on exposure to specific chemicals with solid 43 evidence, which is what the EPA requires. Even the Harvard study did not prove a direct 44 but noted strong associations between exposure and risk of behavioral issues. Nonetheless, it's smart to 45 caution. While it may be impossible to prevent kids from drinking tap water that may contain trace amounts of chemicals, keeping kids away from lawns recently sprayed with chemicals and freshly dry-cleaned clothes can't hurt. F. interaction K. restricted A.advocates G. investigating L. simulating B.compact H. overwhelmed M. statistical C.correlation I. particles N. tighten D.exercise J. permanent O. vulnerable E. facilities Section B [ A ] Politicians are fond of promising rapid energy transitions. Whether it is a transition from imported to domestic oil or from coal-powered electricity production to natural-gas power plants, politicians love to talk big. Unfortunately for them (and often the taxpayers), our energy systems are a bit like an aircraft carrier: they are unbelievably expensive, they are built to last for a very long time, they have a huge amount of inertia ( meaning it takes a lot of energy to set them moving ), and they have a lot of momentum once they are set in motion. No matter how hard you try, you can't turn something that large on a dime ( 10 美分 硬币 ), or even a few thousand dimes. [ B ] In physics, moving objects have two characteristics relevant to understanding the dynamics of energy systems: inertia and momentum. Inertia is the resistance of objects to efforts to change their state of motion. If you try to push a boulder ( 大 圆 石 ), it pushes you back. Once you have started the boulder rolling, it develops momentum, which is defined by its mass and velocity.Momentum is said to be "conserved," that is, once you build it up, it has to go somewhere. So a heavy object, like a football player moving at a high speed, has a lot of momentum-that is, once he is moving, it is hard to change his state of motion. If you want to change his course, you have only a few choices: you can stop him, transferring ( possibly painfully) some of his kinetic energy (动能) to your own body, or you can approach alongside and slowly apply pressure to gradually alter his course. [ C ] But there are other kinds of momentum as well. After all, we don't speak only of objects or people as having momentum; we speak of entire systems having momentum. Whether it's a sports team or a presidential campaign, everybody relishes having the big momentum, because it makes them harder to stop or change direction. [ D ] One kind of momentum is technological momentum. When a technology is deployed, its impacts reach far beyond itself. Consider the incandescent ( 白 炽 灯 的 ) bulb, an object currently hated by many environmentalists and energy-efficiency advocates. The incandescent light bulb, invented by Thomas Edison, which came to be the symbol of inspiration, has been developed into hundreds, if not thousands, of forms. Today, a visit to a lighting store reveals a stunning array of choices. There are standard-shaped bulbs, flame-shaped bulbs, colored globe-shaped bulbs, and more. It is quite easy, with all that choice, to change a light bulb. [ E ] But the momentum of incandescent lighting does not stop there. All of those specialized bulbs ledto the building of specialized light fixtures, from the desk lamp you study by, to the ugly but beloved hand-painted Chinese lamp you inherited from your grandmother, to the ceiling fixture in your closet, to the light in your oven or refrigerator, and to the light that the dentist points at you. It is easy to change a light 6

bulb, sure, but it is harder to change the bulb and its fixture. [ F ] And there is more to the story, because not only are the devices that house incandescent bulbs shaped to their underlying characteristics, but rooms and entire buildings have been designed in accordance with how incandescent lighting reflects off walls and windows. [ G ] As lighting expert Howard Brandston points out, “ Generally, there are no bad light sources, only bad applications. " There are some very commendable characteristics of the CFL [ compact fluorescent ( 荧 光的) light bulb ], yet the selection of any light source remains inseparable from the luminaire (照明装置 ) that houses it, along with the space in which both are installed, and lighting requirements that need to be satisfied. The lamp, the fixture, and the room, all three must work in concert for the true benefits of end-users. If the CFL should be used for lighting a particular space, or an object within that space, the fixture must be designed to work with that lamp, and that fixture with the room. It is a symbiotic ( 共生的 ) relationship. A CFL cannot be simply installed in an incandescent fixture and then expected to produce a visual appearance that is more than washed out, foggy, and dim. The whole fixture must be replaced-light source and luminaire-and this is never an inexpensive proposition. [ H ] And Brandston knows a thing or two about lighting, being the man who illuminated the Statue of Liberty. [ I ]Another type of momentum we have to think about when planning for changes in our energy systems is labor-pool momentum. It is one thing to say that we are going to shift 30 percent of our electricity supply from, say, coal to nuclear power in 20 years. But it is another thing to have a supply of trained talent that could let you carry out this promise. That is because the engineers,designers, regulators, operators, and all of the other skilled people needed for the new energy industry are specialists who have to be trained first ( or retrained, if they are the ones being laid off in some related industry), and education, like any other complicated endeavor, takes time.And not only do our prospective new energy workers have to be trained, they have to be trained in the right sequence. One needs the designers, and perhaps the regulators, before the builders and operators, and each group of workers in training has to know there is work waiting beyond graduation. In some cases, colleges and universities might have to change their training programs, adding another layer of difficulty. [ J ] By far the biggest type of momentum that comes into play when it comes to changing our energy systems is economic momentum. The major components of our energy systems, such as fuel production, refining, electrical generation and distribution, are costly installations that have lengthy life spans. They have to operate for long periods of time before the costs of development have been recovered. When investors put up money to build, say, a nuclear power plant, they expect to earn that money back over the planned life of the plant, which is typically between 40and 60 years. Some coal power plants in the United States have operated for more than 70 years! The oldest continuously operated commercial hydro-electric plant in the United States is on New York's Hudson River, and it went into commercial service in 1898. [ K ] As Vaclav Smil points out, "All the forecasts, plans, and anticipations cited above have failed so miserably because their authors and promoters thought the transitions they hoped to implement would proceed unlike all previous energy transitions, and that their progress could be accelerated in an unprecedented manner. " [ L ] When you hear people speaking of making a rapid transition toward any type of energy, whether it is a switch from coal to nuclear power, or a switch from gasoline-powered cars to electric cars, or even a switch.from an incandescent to a fluorescent light, understanding energy system inertia and momentum can help you decide whether their plans are feasible. 46. Not only moving objects and people but all systems have momentum. 47. Changing the current energy system requires the systematic training of professionals and skilled labor. 7

48. Changing a light bulb is easier than changing the fixture housing it. 49. Efforts to accelerate the current energy transitions didn't succeed as expected. 50. To change the light source is costly because you have to change the whole fixture. 51. Energy systems, like an aircraft carrier set in motion, have huge momentum. 52. The problem with lighting, if it arises, often doesn't lie in light sources but in their applications. 53. The biggest obstacle to energy transition is that the present energy system is too expensive to replace. 54. The application of a technology can impact areas beyond itself. 55. Physical characteristics of moving objects help explain the dynamics of energy systems. Section C Passage One One hundred years ago, "Colored" was the typical way of referring to Americans of African descent. Twenty years later, it was purposefully dropped to make way for "Negro. " By the late 1960s,that term was overtaken by "Black. " And then, at a press conference in Chicago in 1988, Jesse Jackson declared that "African American" was the term to embrace. This one was chosen because it echoed the labels of groups, such as "Italian Americans" and "Irish Americans," that had already been freed of widespread discrimination. A century's worth of calculated name changes point to the fact that naming any group is a politically freighted exercise. A 2001 study cataloged all the ways in which the term "Black" carried connotations ( 涵 义) that were more negative than those of "African American. " But if it was known that "Black" people were viewed differently from "African Americans,"researchers, until now, hadn't identified what that gap in perception was derived from. A recent study, conducted by Emory University's Erika Hall, found that "Black" people are viewed more negatively.than "African Americans" because of a perceived difference in socioeconomic status. As a result,"Black" people are thought of as less competent and as having colder personalities. The study's most striking findings shed light on the racial biases permeating the professional world.Even seemingly harmless details on a resume, it appears, can tap into recruiters' biases. A job application might mention affiliations with groups such as the "Wisconsin Association of African-American Lawyers" or the "National Black Employees Association," the names of which apparently have consequences, and are also beyond their members' control. In one of the study's experiments, subjects were given a brief description of a man from Chicago with the last name Williams. To one group, he was identified as "African-American," and another was told he was "Black. " With little else to go on, they were asked to estimate Mr. Williams's salary,professional standing, and educational background. The "African-American" group estimated that he earned about $ 37,000 a year and had a two-year college degree. The "Black" group, on the other hand, put his salary at about $ 29,000, and guessed that he had only "some" college experience. Nearly three-quarters of the first group guessed that Mr.Williams worked at a managerial level, while only 38.5 percent of the second group thought so. Hall's findings suggest there's an argument to be made for electing to use "African American,"though one can't help but get the sense that it's a decision that papers over the urgency of continued progress. Perhaps a new phrase is needed, one that can bring everyone one big step closer to realizing Du Bois's original, idealistic hope: "It's not the name-it's the Thing that counts. " 56. Why did Jesse Jackson embrace the term "African American" for people of African descent? A.It is free from racial biases. C.It is in the interest of common Americans. B.It represents social progress. D.It follows the standard naming practice. 57. What does the author say about the naming of an ethnic group ? A.It advances with the times. C.It merits intensive study. B.It is based on racial roots. D.It is politically sensitive. 8

58. What do Erika Hall's findings indicate? A.Racial biases are widespread in the professional world. B.Many applicants don't attend to details on their resumes. C.Job seekers should all be careful- about their affiliations. D.Most recruiters are unable to control their racial biases. 59. What does Erika Hall find in her experiment about a man with the last name Williams? A.African Americans fare better than many other ethnic groups. B.Black people's socioeconomic status in America remains low. C.People's conception of a person has much to do with the way he or she is labeled. D.One's professional standing and income are related to their educational background. 60. What is Dr. Du Bois's ideal? A.All Americans enjoy equal rights. B.A person is judged by their worth. C.A new term is created to address African Americans. D.All ethnic groups share the nation's continued progress. Passage Two Across the board, American colleges and universities are not doing a very good job of preparing their students for the workplace or their post-graduation lives. This was made clear by the work of two sociologists, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa.In 2011 they released a landmark study titled"Academically Adrift," which documented the lack of intellectual growth experienced by many people enrolled in college. In particular, Arum and Roksa found, college students were not developing the critical thinking, analytic reasoning and other higher-level skills that are necessary to thrive in today's knowledge-based economy and to lead our nation in a time of complex challenges and dynamic change. Arum and Roksa placed the blame for students' lack of learning on a watered-down college curriculum and lowered undergraduate work standards. Although going to college is supposed to be a Full-time job, students spent, on average, only 12 to 14 hours a week studying and many were skating through their semesters without doing a significant amount of reading and writing. Students who take more challenging classes and spend more time studying do learn more. But the priorities of many undergraduates are with extracurricular activities, playing sports, and partying and socializing. Laura Hamilton, the author of a study on parents who pay for college, will argue in a forthcoming book that college administrations are overly concerned with the social and athletic activities of their students. In Paying for the Party, Hamilton describes what she calls the “arty pathway," which eases many students through college, helped-along by various clubs that send students into the party scene and a host of easier majors.By sanctioning this watered-down version of college, universities are"catering to the social and educational needs of wealthy students at the expense of others" who won't enjoy the financial backing or social connections of richer students once they graduate. These students need to build skills and knowledge during college if they are to use their degrees as a stepping-stone to middle-class mobility. But more privileged students must not waste this opportunity either. As recent graduates can testify, the job market isn't kind to candidates who can't demonstrate genuine competence, along with a well-cultivated willingness to work hard. Nor is the global economy forgiving of an American workforce with increasingly weak literacy, math and science abilities. College graduates will still fare better than those with only a high school education, of course. But a university degree unaccompanied by a gain in knowledge or skills is an empty achievement indeed. For students who have been coasting through college, and for American universities that have been demanding less work, offering more attractions and charging higher tuition, the party may soon be over. 61. What is Arum and Roksa's finding about higher education in America? A.It aims at stimulating the intellectual curiosity of college students. B.It fails to prepare students to face the challenges of modern times. C.It has experienced dramatic changes in recent years. D.It has tried hard to satisfy students' various needs. 9

62. What is responsible for the students' lack of higher-level skills? A.The diluted college curriculum. C.The absence of rigorous discipline. B.The boring classroom activities. D.The outdated educational approach. 63. What does Laura Hamilton say about college administrations? A.They fail to give adequate help to the needy students. B.They tend to offer too many less challenging courses. C.They seem to be out of touch with society. D.They prioritize non-academic activities. 64. What can be learned about the socially and financially privileged students? A.They tend to have a sense of superiority over their peers. B.They can afford to choose easier majors in order to enjoy themselves. C.They spend a lot of time building strong connections with businesses. D.They can climb the social ladder even without a degree. 65. What does the author suggest in the last paragraph? A.American higher education has lost its global competitiveness. B.People should not expect too much from American higher education. C. The current situation in American higher education may not last long. D.It will take a long time to change the current trend in higher education.

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Section A It seems to be a law in the technology industry that leading companies eventually lose their positions, often quickly and brutally. Mobile phone champion Nokia, one of Europe's biggest technology success stories, was no 26 , losing its market share in just a few years. in 2007, Nokia accounted for more than 40% of mobile phone sales 27 . But consumers' preferences were already 28 toward touch-screen smartphones. With the introduction of Apple's iPhone in the middle of that year, Nokia's market share 29 rapidly and revenue plunged. By the end of 2013, Nokia had sold its phone business to Microsoft. What sealed Nokia's fate was a series of decisions made by Stephen Elop in his position as CEO, which he 30 in October 2010. Each day that Elop spent in charge of Nokia, the company's market value declined by $23 million, making him, by the numbers, one of the worst CEOs in history. But Elop was not the only person at 31 . Nokia's board resisted change, making it impossible for the company to adapt to rapid shifts in the industry. Most 32 , Jorma Ollila, who had led Nokia's transition from an industrial company to a technology giant, was too fascinated by the company's 33 success to recognize the change that was needed to sustain its competitiveness. The company also embarked on a 34 cost-cutting program, which included the elimination of thousands of jobs. This contributed to the 35 of the company's once-spirited culture, which had motivated employees to take risks and make miracles. Good leaders left the company, taking Nokia's sense of vision and direction with them. Not surprisingly, much of Nokia's most valuable design and programming talent left as well. A) Assumed I) previous B)bias J) relayed C)Desperate K) shifting D)Deterioration L) shrank E)exception M) subtle F)fault N) transmitting G)incidentally O) worldwide H)notably Section B 10

First-Generation College-Goers: Unprepared and Behind Kids who are the first in their families to brave the world of higher education come on campus with little academic know-how and are much more likely than their peers to drop out before graduation. [A] When Nijay Williams entered-college last fall as a first-generation student and Jamaican immigrant, he was academically unprepared for the rigors of higher education. Like many first-generation students, he enrolled in a medium-sized state university many of his high school peers were also attending, received a Pell Grant, and took out some small federal loans to cover other costs. Given the high price of room and board and the closeness of the school to his family, he chose to live at home and worked between 30 and 40 hours a week while taking a full class schedule. [B] What Nijay didn't realize about his school--Tennessee State University--was its frighteningly low graduation rate: a mere 29 percent for its first-generation students. At the end of his first year, Nijay lost his Pell Grant of over $5,000 after narrowly missing the 2.0 GPA cut-off, making it impossible for him to continue paying for school. [C] Nijay represents a large and growing group of Americans: first-generation college students who enter school unprepared or behind. To make matters worse, these schools are ill-equipped to graduate these students--young adults who face specific challenges and obstacles. They typically carry financial burdens that outweigh those of their peers, are more likely to work while attending school, and often require significant academic remediation (补习). [D] Matt Rubinoff directs I'm First, a nonprofit organization launched last October to reach out to this specific population of students. He hopes to distribute this information and help prospective college- goers find the best post-secondary fit. And while Rubinoff believes there are a good number of four- year schools that truly care about these students and set aside significant resources and programs for them, he says that number isn't high enough. [E] "It's not only the selective and elite institutions that provide those opportunities for a small subset of this population," Rubinoff said, adding that a majority of first-generation undergraduates tend toward options such as online programs, two-year colleges, and commuter state schools. "Unfortunately, there tends to be a lack of information and Support to help students think bigger and broader." [F] Despite this problem, many students are still drawn to these institutions--and two-year schools in particular. As a former high school teacher, I saw students choose familiar, cheaper options year after year. Instead of skipping out on higher education altogether, they chose community colleges or state schools with low bars for admittance. [G] "They underestimate themselves when selecting a university," said Dave Jarrat, a marketing executive for Inside Track, a for-profit organization that specializes in coaching low-income students and supporting colleges in order to help students thrive. "The reality of it is that a lot of low-income kids could be going to elite universities on a full ride scholarship and don't even realize it." [H] "Many students are coming from a situation where no one around them has the experience of successfully completing higher education, so they are coming in questioning themselves and their college worthiness," Jarrat continued. That helps explain why, as I'm First's Rubinoff indicated, the schools to which these students end up resorting can end up being some of the poorest matches for them. The University of Tennessee in Knoxville offers one example of this dilemma. A flagship university in the South, the school graduates just 16 percent of its first-generation students, despite its overall graduation rate of 71 percent. Located. only a few hours apart, The University of Tennessee and Tennessee State are worth comparing. Tennessee State's overall graduation rate is a tiny 39 percent, but at least it has a smaller gap between the outcomes for first-generation students and those of their peers. [I] Still, the University of Tennessee deserves credit for being transparent. Many large institutions keep this kind of data secret-or at least make it incredibly difficult to find. The University of North Carolina at 11

Chapel Hill, for instance, admits only that the graduation rate for its first-generation pupils is "much lower" than the percentage of all students who graduate within, four years (81 percent). [J] It is actually quite difficult to find reliable statistics on the issue for many schools. Higher education institutions are, under federal law, required to report graduation rates, but these reports typically only include Pell recipient numbers--not necessarily rates specific to first-generation students. Other initiatives fail to break down the data, too. Imagine how intimidating it can be for prospective students unfamiliar with the complexities of higher education to navigate this kind of information and then identify which schools are the best fit. [K] It was this lack of information that prompted the launch of I'm First in 2013, originally as an arm of its umbrella organization, the Center For Student Opportunity. "If we can help to direct students to more of these types of campuses and help students to understand them to be realistic and accessible places, have them apply to these schools at greater frequency and ultimately get in and enroll, we are going to raise the success rate," Rubinoff said, citing a variety of colleges ranging from large state institutions to smaller private schools. [L] Chelsea Jones, who now directs student programming at I'm First, was a fast-generation college student at Howard. Like other students new to the intimidating higher-education world, she often struggled on her path to college. "There wasn't really a college-bound culture at my high school," she said."I wanted to go to college but I didn't really know the process." Jones became involved with a college-access program through Princeton University in high school. Now, she attributes much of her understanding of college to that: "But once I got to campus, it was a completely different ball game that no one really prepared me for." [M] She was fortunate, though. Howard, a well-regarded historically black college, had an array of resources for its fast-generation students, including matching kids with counselors, connecting fastgeneration students to one another, and TRIO, a national program that supported 200 students on Howard's campus. Still, Jones represents a small percentage of first-generation students who are able to gain entry into more elite universities, which are often known for robust financial aid packages and remarkably high graduation rates for fast-generation students. (Harvard, for example, boasts a six-year graduation rate for underrepresented minority groups of 98 percent.) [N] Christian Vazquez, a first-generation Yale graduate, is another exception, his success story setting him far apart from students such as Nijay. "There's a lot of support at Yale, to an extent, after a while, there is too much support," he said, half-joking about the countless resources available at the school. Students are placed in small groups with counselors (trained seniors on campus); they have access to cultural and ethnic affinity ( 联系 ) groups, tutoring centers and also have a summer orientation specifically for first-generation students (the latter being one of the most common programs for students). [O] "Our support structure was more like: 'You are going to get through Yale; you are going to do well,'" he said, hinting at mentors ( 导 师 ), staff, and professors who all provided significant support for students who lacked confidence about "belonging" at such a top institution. 36. Many first-generation college-goers have doubts about their abilities to get a college degree. 37. First-generation college students tend to have much heavier financial burdens than their peers. 38. The graduation, rate of first-generation students at Nijay's university was incredibly low. 39. Some top institutions like Yale seem to provide first-generation students with more support than they actually need. 40. On entering college, Nijay Williams had no idea how challenging college education was. 41. Many universities simply refuse to release their exact graduation rates for first-generation students. 42. According to a marketing executive, many students from low-income families don't know they could have a chance of going to an elite university. 43. Some elite universities attach great importance to building up the first-generation students' selfconfidence. 12

44. I'm First distributes information to help first-generation college-goers find schools that are most suitable for them. 45. Elite universities tend to graduate first-generation students at a higher rate. Section C Passage One One hundred years ago, "Colored" was the typical way of referring to Americans of African descent. Twenty years later, it was purposefully dropped to make way for "Negro." By the late 1960s, that term was overtaken by "Black." And then, at a press conference in Chicago in 1988, Jesse Jackson declared that "African American" was the term to embrace. This one was chosen because it echoed the labels of groups, such as "Italian Americans" and "Irish Americans," that had already been freed of widespread discrimination. A century's worth of calculated name changes point to the fact that naming any group is a politically freighted exercise. A 2001 study catalogued all the ways in which the term "Black" carried connotations ( 涵 义) that were more negative than those of "African American." But if it was known that "Black" people were viewed differently from "African Americans," researchers, until now, hadn't identified what that gap in perception was derived from. A recent study, conducted by Emory University's Erika Hall, found that "Black" people are viewed more negatively than "African Americans" because of a perceived difference in socioeconomic status. As a result, "Black" people are thought of as less competent and as having .colder personalities. The study's most striking findings shed light on the racial biases permeating the professional world. Even seemingly harmless details on a résumé, it appears, can tap into recruiters' biases. A job application might mention affiliations with groups such as the "Wisconsin Association of African-American Lawyers" or the "National Black Employees Association," the names of which apparently have consequences, and are also beyond their members' control. In one of the study's experiments, subjects were given a brief description of a man from Chicago with the last name Williams. To one group, he was identified as "African-American," and another was told he was "Black." With little else to go on, they were asked to estimate Mr. Williams's salary, professional standing, and educational background. The "African-American" group estimated that he earned about $37,000 a year and had a two-year college degree. The "Black" group, on the other hand, put his salary at about $29,000, and guessed that he had only "some" college experience. Nearly three-quarters of the first group guessed that Mr. Williams worked at a managerial level, while only 38.5 percent of the second group thought so. Hall's findings suggest there's an argument to be made for electing to use "African American," though one can't help but get the sense that it's a decision that papers over the urgency of continued progress. Perhaps a new phrase is needed, one that can bring everyone one big step closer to realizing Du Bois's original, idealistic hope: "It's not the name-it's the Thing that counts." 46. Why did Jesse Jackson embrace the term "African American" for people of African descent? A) It is free from racial biases. C) It is in the interest of common Americans. B) It represents social progress. D) It follows the standard naming practice. 47. What does the author say about the naming of an ethnic group? A) It advances with the times. C) It merits intensive study. B) It is based on racial roots. D) It is politically sensitive. 48. What do Erika Hall's findings indicate? A) Racial biases are widespread in the professional world. B) Many applicants don't attend to details on their résumés. C) Job seekers should all be careful about their affiliations. D) Most recruiters are unable to control their racial biases. 49. What does Erika Hall find in her experiment about a man with the last name Williams? A) African Americans fare better than many other ethnic groups. 13

B) Black people's socioeconomic status in America remains low. C) People's conception of a person has much to do with the way he or she is labeled. D) One's professional standing and income are related to their educational background. 50. What is Dr. Du Bois's ideal? A) All Americans enjoy equal rights. B) A person is judged by their worth. C) A new term is created to address African Americans. D) All ethnic groups share the nation's continued progress. Passage Two Across the board, American colleges and universities are not doing a very good job of preparing their students for the workplace or their post-graduation lives. This was made clear by the work of two sociologists, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa. In 2011 they released a landmark study titled "Academically Adrift," which documented the lack of intellectual growth experienced by many people enrolled in college. In particular, Arum and Roksa found, college students were not developing the critical thinking, analytic reasoning and other higher-level skills that are necessary to thrive in today's knowledge-based economy and to lead our nation in a time of complex challenges and dynamic change. Arum and Roksa placed the blame for students' lack of learning on a watered-down college curriculum and lowered undergraduate work standards. Although going to college is supposed to be a full-time job, students spent, on average, only 12 to 14 hours a week studying and many were skating through their semesters without doing a significant amount of reading and writing. Students who take more challenging classes and spend more time studying do learn more. But the priorities of many undergraduates are with extracurricular activities, playing sports, and partying and socializing. Laura Hamilton, the author of a study on parents who pay for college, will argue in a forthcoming book that college administrations are overly concerned with the social and athletic activities of their students. In Paying for the Party, Hamilton describes what she calls the "party pathway," which eases many students through college, helped along by various clubs that send students into the party scene and a host of easier majors. By sanctioning this watered-down version of college, universities are "catering to the social and educational needs of wealthy students at the expense of others" who won't enjoy the financial backing or social connections of richer students once they graduate. These students need to build skills and knowledge during college if they are to use their degrees as a stepping-stone to middle-class mobility. But more privileged students must not waste this opportunity either. As recent graduates can testify, the job market isn't kind to candidates who can't demonstrate genuine competence, along with a well-cultivated willingness to work hard. Nor is the global economy forgiving of an American workforce with increasingly weak literacy, math and science abilities. College graduates will still fare better than those with only a high school education, of course. But a university degree unaccompanied by a gain in knowledge or skills is an empty achievement indeed. For students who have been coasting through college, and for American universities that have been demanding less work, offering more attractions and charging higher tuition, the party may soon be over. 51. What is Arum and Roksa's finding about higher education in America? A) It aims at stimulating the intellectual curiosity of college students. B) It fails to prepare students to face the challenges of modem times. C) It has experienced dramatic changes in recent years. D) It has tried hard to satisfy students' various needs. 52. What is responsible for the students' lack of higher-level skills? A) The diluted college curriculum. C) The absence of rigorous discipline. B) The boring classroom activities. D) The outdated educational approach. 53. What does Laura Hamilton say about college administrations? A) They fail to give adequate help to the needy students. B) They tend to offer too many less challenging courses. C) They seem to be out of touch with society. 14

D) They prioritize non-academic activities. 54. What can be learned about the socially and financially privileged students? A) They tend to have a sense of superiority over their peers. B) They can afford to choose easier majors in order to enjoy themselves. C) They spend a lot of time building strong connections with businesses. D) They can climb the social ladder even without a degree. 55. What does the author suggest in the last paragraph? A) American higher education has lost its global competitiveness. B) People should not expect too much from American higher education. C) The current situation in American higher education may not last long. D) It will take a long time to change the current trend in higher education.

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Section A Let's say you love roller-skating. Just the thought of 26 on your roller-skates brings a smile to your face. You also know that roller-skating is excellent exercise. You have a 27 attitude toward it. This description of roller-skating 28 the three components of an attitude: affect, cognition, and behavior. You love the activity; it's great fun. These feelings 29 the affective or emotional component; they are an important ingredient in attitudes. The knowledge we have about the object constitutes the cognitive component of an attitude. You understand the health 30 that the activity can bring. Finally, attitudes have a behavioral component. Our attitudes 31 us to go outside to enjoy roller-skating. Now, we don't want to leave you with the 32 that these three components always work together 33 . They don't; sometimes they clash. For example, let's say you love pizza (affective component); however, you have high cholesterol and understand (knowledge component) that eating pizza may be bad for your health. Which behavior will your attitude result in, eating pizza or 34 it? The answer depends on which component happens to be stronger. If you are walking past a pizza restaurant at lunchtime, your emotions and feelings probably will be stronger than your knowledge that pizza may not be the best food for your health. In that instance, you have pizza for lunch. If you are at home trying to decide where to go for dinner, however, the knowledge component may 35 , and you decide to go where you can eat a healthier meal. A.avoiding F.improves K.primarily B.benefits G.inquiring L.prompt C.highlight H.perfectly M.specifications D.illustrates I.positive N.strapping E.impression J.prevail O.typical Section B The Changing Generation [A] It turns out today's teenagers aren't so scary after all. Results of USA WEEKEND'S Teens & Parents survey reveal a generation of young people who get along well with their parents and approve of the way they're being raised. They think of their parents with affection and respect. They speak with Mom or Dad when they have a problem. Most feel that their parents understand them, and they believe their family is the No. 1 priority in their parents, lives. Many even think their parents are cool! Although more than a third have an object in their rooms they would like to keep secret from their parents, rarely is it anything more alarming than a diary or off-color (低俗的) book or CD. [B] Such results may seem surprising against the background of shocking incidents that color the way the mass media portray the young. In October 2000, , the same month the survey was taken, the Washington-based Center for Media and Public Affairs wrote in its publication Media Monitor that, in a recent month of TV news coverage of American youth, just 2% of teens were shown at home, and just 1% 15

were portrayed in a work setting. In contrast, the criminal justice system accounted for nearly one out of every five visual backgrounds. No wonder parents worry their own kids might spin out of control once they hit the turbulent waters of adolescence. [C] The overall facts ought to reassure us. The survey shows us that today's teens are affectionate, sensible and far happier than the angry and tortured souls that have been painted for us by stereotypes. From other sources, we also know teenage crime, drug abuse and premarital sex are in general decline. We, of course, need to pay attention to youngsters who are filled with discontent and hostility, but we should not allow these extreme cases to distort our view of most young people. [D] My own research at the Stanford Center on Adolescence uses in-depth interviews with small samples of youngsters rather than large-scale surveys. Still, in my studies and others I have read, I find the same patterns as in USA WEEKEND'S survey. Today's teenagers admire their parents and welcome parental guidance about important matters such as career choice—though certainly not Mom and Dad's advice on matters of personal taste, such as music or fashion. When we ask teens to choose a hero ,they usually select an older family member rather than a remote public figure. Most teens say they enjoy the company of both parents and friends. [E] Contrary to some stereotypes, most adolescents believe they must be tolerant of differences among individuals (though they do not always find this easy in the cliquish ( 拉 帮 结 派 的 ) environment of high school). Many of them volunteer for community service with disadvantaged people. One prevalent quality we have found in teens, statements about themselves, their friends and their families is a strikingly positive emotional tone. By and large, these are very nice kids, and as the band The Who used to sing, "The kids are alright." [F] How much is today's spirit of harmony a change from our more turbulent past? A mere generation ago, parent-child relations were described as "the generation gap". Yet even then reports of widespread youth rebellion were overdone: Most kids in the '60s and 70s shared their parents, basic values. Still, it is true that American families are growing closer at the dawn of this new millennium ( 千年 ). Perhaps there is less to fight about, with the country in a period of tranquility and the dangers of drug abuse and other unwholesome behavior well known. Perhaps in the face of impersonal and intimidating globalization, a young person's family feels more like a friendly haven than an oppressive trap. And perhaps parents are acting more like parents than in the recent past. Within just the past five years, I have noticed parents returning to a belief that teenagers need the guidance of elders rather than the liberal, "anything goes" mode of child-rearing that became popular in the second half of the 20th century. [G] But missing from all these data is the sense that today's young care very much about their country, about the broader civic and political environment, or about the future of their society. They seem to be turning inward—generally in a pro-social manner, certainly with positive benefits for intimate relationships, but too often at the expense of a connection with the present and future world beyond, including the society they will one day inherit. [H] Recently, we examined more than 400 essays on the "laws of life" that teens from two communities had written as part of an educational program initiated by the John Templeton Foundation in Radnor, Pa. In those essays, and in follow-up interviews with a few of the teenagers, we found lots of insight, positive feeling and inspirational thinking. But we also found little interest in civic life beyond the tight circles of their family and immediate friends. [I] For example, only one boy said he would like to be president when he grows up. When I was in high school, dozens in my class alone would have answered differently. In fact, other recent studies have found there has never been a time in American history when so small a proportion of young people have sought or accepted leadership roles in local civic organizations. It is also troubling that voting rates among our youngest eligible voters—18- to 24-year-olds—are way down: Little more than one in four now go to the polls, even in national elections, compared with almost twice that many when 18-year-olds were first given 16

the vote. [J] In our interviews, many students viewed politics with suspicion and distaste. " Most politicians are kind of crooked ( 不诚实的 )" one student declared. Another, discussing national politics, said, “I feel like one person can't do that much, and I get the impression most people don't think a group of people can do that much." Asked what they would like to change in the world, the students mentioned only personal concerns such as slowing down the pace of life, gaining good friends, becoming more spiritual, becoming either more materially successful or less materially oriented (depending on the student's values), and being more respectful of the Earth, animals and other people. One boy said, "I'd rather be concentrating on artistic efforts than saving the world or something." [K] It is fine and healthy for teens to cultivate their personal interests, and it is good news when young people enjoy harmonious relations with their family and friends. But there is also a place in a young life for noble purposes that include a dedication to the broader society, a love of country and an aspiration to make their own leadership contributions. [L] In the past, the young have eagerly participated in national service and civic affairs, often with lots of energy and idealism. If this is not happening today, we should ask why. Our society needs the full participation of its younger citizens if it is to continue to thrive. We know the promise is there—this is a well-grounded, talented, warm-hearted group of youngsters. We have everything to gain by encouraging them to explore the world beyond their immediate experience and to prepare themselves for their turn at shaping that world. 36. Not many young people eligible for voting are interested in local or national elections these days. 37. Parents are concerned that their children may get involved in criminal offences once they reach their teens. 38. Even during the turbulent years of last century, youth rebellion was often exaggerated in the media. 39. Teenagers of today often turn to their parents for advice on such important matters as career choice. 40. The incidence of teenage crime and misbehavior is decreasing nowadays. 41. Young people should have lofty ideals in life and strive to be leaders. 42. Some young people like to keep something to themselves and don't want their parents to know about it. 43. It is beneficial to encourage young people to explore the broader world and get ready to make it a better place. 44. Many teenagers now offer to render service to the needy. 45. Interviews with students find many of them are only concerned about personal matters. Section C Passage One Manufacturers of products that claim to be environmentally friendly will face tighter rules on how they are advertised to consumers under changes proposed by the Federal Trade Commission. The commission's revised "Green Guides" warn marketers against using labels that make broad claims, like "eco-friendly". Marketers must qualify their claims on the product packaging and limit them to a specific benefit, such as how much of the product is recycled. "This is really about trying to cut through the confusion that consumers have when they are buying a product and that businesses have when they are selling a product," said Jon Leibowitz, chairman of the commission. The revisions come at a time when green marketing is on the rise. According to a new study, the number of advertisements with green messages in mainstream magazines has risen since 1987, and peaked in 2008 at 10.4%. In 2009, the number dropped to 9%. But while the number of advertisements may have dipped, there has been a rapid spread of ecolabeling. There are both good and bad players in the eco-labeling game. 17

In the last five years or so, there has been an explosion of green claims and environmental claims. It is clear that consumers don't always know what they are getting. A handful of lawsuits have been filed in recent years against companies accused of using misleading environmental labels. In 2008 and 2009, class-action lawsuits (集体诉讼) were filed against SC Johnson for using "Greenlist" labels on its cleaning products. The lawsuits said that the label was misleading because it gave the impression that the products had been certified by a third party when the certification was the company's own. "We are very proud of our accomplishments under the Greenlist system and we believe that we will prevail in these cases," Christopher Beard, director of public affairs for SC Johnson, said, while acknowledging that "this has been an area that is difficult to navigate." Companies have also taken it upon themselves to contest each other's green claims. David Mallen, associate director of the Council of Better Business Bureau, said in the last two years the organization had seen an increase in the number of claims companies were bringing against each other for false or misleading environmental product claims. "About once a week, I have a client that will bring up a new certification I've never even heard of and I'm in this industry, said Kevin Wilhelm, chief executive officer of Sustainable Business Consulting. "It's kind of a Wild West, anybody can claim themselves to be green." Mr. Wilhelm said the excess of labels made it difficult for businesses and consumers to know which labels they should pay attention to. 46. What do the revised "Green Guides" require businesses to do? A) Manufacture as many green products as possible. B) Indicate whether their products are recyclable. C) Specify in what way their products are green. D) Attach green labels to all of their products. 47. What does the author say about consumers facing an explosion of green claims? A) They can easily see through the businesses' tricks. B) They have to spend lots of time choosing products. C) They have doubt about current green certification. D) They are not clear which products are truly green. 48. What was SC Johnson accused of in the class-action lawsuits? A) It gave consumers the impression that all its products were truly green. B) It gave a third party the authority to label its products as environmentally friendly. C) It misled consumers to believe that its products had been certified by a third party. D) It sold cleaning products that were not included in the official "Greenlist". 49. How did Christopher Beard defend his company's labeling practice? A) There were no clear guidelines concerning green labeling. B) His company's products had been well received by the public. C) It was in conformity to the prevailing practice in the market. D) No law required the involvement of a third party in certification. 50. What does Kevin Wilhelm imply by saying "It's kind of a Wild West" (Line 3,Para. 11)? A) Businesses compete to produce green products. B) Each business acts its own way in green labeling. C) Consumers grow wild with products labeled green. D) Anything produced in the West can be labeled green. Passage Two America's education system has become less a ladder of opportunity than a structure to transmit inequality from one generation to the next. That's why school reform is so critical. This is an issue of equality, opportunity and national conscience. It's not just about education, but about poverty and justice. It's true that the main reason inner-city schools do poorly isn't teachers' unions, but poverty. Southern states without strong teachers' , unions have schools at least as awful as those in union states. Some Chicago 18

teachers seem to think that they shouldn't be held accountable until poverty is solved. There're steps we can take that would make some difference, and Mayor Rahm Emanuel is trying some of them—yet the union is resisting. I'd be sympathetic if the union focused solely on higher compensation. Teachers need to be much better paid to attract the best college graduates to the nation's worst schools. But, instead, the Chicago union seems to be using its political capital primarily to protect weak performers. There's solid evidence that there are huge differences in the effectiveness of teachers. The gold standard study by Harvard and Columbia University scholars found that even in high-poverty schools, teachers consistently had a huge positive or negative impact. Get a bottom 1% teacher, and the effect is the same as if a child misses 40% of the school year. Get a teacher from the top 20%, and it's as if a child has gone to school for an extra month or two. The study found that strong teachers in the fourth through eighth grades raised the skills of their students in ways that would last for decades. Just having a strong teacher for one elementary year left pupils a bit less likely to become mothers as teenagers, a bit more likely to go to college and earning more money at age 28. How does one figure out who is a weak teacher? Yes, that's a challenge. But researchers are improving systems to measure a teacher's performance throughout the year, and, with three years of data, ifs usually possible to tell which teachers are failing. Unfortunately, the union in Chicago is insisting that teachers who are laid off—often for being ineffective—should get priority in new hiring. That's an insult to students. Teaching is so important that it should be like other professions, with high pay and good working conditions but few job protections for bottom performers. This isn't a battle between garment workers and greedy bosses. The central figures in the Chicago schools strike are neither strikers nor managers but 350,000 children. Protecting the union demand sacrifices those students, in effect turning a blind eye to the injustice in the education system. 51. What do we learn about America's education system? A) It provides a ladder of opportunity for the wealthy. B) It contributes little to the elimination of inequality. C) It has remained basically unchanged for generations. D) It has brought up generations of responsible citizens. 52. What is chiefly responsible for the undesirable performance of inner-city schools? A) Unqualified teachers. C) Unfavorable learning environment. B) Lack of financial resources. D) Subconscious racial discrimination. 53. What does the author think the union should do to win popular support? A) Assist the city government in reforming schools. B) Give constructive advice to inner-city schools. C) Demand higher pay for teachers. D) Help teachers improve teaching. 54. What is the finding of the gold standard study by Harvard and Columbia University scholars? A) Many inner-city school teachers are not equal to their jobs. B) A large proportion of inner-city children often miss classes. C) Many students are dissatisfied with their teachers. D) Student performance has a lot to do with teachers. 55. Why does the author say the Chicago unions demand is an insult to students? A) It protects incompetent teachers at the expense of students. B) It underestimates students, ability to tell good teachers from poor ones. C) It makes students feel that they are discriminated against in many ways. D) It totally ignores students,initiative in the learning process.

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2016.06 - 2

Section A The robotics revolution is set to bring humans face to face with an old fear—man-made creations as smart and capable as we are but without a moral compass. As robots take on ever more complex roles, the question naturally 26 : Who will be responsible when they do something wrong? Manufacturers? Users? Software writers? The answer depends on the robot. Robots already save us time, money and energy. In the future, they will improve our health care, social welfare and standard of living. The 27 of computational power and engineering advances will 28 enable lower-cost in-home care for the disabled, 29 use of driverless cars that may reduce drunk- and distracted-driving accidents and countless home and service-industry uses for robots, from street cleaning to food preparation. But there are 30 to be problems. Robot cars will crash. A drone ( 遥控飞行器 ) operator will 31 someone’s privacy. A robotic lawn mower will run over a neighbor’s cat. Juries sympathetic to the 32 of machines will punish entrepreneurs with company-crushing 33 and damages. What should governments do to protect people while 34 space for innovation? Big, complicated systems on which much public safety depends, like driverless cars, should be built, 35 and sold by manufacturers who take responsibility for ensuring safety and are liable for accidents. Governments should set safety requirements and then let insurers price the risk of the robots based on the manufacturer’s driving record, not the passenger’s. A)arises B)ascends C)bound D)combination Section B E)definite F)eventually G)interfere H)invade I)manifesting J)penalties K)preserving L)programmed M)proximately N)victims O)widespread

Reform and Medical Costs

[A]Americans are deeply concerned about the relentless rise in health care costs and health insurance premiums. They need to know if reform will help solve the problem. The answer is that no one has an easy fix for rising medical costs. The fundamental fix—reshaping how care is delivered and how doctors are paid in a wasteful, abnormal system—is likely to be achieved only through trial and error and incremental(渐进的)gains. [B]The good news is that a bill just approved by the House and a bill approved by the Senate Finance Committee would implement or test many reforms that should help slow the rise in medical costs over the long term. As a report in The New England Journal of Medicine concluded, “Pretty much every proposed innovation found in the health policy literature these days is contained in these measures.” [C]Medical spending, which typically rises faster than wages and the overall economy, is propelled by two things: the high prices charged for medical services in this country and the volume of unnecessary care delivered by doctors and hospitals, which often perform a lot more tests and treatments than patient really needs. [D]Here are some of the important proposals in the House and Senate bills to try to address those problems, and why it is hard to know how well they will work. [E]Both bills would reduce the rate of growth in annual Medicare payments to hospitals, nursing homes and other providers by amounts comparable to the productivity savings routinely made in other industries with the help of new technologies and new ways to organize work. This proposal could save Medicare 20

more than $100 billion over the next decade. If private plans demanded similar productivity savings from providers, and refused to let providers shift additional costs to them, the savings could be much larger. Critics say Congress will give in to lobbyists and let inefficient providers off the hook(放过). That is far less likely to happen if Congress also adopts strong “pay-go” rules requiring that any increase in payments to providers be offset by new taxes or budge cuts. [F]The Senate Finance bill would impose an excise tax( 消 费 税 )on health insurance plans that cost more than $8,000 for an individual or $21,000 for a family. It would most likely cause insurers to redesign plans to fall beneath the threshold. Enrollees would have to pay more money for many services out of their own pockets, and that would encourage them to think twice about whether an expensive or redundant test was worth it. Economists project that most employers would shift money from expensive health benefits into wages. The House bill has no similar tax. The final legislation should. [G]Any doctor who has wrestled with multiple forms from different insurers, or patients who have tried to understand their own parade of statements, know that simplification ought to save money. When the health insurance industry was still cooperating in reform efforts, its trade group offered to provide standardized forms for automated processing. It estimated that step would save hundreds of billions of dollars over the next decade. The bills would lock that pledge into law. [H]The stimulus package provided money to convert the inefficient, paper-driven medical system to electronic records that can be easily viewed and transmitted. This requires open investments to help doctors convert. In time it should help restrain costs by eliminating redundant tests, preventing drug interactions, and helping doctors find the best treatments. [I]Virtually all experts agree that the fee-for-service system—doctors are rewarded for the quantity of care rather than its quality or effectiveness—is a primary reason that the cost of care is so high. Most agree that the solution is to push doctors to accept fixed payments to care for a particular illness or for a patient's needs over a year. No one knows how to make that happen quickly. The bills in both houses would start pilot projects within Medicare. They include such measures as accountable care organizations to take charge of a patient's needs with an eye on both cost and quality, and chronic disease management to make sure the seriously ill, who are responsible for the bulk of all health care costs, are treated properly. For the most part, these experiments rely on incentive payments to get doctors to try them. [J]Testing innovations do no good unless the good experiments are identified and expanded and the bad ones are dropped. The Senate bill would create an independent commission to monitor the pilot programs and recommend changes in Medicare's payment policies to urge providers to adopt reforms that work. The changes would have to be approved or rejected as a whole by Congress, making it hard for narrow-interest lobbies to bend lawmakers to their will. [K]The bills in both chambers would create health insurance exchanges on which small businesses and individuals could choose from an array of private plans and possibly a public option. All the plans would have to provide standard benefit packages that would be easy to compare. To get access to millions of new customers, insurers would have a strong incentive to sell on the exchange. And the head-to-head competition might give them a strong incentive to lower their prices, perhaps by accepting slimmer profit margins or demanding better deals from providers. [L]The final legislation might throw a public plan into the competition, but thanks to the fierce opposition of the insurance industry and Republican critics, it might not save much money. The one in the House bill would have to negotiate rates with providers, rather than using Medicare rates, as many reformers wanted. [M]The president’s stimulus package is pumping money into research to compare how well various treatments work. Is surgery, radiation or careful monitoring best for prostate(前列腺)cancer? Is the latest and most expensive cholesterol-lowering drug any better than its common competitors? The pending 21

bills would spend additional money to accelerate this effort. [N]Critics have charged that this sensible idea would lead to rationing of care. (That would be true only if you believed that patients should have an unrestrained right to treatments proven to be inferior.) As a result, the bills do not requires, as they should, that the results of these studies be used to set payment rates in Medicare. [O]Congress needs to find the courage to allow Medicare to pay preferentially for treatments proven to be superior. Sometimes the best treatment might be the most expensive. But overall, we suspect that spending would come down through elimination of a lot of unnecessary or even dangerous tests and treatments. [P]The House bill would authorize the secretary of health and human services to negotiate drug prices in Medicare and Medicaid. Some authoritative analysts doubt that the secretary would get better deals than private insurers already get. We believe negotiation could work. It does in other countries. [Q]Missing from these bills is any serious attempt to rein in malpractice costs. Malpractice awards do drive up insurance premiums for doctors in high-risk specialties, and there is some evidence doctors engage in "defensive medicine" by performing tests and treatments primarily to prove they are not negligent should they get sued. 36.With a tax imposed on expensive health insurance plans, most employers will likely transfer money from health expenses into wages. 37.Changes in policy would be approved or rejected as a whole so that lobbyists would find it hard to influence lawmakers. 38.It is not easy to curb the rising medical costs in America. 49.Standardization of forms for automatic processing will save a lot of medical expenses. 40. Republicans and insurance industry are strongly opposed to the creation of a public insurance plan. 41. Conversions of paper to electronic medical records will help eliminate redundant tests and prevent drug interactions. 42. The high cost of medical services and unnecessary tests and treatments have driven up medical expenses. 43. One main factor that has driven up medical expenses is that doctors are compensated for the amount of care rather than its effect. 44. Contrary to analysts’ doubts, the author believes drug prices may be lowered through negotiation. 45. Fair competition might create a strong incentive for insurers to charge less. Section C Passage One Facing water shortages and escalating fertilizer costs, farmers in developing countries are using raw sewage ( 下 水 道 污 水 ) to irrigate and fertilize nearly 49 million acres of cropland, according to a new report—and it may not be a bad thing. While the practice carries serious health risks for many, those dangers are outweighed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food. “There is a large potential for wastewater agriculture to both help and hurt great numbers of urban consumers,” said Liqa Raschid-Sally, who led the study. The report focused on poor urban areas, where farms in or near cities supply relatively inexpensive food. Most of these operations draw irrigation water from local rivers or lakes. Unlike developed cities, however, these areas lack advanced water-treatment facilities, and rivers effectively become sewers ( 下 水 道). When this water is used for agricultural irrigation, farmers risk absorbing disease-causing bacteria, as do consumers who eat the produce raw and unwashed. Nearly 2.2 million people die a year because of diarrhea-related ( 与腹泻相关的 ) diseases, according to WHO statistics. More than 80% of those cases can 22

be attributed to contact with contaminated water and a lack of proper sanitation. But Pay Drechsel, an environmental scientist, argues that the social and economic benefits of using untreated human waste to grow food outweigh the health risks. Those dangers can be addressed with farmer and consumer education, he said, while the free water and nutrients from human waste can help urban farmers in developing countries to escape poverty. Agriculture is a water-intensive business, accounting for nearly 70% of global fresh water consumption. In poor, dry regions, untreated wastewater is the only viable irrigation source to keep farmers in business. In some cases, water is so scarce that farmers break open sewage pipes transporting waste to local rivers. Irrigation is the primary agricultural use of human waste in the developing world. But frequently untreated human waste harvested from lavatories is delivered to farms and spread as fertilizer. In most cases, the human waste is used on grain crops, which are eventually cooked, minimizing the risk of transmitting water-borne diseases. With fertilizer prices jumping nearly 50% per metric ton over the last year in some places, human waste is an attractive, and often necessary, alternative. In cases where sewage mud is used, expensive chemical fertilizer use can be avoided. The mud contains the same critical nutrients. “Overly strict standards often fail,” James Bartram, a WHO water-health expert, said. “We need to accept that fact across much of the planet, so waste with little or no treatment will be used in agriculture for good reason.” 46. What does the author say about the use of raw sewage for farming? A)Its risks cannot be overestimated. B)It should be forbidden altogether. C)Its benefits outweigh the hazards involved. D)It is polluting millions of acres of cropland. 47. What is the main problem caused by the use of wastewater for irrigation? A)Rivers and lakes nearby will gradually become contaminated. B)It will drive producers of chemical fertilizers out of business. C)Farmers and consumers may be affected by harmful bacteria. D)It will make the farm produce less competitive on the market. 48. What is environmental scientist Pay Drechsel’s attitude towards the use of untreated human waste in agriculture? A)Favorable. C)Indifferent. B)Skeptical. D)Responsible. 49. What does Pay Drechsel think of the risks involved in using untreated human waste for farming? A)They have been somewhat exaggerated. B)They can be dealt with through education. C)They will be minimized with new technology. D)They can be addressed by improved sanitation. 50. What do we learn about James Bartram’s position on the use of human waste for farming? A)He echoes Pay Drechsel’s opinion on the issue. B)He challenges Liqa Raschid-Sally’s conclusion C)He thinks it the only way out of the current food crisis. D)He deems it indispensable for combating global poverty. Passage Two These days, nobody needs to cook. Families graze on high-cholesterol take-aways and microwaved ready-meals. Cooking is an occasional hobby and a vehicle for celebrity chefs. Which makes it odd that the kitchen has become the heart of the modern house: what the great hall was to the medieval castle, the kitchen is to the 21st-century home. The money spent on kitchens has risen with their status. In America the kitchen market is now worth 23

$170 billion, five times the country’s film industry. In the year to August 2007, IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain, sold over one million kitchens worldwide. The average budget for a “major” kitchen overhaul in 2006, calculates Remodeling magazine, was a staggering $54,000; even a “minor” improvement cost on average $18,000. Exclusivity, more familiar in the world of high fashion, has reached the kitchen: Robinson & Cornish, a British manufacturer of custom-made kitchens, offers a Georgian-style one which would cost ?145,000-155,000—excluding building, plumbing and electrical work. Its big selling point is that nobody else will have it: “You won’t see this kitchen anywhere else in the word.” The elevation of the room that once belonged only to the servants to that of design showcase for the modern family tells the story of a century of social change. Right into the early 20th century, kitchens were smoky, noisy places, generally located underground, or to the back of the house, and as far from living space as possible. That was as it should be: kitchens were for servants, and the aspiring middle classes wanted nothing to do with them. But as the working classes prospered and the servant shortage set in, housekeeping became a matter of interest to the educated classes. One of the pioneers of a radical new way of thinking about the kitchen was Catharine Esther Beecher, sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe. In American Woman’s Home, published in 1869, the Beecher sisters recommended a scientific approach to household management, designed to enhance the efficiency of a woman’s work and promote order. Many contemporary ideas about kitchen design can be traced back to another American, Christine Frederick, who set about enhancing the efficiency of the housewife. Her 1919 work, Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home, was based on detailed observation of a housewife’s daily routine. She borrowed the principle of efficiency on the factory floor and applied it to domestic tasks on the kitchen floor. Frederick’s central idea, that “stove, sink and kitchen table must be placed in such a relation that useless steps are avoided entirely”, inspired the first fully fitted kitchen, designed in the 1920s by Margarete Schütter-Lihotsky. It was a modernist triumph, and many elements remain central features of today’s kitchen. 51. What does the author say about the kitchen of today? A)It is where housewives display their cooking skills. B)It is where the family entertains important guests. C)It has become something odd in a modern house. D)It is regarded as the center of a modern home. 52. Why does the Georgian-style kitchen sell at a very high price? A)It is believed to have tremendous artistic value. B)No duplicate is to be found in any other place. C)It is manufactured by a famous British company. D)No other manufacturer can produce anything like it. 53. What does the change in the status of the kitchen reflect? A)Improved living conditions. C)Technological progress. B)Women’s elevated status. D)Social change. 54. What was the Beecher sisters’ idea of a kitchen? A)A place where women could work more efficiently. B)A place where high technology could be applied. C)A place of interest to the educated people. D)A place to experiment with new ideas. 55. What do we learn about today’s kitchen? A)It represents the rapid technological advance in people’s daily life. B)Many of its central features are no different from those of the 1920s. C)It has been transformed beyond recognition. D)Many of its functions have changed greatly. 24

参考答案 2015.12 - 1
选词填空 选项归类 名词:E)deprivation 剥夺,匮乏;G)improvements 提高,改进;K)presumption 推测,假定 动词: B)caters 迎合,满足; D)debated 争论,辩论; I)negotiated 谈判,磋商; J)pierce 刺穿; M)recommended 推荐;N)surpasses 超过,优于;0)target 针对,把……定为目标 形容词:F)ideal 理想的;L)ready 准备好的,乐意的 副词:A)alternatively 非此即彼,二者择一地;C)chronically 慢性地,持久地;H)necessarily 必要 地,必然地 详解详析 36.B)caters。详解.该空格位于以 that 引导的定语从句中,并且充当定语从句的谓语,其主语是先 行词 aculture,因此应填入动词第三人称单数形式,且此动词还应能与 t0 连用构成固定搭配,综合上 下文考虑,此处可填人 cater,cater to 为固定搭配,含义为“迎合”,本句句意为“除此之外,我们的文 化也在迎合那些晚睡者的需要”。备选项中其他动词与上下文语义不符,故均排除。 37.M)recommended。详解.该空格位于 as 之后,by sleep experts 之前,可填入一个过去分词,表 示“就像被睡眠专家所……的一样”,综合上下文考虑,可选择 recommended,本句含义为“超过半数 的美国成年人做不到睡眠专家所推荐的每晚 7 到 9 个小时的睡眠”。在备选项中 debated 及 negotiated 与上下文语义不符,故均排除。 38.D)debated。详解.该空格位于副词 hotly 之后,名词 topic 之前,可填入一个形容词,综合上下 文考虑,此处可选择 debated,过去分词充当形容词。本句含义为“这已成为睡眠研究专家们激烈争论 的话题”。备选项中 negotiated 具有相同的语法功能,但与上下文语义不符,故排除。 39.F)ideal。详解.该空格位于主系表结构的句型中,并处于系动词 is 之后,可填人形容词或名词 作表语,综合上下文考虑,应选择 ideal,本句含义为“利用周末补充睡眠虽然不是理想的解决方法, 但也可能有所帮助”。备选项中 ready 虽然满足语法要求,但其含义与上下文语义不符,故排除。 40.C)chronically。详解.该空格位于动词 brought 之后,复合形容词 sleep.restricted 之前,应填入 副词修饰复合形容词,综合上下文考虑,此处可填人 chromcally,本句含义为“他在厨末将一些长期 睡眠不足的人请进实验室”。备选项中 alternatively 及 necessarily 与上下文语义不符,故排除。 41.G)improvements。 详解.该空格位于及物动词 showed 之后, 因此应填入不可数名词或复数名词, 综合上下文考虑,应选择 improvements,本句含义为“这些人的胰岛素处理血糖的能力明显改善”。备 选项中其他名词均与上下文语义不符,故均排除。 42.E)deprivation。详解.该空格位于以 that 引导的定语从句中,该定语从句中主要结构齐全,因此 应填入修饰成分。根据常识判断,造成身体损害的不是睡眠本身,而是睡眠不足,因此应选择 deprivation,本句含义为“这意味着补觉能够弥补部分由睡眠不足造成的损害”。备选项中其他名词均 与上下文语义不符,故排除。 43.L)ready。详解.该空格位于系动词 is 之后,动词不定式 to endorse 之前,可填入形容词,综合 上下文考虑,应选择 ready,be readyt0 是固定搭配,意思是“乐意的,准备好的”。本句含义为“但是, 刘教授并不愿意认可这种先是睡眠不足,然后再补觉的生活习惯”。备选项中只剩 ready 一个可选形 容词。 44.H)necessarily。详解.二该空格位于系动词之后,表语之前,经分析发现,全句意思完整,主要 结构齐全,因此判断需要填入副词,综合上下文及空格所处的位置考虑,此处应填入副词 necessarily, 本句含义为“并不一定是有效的解决方法”。备选项中只剩一个副词 necessarily 可选。 45.O)target。详解 .该空格位于情态动词 will 之后,应填入动词原形:综合上下文考虑。可选择 target“针对,把……定为目标”,本句含义为“一种安眠药只针对大脑中的一个特定区域”。备选项中其 他动词均与上下文语义不符,故排除。 段落匹配 25

46.When people find they ale powerless to change a situation,they tend to live with it.译文.当人们发 现自己无力改变一种情形时,就会选择去接受它。 定位.由题干关键词 powerless 定位到原文画线处。

47.To be effective.environmental messages should be carefully framed. 译文.为了提高效率,应精心设计环境信息。 定位.由题干关键词 environmental messages 定位到原文画线处。

48.It is the government’s responsibility to persuade people into making environment—friendly decisions. 译文.政府有责任劝说公民做出有利于环保的决策。 定位.由题干关键词 government’sresponsibility 和 persuade people 定位到原文画线处。

49.Politicians are beginning to realise theimportance of enlisting psychologists’help in fighting climate change. 译文.政治家们开始意识到在应对气候变化时谋求心理学家帮助的重要性。定位 .由题干关键词 psychologists’help 和 fighting climate change 定位到原文画线处。

50.To find effective solutions to climatechange, it is necessary to understandwhat motivates people to makechange. 译文.为了找到有效解决气候变化的方法,我们需要了解人们做出改变的动机。 定位.由题干关键词 what motivatespeople,和 make change 定位到原文画线处。

51.In their evolution.humans havelearned to pay attention to the mosturgent issues instead of long—term Concerns. 译文.在人类进化过程中,人们已经学会关注最紧急的问题,而非做长远的考虑。 定位.由题干关键词 evolution,humans 以及 the most urgent issues 定位到原文画线处。

52.One study shows that our neighbours’actions are influential in changing ourbehaviour. 译文.一项研究表明,邻居的行为对于我们自身行为的改变有影响。 定位.由题干关键词 neighbours’actions 定位到原文画线处。

53.Despite clear signs of global warming.it isnot easy for most people to befeve climatechange will affect their own fives. 译文.尽管全球变暖迹象很明显,大多数人还是难以相信气候变化会影响到他们自身的生活。 26

定位.由题干关键词 global warnting,most people 和 befeve 定位到原文画线处。

54.We should take our future into consideration inmalting decisions concerning climate change before itis too late. 译文.我们在做与气候变化有关的决策时应考虑未来,以免为时过晚。 定位.由题干关键词 making decisions 和 too late 定位到原文画线处。 详解.[F]段提到,当我们意识到气候变化的威胁时,可能为时已晚。如果我们不能为未来做出理 智的决策,鄢么其他人就不得不替我们完成这个决定。由此可知,我们在做与气候变化有关的决策时 应考虑未来。题于是对原文的概括,故答案为[F]。 55.Existing social networks call be more effective increating change inpeople’s behaviour. 译文.现存的社会网络能更有效地改变人类的行为。 定位.由题干关键词 social networks 和 creating change 定位到原文画线处。 详解.[0]段提到,尼克·帕克斯指出,使用现有的民间社会机构或网络能够更有效地创造变化,显 然英国工会是最大的民间社会网络之一。题于中的 can be more effective 对应原文中的 is a more effective way,故答案为[O]。 仔细阅读 56.D) 。 定位 . 由 题干中的 traditional educators’ interpretation 定位到 文章首段最后 一句: From thestandpoint of a traditional educator , this outcome indicated that schooling had failed to help students think about ecosystems and extinction,major scientific ideas· 详解.推理判断题。定位句指出“从传统教育工作者的角度来看,这一结果表明,学校教育未能帮 助学生思考生态系统和物种灭绝这两个重要的科学理念”,由此可见,传统教育工作者认为教育没有 引导学生思考重要的科学理念。 点睛.A)“学生不能把之前学到的知识应用于新问题”,虽然第一段第一句提到过,但这是指研究 B)“大 发现年轻人与儿童的区别并非在于记住事情或将之前学到的知识应用于新情况的能力, 故排除; 学生在记忆力方面不比五年级的学生强”, 首段第三句只提到大学生的拼写能力比五年级的学生出色, 而没有对记忆力进行对比,故排除;C)“教育没有对主要的环境问题给予足够的关注”,首段末句提到 学校教育未能帮助学生思考生态系统和物种灭绝这两个重要的科学理念, 但并不是指教育本身对主要 的环境问题没有给予足够的关注,故 C)与原文表达的中心思想不符,故排除。 57.A)。 定位.由题干中的 college students, different 和 children 定位到文章第二段第三句: 0n this task, they found large difference.和第六句: The college students had cultivated the ability to ask questions,the cornerstone of critical thinking. 详解.推理判断题。定位句指出,研究发现大学生和儿童之间存在着巨大差异,“大学生已培养出 了提问的能力,这是批判性思维的基石”,由此可见,大学生与儿童的区别在于大学生已学会了批判 性地思考,故答案为 A)。 点睛.B)“他们关注社会问题”,原文并未提及,故排除;C)“他们对个体特征感到好奇”,第二段第 五句提到“五年级的学生们则倾向于关注秃鹰的个体特征”, 而大学生关注的是秃鹰与其栖息地之间相 互依存的关键问题,故排除;D)“他们已经学会了独立工作”,第二段最后两句提到大学生学会了提问 和学习,但没有提到学会了独立工作,故排除。 58.B)。定位。根据题干中的 benefit of asking questions 和 no ready answers 定位到文章第三段第三 句 : We found that when we taught participants to ask“What if?”and“How can?”questions that nobody present would know the answer to and that would spark exploration , they engaged in better inquiry at the next exhibit--asking more questions, performing more experiments and malting better interpretations of their results. 详解.推理判断题。定位句指出,当教学员提出“如果?”和“如何?”这些现场没有人知道答案但又会 激发其探索欲的问题时, 学员们在下次展览时会进行更好的探究——提出更多的问题,进行更多的实 验并对其研究结果做出更好的解释,由此可知,提出没有现成答案的问题,其好处是培养了学生们进 27

行科学探究的能力,故答案为 B)。 点睛.A)“它引起了学生们对身边事物的兴趣”,定位句只提到这些问题会激发其探索欲,但没有 提到会引起学生们对身边事物的兴趣,故排除;C)“它培养了学生们设计科学实验的能力”,定位句只 提到学生们会进行更多的实验,但没有提到学生们设计科学实验,故排除;D)“它帮助学生们意识到 并非所有的问题都有答案”,定位句提到的是教学生们提出没有人知道答案的问题,但并没有指出这 会帮助学生们意识到并非所有的问题都有答案,故排除。 59.A)。 定位.由题干中的 advantage 和 informal learning 定位到文章第四段第二句: Informal learning environments tolerate failure better than schools. 详解.事实细节题。定位句指出,与学校相比,非正式的学习环境对待失败更加宽容,也就是说 非正式的学习允许失败,故答案为 A)。 点睛.B)“它很有趣”,原文并未提及非正式学习是否有趣,故排除;C)“它不收学费”,文章最后一 句提到非正式学习系统不打分、 来者皆收、 甚至在节假日和周末都能使用, 但没有提到是否收取学费, 故排除;D)“它符合实际需要”,原文没有提及,故排除。 60.C)。定位.由题干中的 encourage educators 和 at the end of the passage 定位到文章最后一段最后 三句:But people must acquire this sldll somewhere.Our society depends on them being able to makecritical decisions about their own medical treatment , say , or what we must do about giobal energyneeds and demands.For that,we have a robust informal learning system that gives no grades,takesall comers,and is available even on holidays and weekends. 详解.推理判断题。定位句指出,“人们必须从某个地方获得这个技能。我们的社会依赖于能对自 己的医疗方案做出关键决定,或者说对关于全球能源需求必须做出重大决定的人。为此,我们需要一 个健全的非正式学习系统,不打分、来者皆收、甚至在节假日和周末都能使用”,由此可知,为了传 授人们技能,为了培养社会所依赖的人,我们应该使用非正式的学习系统,也就是说教育者应该充分 利用非正式学习的资源,故答案为 C)。 点睛.A)“训练学生思考全球问题”,文中只提到社会依赖于那些能对关于全球能源需求必须做出 关键决定的人,但没有提及训练学生思考全球问题,故排除;B)“设计更多互动的教室活动”,原文没 有提及,故排除;D)“课程涵盖协作探究”,最后一段第三旬只提到很多教师在课程中有太多的东西要 教,但没有提及课程涵盖协作探究,故排除。 高频词汇及短语

61.B)。定位.由题干中的 failure 和 VSS Enterprise 定位到文章首段最后一句:But insurance will be cold comfort following the failure on October 31st of VSS Enterprise,resulting in the death of one pilot and the severe injury to another.和第二段:0n top of the tragic loss of life,the accident in California will cast a long shadow over the future of space tourism,even before it has properly begun. 详解.推理判断题。文章首段最后一句指出,在 10 月 31 日,进取号维京太空船的坠毁导致了两 名飞行员一死一重伤, 然后第二段整段都在介绍此次坠毁事件所带来的影响,除了造成人员的惨痛伤 亡,还令太空旅行的前景长期笼罩在阴影之下,由此可见,进取号维京太空船的坠毁对太空旅行造成 了极大的负面影响,故答案为 B)。 点睛.A)“它会导致维珍银河公司破产”,这句在原文并未提及,故排除;C)“它会阻碍富人去太空 旅行”,第三段最后一句提到维珍银河公司已向包括史蒂芬·霍金在内的 800 余名未来太空旅客收取了 押金,由此可见,此次事故并未阻碍富人去太空旅行,该选项是对原文的曲解,故排除;D)“它引起 了公众对安全问题的关注”,原文并未提及公众对安全问题的关注,故排除。 28

62.C)。定位 .由题干中的 the space-tourism firm Virgin Galactic 定位到文章第三段第四句: Virgin Galactic had,prior to this week’s accident,seemed closest to starting regular flights. “在本周事故之前, 详解事实细节题。 定位句指出, 维珍银河公司似乎就要启动定期太空航班了”, 由此可见,维珍银河公司差不多准备好开展定期业务了,故答案为 C)。 点睛.A)“它已建好了一个商用飞行器”,第四段第三句提到维珍银河公司的商用飞行器只完工了 大约一半,故排除;B)“它已经将 6 名乘客送入太空”,第三段前两旬提到自从 2001 年丹尼斯·蒂托花 费了 2000 万美元乘坐俄罗斯的宇宙飞船进行太空旅行之后,只有 6 名度假者花费了同样的天价抵达 太空轨道,但并未指出是维珍银河公司搭载这 6 位乘客去太空旅行,故排除;D)“它是第一家推出‘亚 轨道’飞行的公司”,第三段第三句提到一些公司开始计划推出价格更为实惠的“亚轨道”飞行,但并没 有表明维珍银河公司就是第一家推出“亚轨道”飞行的公司,故排除。 63.D)。定位.根据题干中的 the 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act 定位到文章第五段 第 二 句 : The 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act , intended to encourage private spacevehicles and services , prohibits the transportation secretary(and thereby the FAA)from regulating the design or operation of private spacecraft , unless they have resulted in serious or fatal iaiury to crew or passengers. 详解.推理判断题。定位句指出,2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》旨在鼓励私人太空航天器和服 务的发展,由此可知,2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》是为了推动太空旅游业的发展,故答案为 D)。 点睛.A)“为了确保太空旅行的安全”,第五段最后一句提到“虽然这可能会使“亚轨道”旅行更加安 全,但也会增加这一新兴行业的成本和复杂性”,这只是表明 2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》带来的 好处和坏处,而不是发布该修正案的目的,故排除;B)“为了限制联邦航空局的职能”,定位句提到“禁 止交通部长(以及联邦航空局)管理私人航天器的设计或操作,除非它们对机组人员或乘客造成了严重 或致命的伤害”,这只是 2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》的规定,而不是目的,故排除;C)“为了使 私人太空探索合法化”,原文并未提及 2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》是否使私人太空探索合法化, 故排除。 64.D)。定位.由题干中的 FAA 和 the recent accident 定位到文章第五段第三句:That means that the FAA could suspend virgin Galactic’s licence to fly. 详解.事实细节题。定位句指出,联邦航空局可能会暂停维珍银河公司的飞行执照,故答案为 D)。 点睛.A)“实行更严格的安全标准”,第五段第四句提到联邦航空局可能还会坚持要求对私人载人航天 器进行彻底的检查, 就像其对商用飞机所做的那样,但并没有表明联邦航空局会实行更严格的安全标 准,故排除;B)“不再给新的太空旅行机构发执照”,原文并未提及联邦航空局是否会给新的太空旅行 公司发执照,故排除;C)“修改其 2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》”,原文没有提到是否要继续修改 2004 版《商业太空发射修正案》 ,故排除。 65.A) 。定位 . 由题干中的 private space travel 定位到文章最后一段最后一句: ’Illere is no doubt thatspaceflight entails dsl(s , and to pioneer a new mode of travel is to face those risks , and to reducethem with the benefit of hard—won experience. 详解.观点态度题。原文最后一句指出,航天有风险,而且开拓一种新的旅行方式不仅要面对这 些风险,还要通过来之不易的经验降低此类风险,这里新的旅行方式就是指私人太空旅行,也就是说 太空旅行尽管存在风险,但仍值得推广,故答案为 A)。 点睛.B)“它不应该只限于在富人之间展开”,第三段第三句只提到一些公司开始计划推出价格更 为实惠的“亚轨道”飞行,但并没有表明太空旅行不应该只限于在富人之间展开,故排除;C)“它应该 被严格规范”,原文没有提及,故排除;D)“它的风险太大,不能开展”,定位句提到太空旅行有风险, 但应该去面对,还要降低这些风险,而不是停止太空旅行,故排除。高频词汇及短语

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选词填空 36.O.vulnerable。详解:该空格位于主系表结构的句子中,处于系动词 is 之后.介同 to 之前, 且空格处所填单词被副词 particularly 所修饰, 综合考虑, 此处应填入形容词 vulnerable, 本句含义为“孩 子们正在发育的大脑易受伤害 ” , be vulnerable to 为固定搭配,表示 “ 易受 …… 的伤害 ” .故答案为 O.vulnerable“脆弱的, permanent,statistical 与上下文语义不符.故 易受伤害的”。 备选项里的 compact, 均排除。 37.J.permanent。详解:该空格位于主系表结构的句子中,处于系动词 be 之后,因此可填人形 容词或名词作表语。本句含义为“所造成的危害可能是永久性的”。所以此处应填入形容词 permanent 一故答案为 J.permanent“永久的”。在备选项中其他形容词均与上下文语义不符,故排除。 38.A.advocates。详解:该空格位于形容词 environmental 之后,且其后紧接的就是谓语动词 have long urged…,由此判断此处应填入复数形式的名词,作句子的主语、 ,本句主语所发出的动作是“敦 促政府部门做某事 ” .因此应填入 advocates :故答案为 A)advocates“ 拥护者,提倡者 ” .备选项中 correlation 及 interaction 均是单数形式,而 facilities 与 particles 与上下文语义不符,故均排除。 39.N.tighten。详解:该空格处于 urge sb.to do sth.的结构中,应填人及物动词的原形,上文 提到官方政策还在制定中,而健康及环保人士已经做出努力,下文提到“报告中提及 ll 种化学品的使 用”,故此处应填人 tighten,本句含义为“健康及环保政策的拥护者们敦促政府部门加强对报告中提及 的 ll 种化学品的管制”。故答案为 N.tighten“使变紧,加强控制”:备选项中 exercise 虽然满足语法形 式要求,但其含义与上下文语义不符,故排除。 40.K.restricted。详解:该空格位于主语 the Environmental Protection Agency 之后,宾语 the type and amount 之前.本句中又含有明确的时间状语 in 2001,故应填入动词的过去式.综合上下文考虑, 本句含义应为“环保部门限制了铅使用的种类和数量”。故答案为 K.restricted“限制,限定”、备选项中 overwhelmed 与上下文语义不符,故排除,而其他选项的词形均不符合要求。 41.E.facilities。详解:该空格位于复合形容词 child-care 之后,故空格处应填人名词,本句含义 为“环保部门限制了存留在家居环境中的涂料、土壤及儿童保育器械上所使用铅的种类和数量”。故答 案为 E.facilities“设施,设备”。备选项中 correlation,interaction,particles 均与上下文语义不符,故排 除。 42.G.investigating。详解:该空格位于句子的谓语动词位置,句中明确出现了时间状语 now,故 谓语动词应使用现在进行时,本句含义为“目前这个机构正在研究最新的报告中所提及的一些化学品 的毒性”。故答案为 G.investigating“调查,研究”。备选项中 simulating 也满足同形要求,但其与上下 文语义不符,故排除。 43.M.statistical。详解:该空格位于形容词 sold 和名词 evidence 之间,名词 evidence 同时也是 先行词,被 which 引导的定语从句修饰,空格处应填人形容词,与 solid 一起修饰名词 evidence。根 据常识可知,统计学数据对于政策制定关系很大,故此处应填人 statistical。本句含义为“很难凭确凿 的统计学证据证明这一现象是由于暴露在某些化学物质下引起的”。故答案为 M.statistical“统计上的, 统计学上的”。备选项中的形容词还剩下 compact,但与上下文语义不符,故排除。 44.C.correlation。详解:该空格位于不定冠词 a 和形容词 direct 之后,应填入可数名词的单数形 式.分析上下文可知,此处表达的意义为“暴露于有害的化学物质之下与患行为方面疾病风险之间存 在直接相关性”。故答案为 C.correlation“相关,关联”、备选项中名词还剩下 interaction 和 particles, 均不符合上下文语义,故排除。 45.D.exercise。详解:该空格位于“it is+adj+(for sb.)+to do sth.”的结构中。应填入动词原形, 且该动词还能与 caution 进行搭配,从上下文语境可知,本句含义为“采取小心谨慎的措施总是明智的 选择”, 故答案为 D)exercise“行使,运用”。备选动词中动词原形只剩下 exercise 可选。 段落匹配 30

46. Not only moving objects and people but all systems have momentum. 不仅仅是运动的物体和人具有动能,所有的系统也都具有动能。 由题干关键词 moving objects 和 have momentum 定位到原文画线处。

47. Changing the current energy system requires the systematic training of professionals and skilled labor. 要改变当前的能源系统,就需要对专业人员和技术人员进行系统的培训。 由题干关键词 trainin9 和 skilled labor 定位到原文画线处。

48. Changing a fight bulb is easier than changing the fixture housing it. 更换灯泡要比更换灯具容易得多。 由题干关键词 Changing a light bulb 和 fixture housing it 定位到原文画线处。

49. Efforts to accelerate the current energy transitions didn't succeed as expected. 加速现有能源转型的努力并没有预想的那样成功。 由题干关键词 accelerate 和 energy transitions 定位到原文画线处。

50. To change the light sourceiscostly because you have to change thewhole fixture. 改变光源的成本高昂,因为要替换整套灯具。 由题干关键词 change the whole fixture 定位到原文画线处。

51. Energy systems, like an aircraft carrier set in motion, have huge momentum. 能源系统如同一艘在运行的航空母舰一样,有着巨大的动能。 由题干关键词 Energy systems 和 aircraft carrier 定位到原文画线处。

52. The problem with lighting, if it arises, often doesn't lie in light sources but in their applications. 如果照明有问题通常问题不是出在光源上,而是出在应用方法上。 31

由题干关键词 light sources 和 applications 定位到原文画线处。

53. The biggest obstacle to energy transition is that the present energy system is too expensive to replace 能源转型最大的障碍在于替换当前的能源系统的成本太高。 由题干关键词 biggest obstacle 和 energy system 定位到原文画线处。

54. The application of a technology can impact areas beyond itself. 某项技术应用的影响范围要远远超过其本身。 由题干关键词 technology 和 impact 定位到原文画线处。

55. Physical characteristics of moving objects help explain thedynamicsofenergy systems. 运动物体的物理特征能帮助解释能源系统动力学。 由题干关键词 characteristics 和 dynamics of energy systems 定位到原文画线处。

仔细阅读 56. A. 由题干中的人名 Jesse Jackson 定位到文章首段最后两句 :And then, at a press conference in Chicago in 1988, Jesse Jackson declared that "African American" was the term to embrace. This one was chosen because it echoed the labels of groups, such as " Italian Americans" and " Irish Americans," that had already been freed of widespread discrimination. 事实细节题。 定位句指出杰克逊选中“非洲裔美国人”这个称谓, 是因为它和“意大利裔美人”和“爱 国尔兰裔美国人”这些已经摆脱种族歧视的群体的称谓相仿,寄托着摆脱种族歧视的希望,故答案为 A)。 B.“它代表着社会进步”,在原文定位处并没有明确提示,可以排除;C.“它代表普通美国人的利 益”,该称谓只涉及到美国的黑人群体,因此这种说法过于宽泛,可以排除;D.“它遵循了标准的命名 规范”,原文中并没有提到有标准的命名规范,杰克逊所寄托的是摆脱种族歧视的希望,可以排除。 由题干关键词 namin9 定位到文章第二段首句: A century’s worth of calculated name changes point to the fact that naming any group is a politically freighted exercise. 事实细节题。定位句指出,美国黑人称谓历经一个世纪的变化表明了一个事实,那就是给一 个群体命名是承载着政治意义的行为,故答案为 D)。 A.“它随着时代进步”,这种说法过于笼统,也不是作者所要表达的主要意思,可以排除;B.“它 32

是基于种族根源的”,原文中并没有提到,可以排除;C)“它值得深入研究”,尽管后文提到了关于种 族称谓的系列研究,但都是用来说明群体称谓的社会政治意义的,故“值得深入研究”不是作者要表达 的主要意思.可以排除。 58 A. 根据题干中的 Erika Hall’s findings 定位到文章第四段首句:The study’s most striking findings shed light on the racial biases permeating the professional world. 推理判断题。定位句指出,艾丽卡·霍尔的研究结果揭示了种族偏见已经渗透到了职业领 域,permeatin9 与 widespread 意义相近,故答案为 A。 B.“很多求职者都不注意他们简历的细节”,文中只是提到涉及种族称谓的细节会引起招聘者的注 意,并没有说求职者不注意细节,可以排除;C.“找工作的人加入团体要谨慎”,第四段中作者建议找 工作的人提及与种族称谓相关的经历时要谨慎,但并没有说是否要谨慎加入团体,可以排除;D.“大 多数的招聘者都不能控制其种族偏见”,文中没有提到种族偏见能否被控制的问题,只是说这种偏见 可能会对招聘有影响,可以排除。 59.C 由题干中的 experiment 和 Williams 定位到文章第六段 : The "African-American" group that he earned about $ 37,000 a year and had a two-year college degree. The "Black" the other hand, put his salary at about $ 29,000, and guessed that he had only "some" Estimated group, on college experience. Nearly three-quarters of the first group guessed that Mr. Williams worked at a managerial level, while only 38.5 percent of the second group thought so. 推理判断题。从定位段落可以看出,同一个人被冠以“非洲裔美国人”和“黑人”的不同称谓时,会 引发人们对他的经济社会地位和教育背景的不同联想,可见人们对一个人的看法与其称谓大有关联。 故答案为 C。 A.“非洲裔美国人比其他很多种族群体生活得都好”,该句是对原文的曲解,原文只是对同一族群 的两个不同称谓进行比较,不涉及其他族群,可以排除;B.“黑人在美国的社会经济地位仍很低”,原 文没有比较黑人与其他族群的社会经济地位,可以排除;D.“一个人的职业地位和收入与其教育背景 相关”,文中未明确提及,可以排除。 60.A 由题干中的 Dr.Du Bois's ideal 定位到文章最后一句:Perhaps a new phrase is needed,one that can bring everyone one big step closer to realizing Du Bois's original, idealistic hope: "It's not the name--it's the Thing that counts. "。 定位句提到杜博斯的理想:“称谓不重要,事物本身才重要”。这个理想里面,Thin9 很关键。 文章第二段提到,给任何一个群体命名都是一种承载着政治意义的活动。从全篇来看,对非洲裔 美国人称谓的每次变化,都体现了对 racial bias(种族歧视)的弱化。可是文章最后,作者提到,a new phrase is needed(需要一个新词汇),这说明作者认为“African American”这个提法还不合适,还需要不 断的改进。再结合杜博斯的话,“称谓不重要,事物本身才重要”。美国政府不断更换称谓就是为了消 除种族歧视,而种族歧视的根源就是美国人没有真正地实现全民平等,所以由此得出,杜博斯的理想 就是:所有美国人都享有平等的权利,故答案为 A。 “对人的判断不应基于其称谓,而应是这个人本身”,杜博斯的话没有涉及到对人的判断,可以排 除; C.“给非洲裔美国人创造一个新的称谓”, 这个意见是作者提出的, 而不是杜博斯, 可以排除; D.“所 有的种族都分享到国家的持续进步”,杜博斯的话主要关于如何判断一个人,没有涉及种族问题,可 33

以排除。

Passage Two 61.B 由题干中的 Arum and Roksa's finding 定位到文章首段最后一句: In particular, Arum and Roksa found, college students were not developing the critical thinking, analytic reasoning and other higher-level skills that are necessary to thrive in today's knowledge-based economy and to lead our nation in a time of complex challenges and dynamic change. 推理判断题。定位句指出,阿鲁姆和罗克萨发现,大学生没有培养批判性思维、分析推理以及其 他更高级的技能, 而这些技能是在当今知识经济中取得成功,以及在这个充满复杂挑战和瞬息万变的 时代领导我们国家发展所必备的,由此可见,美国高等教育没有让学生做好面对现代化挑战的准备, 故答案为 B。 A.“它旨在激发大学生的求知欲”,第一段第三句提到许多大学生的知识增长不足,但并未 提及美国高等教育的目标是激发大学生的求知欲,可以排除;C.“它在最近几年发生了翻天覆地 的变化”,定位句只提到我们现在所处的时代瞬息万变,并不是指美国的高等教育发生了巨大的变化, 可以排除;D.“它已经尽力满足了学生的各种需求”,原文并未提及美国的高等教育竭尽所能地满足学 生的各种需求,可以排除。 62.A 由题干中的 the students’lack of higher-level skills 定位到文章第二段第一句: Anita and Roksa placed the blame for students' lack of learning on a watered-down college curriculum and lowered undergraduate work standards. 事实细节题。定位句指出,“阿鲁姆和罗克萨把学生的学术不足归咎于掺水的大学课程和较 低的大学生学习标准”,由此可见,学生缺乏更高级的技能是因为掺水的大学课程,故答案为 A。 B.“无聊的课堂活动”、C.“没有严格的纪律”和 D.“过时的教学方式”,原文均未提及,故排除。 63.D 根据题干中的 Laura Hamilton 和 college administrations 定位到文章第三段第一句:Laura Hamilton, the author of a study on parents who pay for college, will argue in a forthcoming book that college administrations are overly concerned with the social and athletic activities of their students. 推理判断题。定位句指出,劳拉·汉密尔顿认为大学的管理部门过于关注其学生的社会和体 育活动,由此可知,大学的管理部门优先安排非学术活动,故答案为 D。 A.“它们没有给贫困生提供足够的帮助”,原文并未提及给贫困生提供帮助,可以排除; B.“它们往往提供过多难度不大的课程”,第三段第二句提到各种让学生参加聚会的俱乐部以及大 量更简单的专业令许多大学生的毕业变得更容易, 但并没有表明大学的管理部门倾向于提供过多简单 的课程,可以排除;C.“它们似乎与社会脱节”,原文并未提及大学的管理部门是否与社会脱节,可以 排除。 34

64.B 由题干中的 the socially and financially privileged students 定位到文章第三段第二句和第三句 : In Paying for the Party, Hamilton describes what she calls the "party pathway," which eases many students through college, helped along by various clubs that send students into the party scene and a host of easier majors. By sanctioning this watered-down version of college, universities are"catering to the social and educational needs of wealthy students at the expense of others" who won't enjoy the financial backing or social connections of richer students once they graduate. 推理判断题。定位句指出,“聚会之路”使许多学生的大学毕业变得更加容易,而各种让学生参加 聚会的俱乐部以及大量更简单的专业也促成了这一点,通过批准这种精简版本的学院,大学“正在迎 合有钱学生的社会和教育需求,却以牺牲其他学生为代价”,由此可知,享有社会和经济特权的学生 为了享受人生而能够选择较简单的专业,故答案为 B。 A.“对于同龄的同学,他们往往拥有一种优越感”,原文并未提及享有社会和经济特权的学生拥有 优越感,可以排除;C.“他们花大量的时间建立强大的商业人脉关系”,第二段最后一句提到许多本科 生的优先事项是课外活动、体育运动、聚会和社交,但既没有强调是享有社会和经济特权的学生,也 没有强调是为了建立强大的商业人脉关系,可以排除;D)“即便没有学位,他们也能飞黄腾达”,第四 段第一句和第二句指出大学生如果想把学位作为迈人中产阶级的跳板, 就需要在大学期间学习技能和 知识,而享有更多特权的学生也不能浪费这个机会,由此可知,享有社会和经济特权的学生也需要学 位,故 D.与原文意思不符,可以排除。 65.C For students who have been coasting 由题干中的 the last paragraph 定位到文章最后一段的最后一句: through college, and for American universities that have been demanding less work, offering more attractions and charging higher tuition,.the party, ma.v soon be over. 推理判断题。定位句指出,对于那些学习要求少,却提供更多诱惑并收取更高学费的大学而 言,聚会可能很快就会结束了,由此可知,美国高等教育的现状不会持续太久了,故答案为 C。 A.“美国高等教育已失去其全球竞争力”,最后一段第四句只提到全球经济也不会宽容美国 劳动力日益薄弱的识字、数学和科学能力,但并没有表明美国高等教育已失去其全球竞争力,可 以排除;B.“人们不应该对美国的高等教育期待太多”,原文没有提及,可以排除;D.“改变高等教育 的现状需要很长的时间”,定位句提到美国高等教育的现状很快就会改变了,故 D.与原文意思不符, 可以排除。

2015.12 - 3
选词填空 名词:B.bias 偏见,倾向;D.deterioration 变质,退化,恶化;E)excephon 例外;F)fault 过错,过 失动词: A.assumed 承担(权力, 责任); J)relayed 接替, 转播, 转告; K)shiftin9 改变, 略微移动; L)shrank 收缩,缩减;N)txansmitting 传导,传播 形容词:C.desperate 绝望的,孤注一掷的;I)previous 先前的;M)subtle 微妙的,不易察觉的副 词:G)incidentally 顺便地,附带;H)notably 显著地,尤其;0)worldwide 在全世界 35

36.E.exception。详解:该空格位于主系表结构的句子中,且位于系动词 Was 和形容词 n0 之后, 此处可以理解为形容词作定语修饰名词,因此应填入名词 exception 作整个句子的表语,结合上下文 综合分析,本句含义为:手机生产商诺基亚公司也并不例外。故答案为 E)exception“例外”。备选项中 bias,deterioration,fault 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 37.O.worldwide。详解:该空格位于主谓结构的句子中,并处于句子的末端,本句主要成分齐 全,因此应填人副词 worldwide 作地点状语,起修饰作用。本句含义为“2007 年时,诺基亚公司占全 世界手机销量的 40%以上”。故答案为 O)worldwide“在全世界”。备选项中 incidentally 及 notably 与上 下文语义不符,故应排除。 38.K.shifting。详解:该空格位于句子的谓语动词位置,系动词 were 之后,介词 toward 之前,因 此可填人现在分词,构成过去进行时,描述过去某一时间正在发生的动作或行为,本句含义为“但此 时客户的偏好正在向触屏智能手机转变”。 故答案为 K)shifting“改变, 略微移动”。 备选项中 transmitting 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 39.L.shrank。详解:该空格位于句子主语之后的谓语动词位置,根据上下文判断此处应为一般 过去时,因此应填入动词过去式,本句的含义为 “ 诺基亚市场份额缩小,收入骤降 ” 。故答案为 L)shrank“收缩,缩减”。备选项中 assumed 及 relayed 虽然满足语法要求,但其与上下文语义不符,故 排除: 40.A.assumed。详解:该空格位于以 which 引导的定语从句中,且处于定语从句的谓语动词位置, 又因出现了明确的时间状语 in October 2010,因此应填入动词过去式,本句的含义为“他于 2010 年 l0 月开始担任诺基亚公司首席执行官一职”。故答案为 A.assumed“承担(权力,责任)”。备选项中 relayed 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 41.F.fault。详解:该空格位于介词 at 之后,应填入名词,构成介宾短语,at fault 为固定搭配, 含义为“有责任,有过错”,本句含义为“但出问题的并不仅仅是埃洛普一人”。故答案为 F)fault“过错, 过失”:备选项中 bias 及 deterioration 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 42.H.notably。详解:该空格位于主系表结构的句子中,且该句主要成分齐全,空格位于 Most 之 后,应填入副词,构成最高级形式,本句含义为“最显著的就是 Jorma Ollila”。故答案为 H)notably“显 著地,尤其”。备选项中 incidentally 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 43.I.previous。详解:该空格位于名词所有格 the company’S 之后,名词 success 之前,可填人形 容词进 一步修饰名词 success ,本句 含义为 “ 但他过于迷恋公司以前所取得的成 就 ” ,故答 案为 I)previous“先前的”。备选项中 desperate 及 subtle 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 44.C.desperate。详解:该空格位于不定冠词 a 之后,名词短语 cost.cutting program 之前,应填 入形容词进一步修饰名词短语的中心词 program。 本句含义为“公司还开始了一场孤注一掷的降低成本 运动”。故答案为 C.desperate“绝望的,不顾一切的,孤注一掷的”。备选项中 subtle 与上下文语义不 符,故应排除。 45. D.deteriorationo 详解:该空格位于定冠词 the 之后, 介词 of 之前, 应填人名词。 本句含义为“这 有损于公司原本生机勃勃的企业文化”。“故答案为 D.deterioration“变质,退化,恶化”。备选项中 bias 与上下文语义不符,故应排除。 段落匹配 46. Many first-generation college goers have doubts about their abilities to get a college degree. 译文:很多第一代大学生怀疑自己是否有能力拿到大学文凭。 定位:由题干关键词 have doubts about their abilities 定位到原文画线处。 47. First-generation college students tend to have much heavier financial burdens than their peers. 译文:第一代大学生的经济负担往往比同龄人更重。 定位:由题干关键词 heavier financial burdens 定位到原文画线处。

48. The graduation rate of first-generation student sat Ni jay's university was incredibly low. 36

译文:尼杰所就读大学的第一代大学生毕业率低得令人难以置信。 定位:由题干关键词 graduation rate,Ni jay’s 和 low 定位到原文画线处。

49. Some top institutions like Yale seem to provide first-generation students with more support than they actually need. 译文:像耶鲁这样的顶尖大学似乎给其第一代大学生提供了超过他们实际需求的帮助。 定位:由题干关键词 Yale 和 more support 定位到原文画线处。

50. On entering college, Nijay Williams had no idea how challenging college education was. 译文:尼杰·威廉姆斯刚进入大学时,并不知道大学教育会有多大的挑战。 定位:由题干关键词 entering college 和 Nijay Williams 定位到原文画线处。

51. Many universities simply refuse to release their exact graduation rates for first generation students. 译文;很多大学直接拒绝公布第一代大学生毕业率的准确数据。 定位:由题干关键词 graduation rates 及 first—generation students 定位到原文画线处。

52. According to a marketing executive,many students from low-income families don't know they could have a chance of going to an elite university. 译文: 根据某位市场部高管所说, 很多来自低收人家庭的学生并不知道自己能有机会上一所名校。 定位:由题干关键词 marketing executive,students from low—income families 和 all elite university 定位到原文画线处。

53. Some elite universities attach great importance to building up the first-generation students' selfconfidence. 译文:一些精英大学很看重培养第一代大学生的自信心。 定位:由题干关键词 Some elite universities 和 confidence 定位到原文画线处。

54. I'm First distributes information to help first-generation college-goers find schools that are most suitable for them. 译文:我是第一代”传播信息以帮助第一代大学生找到最适合他们的学校。 定位:由题于关键词 I'm First,distributes information 和 college—goers 定位到原文画线处。

55. Elite universities tend to graduate first-generation students at a higher rate. 译文:很多精英大学第一代大学生的毕业率往往很高。 定位:由题干关键词 Elite universities 和 at a higher rate 定位到原文画线处。 37

仔细阅读 56. C.。 定位: 由题干关键词 influential medical groups 定位到文章首段的后半部分. . . . that doctors weighthe costs,not just the effectiveness of treatments,as they make decisions about patient care. 详解:事实细节题。定位句指出医疗集团建议医生在决定病人的治疗方案时,不仅要考虑疗效, 还要考虑医疗成本费用,故答案为 C. 点睛:A“反思他们所应承担的责任”,在原文并没有明确提示,可以排除;B“对其治疗效果更加 注意”,这与原文要表达的意思正好相反,可以排除;D“从削减医保的角度重新调整其操作”,原文虽 然提到医生要考虑医疗费用,但并没有明确提出让医生们直接考虑削减医保,可以排除。 57. B。定位:由题干关键词 doctors, concerned 和 in the past 定位到文章第二段后半部分.Infrom being concerned exclusively about individual patients to exerting influence on how health care dollars are spent. 详解:推理判断题。从定位句及其所在段落可以看出,作者提到一个关于医生角色的关键性的变 化,即从单纯考虑病人个体转为对医疗费用的使用施加影响,可见,医生过去只考虑治疗效果,故答 案为 B。 点睛: A“具体使用哪种药品”,过于片面,可以排除;C“行业的进步”,原文中没有提及,可以 排除;D“患者的信任”,尽管后文提到了医生如果一味考虑医疗成本,极可能会失去患者的信任,但 从整体看,医生过去首要关注的还是疗效,患者的信任也是基于疗效,可以排除。 58 . A 。定位:根据题于关键词 new guidelines 和 lead to 定位到文章第三段首句. . . . the new guidelines being developed could result in doctors choosing one drug over another for cost reasons or even deciding that a particular treatment--at the end of life.for example--is too expensive. 详解:事实细节题。定位句指出,医生会基于价格考虑,从而决定药品的使用和医疗方案,这与 上一段首句提到的 redefine their roles 相呼应, 医生从仅仅只考虑疗效到在决定中引入费用因素, 其角 色确实发生了转变,故答案为 A。 点睛: B.“过度使用疗效较差的药品”,文中只是提到医生会在使用药品的决策上考虑费用,并 没有说会更多使用疗效较差的药品,可以排除;C.“医患之间的矛盾”,第六段虽然提到医生考虑经济 因素可能引发患者的不信任, 但还没有上升到医患矛盾, 故不是新政策的主要后果,可以排除;D.“延 长患者的痛苦”,文中没有提到新的医疗指导方针会产生这样的后果,可以排除。 59. D。 定位: 由题于关键词 risk 和 providers, financial overseers 定位到文章第五段: Some doctors see a potential conflict in trying to be both providers of patient care and fmancial overseers.和第六段第二 句:He said doctors risked losing the trust of patients… 详解:事实细节题。第五段首先提到医生作为医疗服务提供者和医疗成本监察员,本就存在着潜 在矛盾,而在随后的第六段第二句中又明确指出,这样会使医生失去病人的信任,故答案为 D。 点睛: A“他们可能陷入利益矛盾中”,该句说法过于笼统,可以排除;B.“他们可能被迫分散精 力”,文章并没有明确提出医生身兼两种角色时可能会分散精力,可以排除;C.“他们可能不得不使用 效力较差的药品”,本题考查的是医生身兼两种角色的风险,对于不同药物药力的比较,虽然原文有 所提及,但这并不是医生们面临的风险,可以排除。 60. C。 Still, some analysts 定位: 由题干关键词 experts 和 medical cost analysis 定位到文章最后一段: saythat there’s a role for doctors to play in cost analysis because not many others are doing So . “In someways.”said Dr.Daniel Sulmasy.it represents a failure of wider society to take up the issue.’’ 详解:推理判断题。最后一段首句指出,尽管医生兼任医药成本监察员的职责并不合适,但又不 得不为之,因为很少有其他群体能做到,而作者更进一步引用丹尼尔·赛尔马西医生的话指出,整个 社会没能成功处理这一问题,故答案为 C。 点睛:A“它可能增加医生本已沉重的负担”,医学专家并没有就医生的负担轻重进行讨论,可以 排除;B“它可以帮助整个社会节省经费”,专家们并没有提到这一点,可以排除;D.“它提升了医生的 社会责任意识”,这种说法完全偏离了本文的中心思想,可以排除。 38

61.A。定位:由题干关键词 0bama 和 economic inequality 定位到文章第一段第二句:Inequality isdangerous, he argued, not merely because it doesn’t look good to have a large gap between the richand the poor , but because inequality itseff destroys upward mobility , malting it harder for the poor toescape from poverty. 详解:事实细节题。定位句提到,奥巴马把不公平称为“我们这个时代决定性的挑战”,并指出不 公平之所以危险是因为它破坏了社会阶层的提升,令贫困者难以摆脱贫困,故答案为 A。 点睛:B“它是社会稳定的最大威胁”,本文主要探讨的是社会阶层的提升,而不是社会稳定性, 可以排除;C“它是收入增长的头号敌人”,这是对原文的曲解,社会不公平影响的主要是穷人社会经 济地位的上升,文章并没有提到不公平和收入增长的关系,可以排除;D“它是我们这个时代最恶毒 的社会罪行”,原文并没有从道德角度进行阐述,可以排除。 62.B.。定位:由题干关键词 the inequality gap 和 Scott Winship’s data analysis 定位到文章第三段 最 后 一 句 : Inequality itself is not a particularly strong predictor of economic mobility , as sociologist ScottW111ship noted in a recent article based on his analysis of this data. 详解:事实细节题。定位句指出,不公平本身并不是社会流动性的强预警信号,也就是说不公平 不是社会流动性的可靠指标, 后文还论证并列举了与社会活动性相关度较高的若干因素, 故答案为 B。 点睛: A“它在美国大部分地区迅速蔓延”,文章只是提到美国社会有贫富差距,但并没有对发展 趋势进行任何说明,可以排除;C“它没有得到正确诠释”,该项的说法太过笼统,可以排除;D“它完 全被忽视了”,文章开头就高调地论述奥巴马对经济不公平现象的观点,可见,这个问题并没有被忽 视,可以排除。 63. C 定位: 根据题干中的地名 Atlanta 和 Salt Lake City 定位到文章第五段最后一句: Chetty finds thatcommunities like Salt Lake City, with high levels of two—parent families and religiosity, are muchmore likely to see poor children get ahead than communities like Atlanta,with high levels of racialand economic segregation. 详解:事实细节题。定位句指出,像盐湖城这样兼具双亲的虔诚宗教家庭比例较高的社区,比亚 特兰大那种种族和经济隔离程度高的社区更能为贫困孩子提供上升机会,可见,它能为贫困孩子提供 更多攀登社会阶梯的机会,故答案为 C。 点睛: A.“将宗教信仰置于政党政策之上”,文章只提到宗教问题,并没有说到政党政策,可以 排除; B.“已经缩小了贫富之间的差距”,比较两个城市时,作者只谈到了社会流动性,并没有提到其内 部的贫富差距,可以排除;D.“为严重的种族和经济隔离所困”,这种说法与原文相反,种族和经济隔 离程度高的是亚特兰大,而不是盐湖城,可以排除。 64.A.。定位:由题干关键词 strongly correlated 和 Rai Chetty 定位到文章第五段首句:Harvard economistRaj Cherty has pointed to economic and racial segregation , community density , the size of acommunity’s middle class, the quality of schools, community religiosity, and family structure, whichhe calls the“single strongest correlate of upward mobility.” 详解:事实细节题。根据定位句可知,在查蒂提到的若干影响社会活动性的因素中,家庭结构是 “社会阶层提升的唯一强相关因素”,故答案为 A。 点睛:B.“种族平等”,该项没有被列入查蒂所说的若干因素中,可以排除;C“学校教育”,查蒂 虽然提到这个因素,但它不属于强相关因素,可以排除;D“社区密度”,与选项 C 一样,虽然提及, 但不属于强相关因素,可以排除。 65.D.。定位:根据题文同序原则,定位至文章最后一段:In other words,communities with high levels ofper-capita income growth , high percentages of two-parent families , and high local government spending-which may stand for good schools-are the most likely to help poor children relive HoratioAlger’s ragstoriches story. 39

详解:推理判断题。从定位段中可看出,作者提到如何帮助穷苦孩子提高社会经济地位时,一直 都是从社区层面进行分析的,前文也多次有类似的提示,故答案为 D。 点睛:A“加大中产阶层的规模非常重要”,这虽然是作者提到的重要影响因素之一,但不足以集 中概括作者的观点,可以排除;B“扩大城市规模十分重要”,影响社会流动性的因素中未涉及城市规 模,可以排除;C“我们应该努力消除收入不均”,作者在第三段就提出,贫富差距并不像很多公众人 物指出的那样,对社会流动性有关键性的影响力,可见,文章并没有集中讨论收入不均的问题,可以 排除。

2016.06 - 1

选词填空 26 [N]空格前的 of 表明此处应填入动名词, 与介词 on 搭配。 空格后的 roller-skates 指“溜冰鞋”, 词库的动名词中,strapping 可与 on 搭配,后接表示鞋子的宾语,意为“用带子系上(鞋子)”,符合 此处语境。 27[I]此处需填入修饰 attitude 的词,由 a 可知需填入的单词是辅音字母开头的。上文提到“你” 喜欢溜旱冰,穿上鞋子就微笑。“你”同样知道溜旱冰是很好的运动,因此这种态度是积极正面的,故 填入 positive “积极的”。 28[D]此处应填入谓语动词, 由主语 description 可知是第三人称单数形式。 文章开头的 Let's say... 表明第一段对溜旱冰的描绘是举例,因此此处符合语义逻辑的是 illustrates“说明,阐明”,该处句子 的意思是“对溜旱冰的描述说明了态度有三个组成部分”。 29[C]此处应填入谓语动词,由主语 feelings 可知是动词原形。本句要说明态度的第一个部分 affect “情感”,主语 these feelings 指的是对溜旱冰这项活动的喜爱之情,highlight “强调,突出”与宾 语 the affective or emotional component“情感或感情部分”搭配合理。而 prevail“流行,盛行;获胜”是 不及物动词,prompt “推动;提示”在语义上也不合逻辑。 30[B]空格在名词 health 之后,可能填入副词或名词。因为空格后的 that the activity can bring“这 项活动可以带来的”是定语从句,故应填入名词,充当从句先行词。第一段提到“你”知道溜旱冰是极 好的运动(excellent exercise),因此本句填入语义相关的 benefits “好处”。 31[L]此处应填入谓语动词,构成~sb. to do sth.结构,主语 attitudes 表明该词是原形。符合要求 的是 prompt “促使”,句子意思是“我们的态度促使我们去外面享受溜旱冰的乐趣”。 32 [E]空格前的 the 表明此处应填入名词,空格后 that 引导的是同位语从句,意为“这三个组成 部分总是协调统一的”。impression“印象”符合上下文语义,指“我们不想给你留下这种印象”,呼应后文 “它们并不是”。 33[H]空格在 work together 之后,故应填入副词。perfectly“完美地”符合语境,指这三个部分配合 完美。上下文没有表示动作先后的描述,故 primarily“主要地,首先”不对。 34 [A]由 or 可知此处应填入与 eating 并列的动名词, 意思上表示相反的情况, 因此 avoiding“避 免”正确,指“吃比萨还是不吃”。 35[J]空格前的 may 表明此处应填入动词原形,且是不及物动词。上一句提到情感部分可能更强 的情形( probably will be stronger ),本句指认知部分更强的情况,故填入与 be stronger 近义的 prevail“获胜”。 段落匹配 36 [I]【译文】如今很多符合资格的年轻选民对地方选举或者全国大选不感兴趣。 【定位解析】根据 eligible for voting 和 national elections 查找到 I 段最后一句,该句提到最年轻的 (18 至 24 岁)合格选民的投票率非常低。即使是全国大选,他们之中也只有稍多于四分之一的人 会去投票。题目的 young people eligible for voting 对应原文中的 youngest eligible voters, 而 national elections 则为文中原词复现。 40

37[B]【译文】父母担心自己的孩子在步入青少年时期后会卷入刑事犯罪中。 【定位解析】根据 concerned, criminal offences 以及 reach their teens,可查找到 B 段最后两句。这两 句提到在跟年轻人有关的电视新闻画面中,有 20%与刑事案件有关,父母总是担心自己的小孩到了 青春叛逆期会变得难以管控,题目是该处原文的同义表达。本题中的 criminal offences 对应原文的 criminal justice system, concern 对应原文的 worry, 而 once they reach their teens 则是 once they hit the turbulent waters of adolescence 的同义转述。 38 [F]【译文】即使在上世纪动荡不安的年代里,年轻人的反叛也经常被媒体描述得太夸张。 【定位解析】根据 youth rebellion 和 exaggerated 可查找到 F 段第 3 句。该句提到,即使在当时, 所谓的“大规模的年轻人叛逆”也被媒体报道夸大了。本题的 exaggerated 是原文 overdone 的同义表 达(overdo 意为“对……过于夸张”),youth rebellion 则为原词复现,所以 F 段为正确答案。 39[D]【译文】现在的青少年经常在一些重要的事情上,比如说选择职业时,征求父母的建议。 【定位解析】根据题目中的 turn to their parents for advice 和 career choice 可查找到 D 段第 3 句。 该句提到,现在的青少年很钦佩他们的父母,也很乐于在一些重大的事情上,比如在选择职业时,接 受父母的引导。题目是该处原文的同义表述, turn to their parents for advice 对应原文的 welcome parental guidance,而 career choice 为原词复现,故本题答案为 D 段。 40 [C]【译文】青少年犯罪和品行不端的现象正在减少。 【定位解析】根据题目中的 teenage crime 和 decreasing 查找到 C 段第 3 句。该句提到,犯罪、药 物滥用和婚前性行为这些现象在青少年群体中普遍都有所减少。本题中的 decreasing 是原文 in general decline 的同义转述,misbehavior 是对原文 drug abuse and premarital sex 的概括,而 teenage crime 为原词复现,题目正是对该句原文的同义表述,所以 C 段为正确答案。 41[K]【译文】年轻人要有崇高的理想,要力争成为领导者。 【定位解析】根据 lofty ideals 和 leaders,查找到 K 段第 2 句。该句指出,年轻人也应当要有一些 崇高的目标,包括愿意为这个更广大的社会做出贡献、热爱国家、心怀成为未来领导者的远大抱负。 题目中的 lofty ideals 是原文 noble purposes 的同义转述,strive to be leaders 对应文中的 make their own leadership contributions,故 K 段为正确答案。 42 [A]【译文】有些年轻人会把某些东西藏起来不让父母发现。 【定位解析】根据 keep some to themselves 查找到 A 段末句。该句指出,虽然有超过三分之一的青 少年会在房间里藏一些不想让父母发现的东西,但也不过就是些低俗的刊物或者 CD 罢了。题目中 的 keep some to themselves 是对原文 keep secret from their parents 的同义转述,故选 A 段。 43 [L]【译文】鼓励年轻人探索更广阔的世界并为将世界变得更美好而做好准备,这是有益的。 【定位解析】根据题目中的 encourage、explore、world 可查找到 L 段的最后一句。该句指出,鼓励 年轻人探索超越直接经验的世界,让他们为改变世界而做好准备,我们会有无穷的收获。题目中的 It is beneficial 是对文中 We have everything to gain 的同义转述,explore the broader world 和原文中的 explore the world beyond their immediate experience 对应, make it a better world 即原文中的 shaping that world,故正确答案为 L 段。 44 [E]【译文】现在很多青少年都会为需要帮助的人提供服务。 【定位解析】根据 service 和 the needy 查找到 E 段第 2 句。该句指出,很多青少年都会自愿参加 帮助弱势群体的社区服务。 题目中的 the needy 是原文 disadvantaged people 的同义替换, 故答案为 E 段。 45[J]【译文】采访发现,学生基本都只关注自己的事。 【定位解析】根据题目中的 Interviews 和 personal matters 查找到 J 段第 4 句。J 段讲到被采访的 学生的反馈,当被问及想有什么改变时,学生们都只提到了跟自身有关的事,即只关注自己的事。题 目正是对此处的同义概括,personal matters 是原文 personal concerns 的同义表达,故正确答案为 J 段。 仔细阅读 46 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 the revised “Green Guides”定位至第 2 段。 【解析】本题问“绿色指南”修订版要求商家怎么做。第 2 段首句指出联邦贸易委员会警告商家不得 41

使用诸如“生态友好的”之类表达宽泛的标签。第 2 句指出商家须具体怎么做,包括要证明其产品包装 上的描述属实、明确具体的益处。C 项“具体说明其产品为何是绿色的”与原文吻合,其中 Specify 为 原文中 specific 的同义表达,故选 C 项。 【干扰项排除】 A 项“制造尽可能多的绿色产品”并非联邦贸易委员会的要求。 联邦贸易委员会要求商 家使其产品的益处具体化,如写明产品中有多少可回收成分,而非 B 项“指出其产品是否可回收”。 文章并未提及 D 项“所有产品贴上绿色标签”。 47 [D]【定位】根据题干中的 an explosion of green claims 定位至第 6 段。 【解析】本题问作者对于消费者在面对绿色环保宣传泛滥时的表现有何看法。第 6 段首句指出在过 去 5 年左右的时间里, 声称绿色环保的宣传呈爆发状态。第 2 句指出消费者并不总是了解他们要购 买的产品。D 项“他们并不清楚哪种产品才是真正绿色环保的”与原文相符,故为答案。 【干扰项排除】 A 项“他们能轻易看穿营销陷阱”与文中说的“消费者不总是了解”不符。上文虽提到消 费者选购产品时会觉得迷惑,但不能由此得出 B 项“他们必须花费大量时间来挑选产品”。文中有两 处提到“绿色认证”,其一是庄臣公司遭到集体诉讼的事例,但并未提及“集体诉讼”是消费者发起的, 故不能得出 C 项“他们对当前的绿色认证存在疑虑”。 48 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 SC Johnson 和 the class-action lawsuits 定位至第 7 段第 2 句。 【解析】本题询问在集体诉讼案中,庄臣公司被指控的罪名是什么。第 7 段第 2 句指出,2008 到 2009 年间,庄臣公司遭到集体诉讼,被指在其清洁产品上使用“绿色清单”标签。第 3 句指出诉讼认 为该标签具有误导性,原因是“会使消费者误认为该产品已通过第三方认证”。C 项“它误导消费者相 信他们的产品已获得第三方认证”与原文意思一致,其中 misled 对应原文的 misleading。 【干扰项排除】 A 项“它让消费者认为其所有产品都是真正的绿色产品”, 涉案的只是庄臣公司的清洁 产品,并未说是其所有产品,A 项可排除。本文未提及庄臣公司“授权第三方为其产品打上环保标签” 和“销售不在官方‘绿色清单’中的清洁产品”,故 B、D 两项也可排除。 49[A]【定位】根据题干中的 Christopher Beard 定位至第 8 段。 【解析】本题询问 Christopher Beard 如何为该公司的标签行为作辩解。本段讲到 Christopher Beard 对本公司在绿色清单体系所取得的成就感到骄傲,并且相信他们能在这些“集体诉讼”案子里胜出,然 而他也承认这个(绿色标签)领域很难规范、指引。由此知,Christopher Beard 认为那时候在绿色标 签事项上没有明确的指导方针, 刚好对应文章开头说的如今美国联邦贸易委员会关于绿色标签的提议。 【干扰项排除】 虽然使用生态环保标签是市场风行的做法,但是无法确定给产品加上自己公司的认证 这一做法是否普遍, 而且 C 项“符合市场的普遍做法”也不是 Christopher Beard 的辩护观点, 故不选。 文章未提及 B 项“其公司产品广为公众接受”和 D 项“法律不要求第三方认证”,也可排除。 50[B]【定位】根据题干直接定位至第 11 段第 2 句。 【解析】本题询问凯文?威廉引用的 Wild West 所指的意义。第 11 段第 2 句先指出当前绿色认证 的乱象犹如往昔的“西大荒”,随后指出具体乱在哪些方面:人人都可以宣称自己是环保的,与历史上 美国西部拓荒时期的无政府混乱状态如出一辙,因此 B 项“每家公司在绿色标签这方面都有自己的 做法”与该句表述相符,为本题答案。 【干扰项排除】文章指出各公司竞相推出各自的绿色环保宣传或广告,而非“竞相生产绿色产品”,故 排除 A 项。C 项“消费者对有绿色标签的产品很狂热”、D 项“西部地区所生产的任何产品都可以标 记为绿色产品”曲解了 “the Wild West”中 wild 和 west 的意义。 51[B]【定位】根据题干中的 America's education system 定位至第 1 段。 【解析】本题询问文章对美国教育系统的评价。文章首段即明确指出作者的观点:美国的教育系统不 再是通往机遇的阶梯, 已然成为将不平等代代相传的体系。可见作者认为教育原本具有的消除不平等 的功能已不存在,B 项“对消除不平等毫无作用”为答案。 【干扰项排除】第 1 句指出美国的教育系统不再是通往机遇的阶梯,但并非变成了“为富人提供通往 机遇的阶梯”,故排除 A 项。后半句指出教育系统变成了将不平等代代相传的体系,并不是指教育 C 项“几代人以来基本上保持不变”曲解其意,故排除; 系统不变, 文章未提及教育体系具有 D 项“将 几代人培养成有责任感的公民”的功能,也可排除。 52 [B]【定位】根据题干中的 inner-city schools 定位至第 3 段第 1 句。 42

【解析】本题询问内城区学校表现不佳的主要原因。第 3 段首句指出,内城区学校表现糟糕的主要 原因不是教师工会,而是 poverty(贫穷)。与 poverty 同义的 B 项“缺乏财政来源”为答案。题干中 的 is chiefly responsible for 对应原文的 main reason, undesirable performance 对应 do poorly。 【干扰项排除】 原文中只是提到主要原因不在于教师工会, 而是贫穷, A 项“不合格教师”非主要原因。 文章内容未涉及 C 项“不良的学习环境”和 D 项“潜意识的种族歧视”,也可排除。 53[C]【定位】根据题干中的 the union 及题干询问内容可定位至第 4 段第 1、2 句。 【解析】本题询问作者的观点,工会应该如何作为来赢得公众支持。上段末尾提到工会抵制市长采取 的一些措施,本段第 1 句提出了作者的观点:如果工会只是致力于获取更高的补偿,他会赞同 (sympathetic)。 第 2 句进一步说明为什么工会应该致力于获取更高的补偿金:只有高薪才能够吸引优 秀人才到贫困地区的学校任教。因此工会应该“为教师争取更高的报酬”,C 项正确。 【干扰项排除】工会抵制了市长采取的一些措施,A 项“帮助市政府改革学校”可排除。基于本文,教 师工会的职能主要是为教师提供保护和争取福利,不包括 B 项“为内城区学校提供建设性的建议”和 D 项“帮助教师提高教学质量”。 54 [D]【定位】根据题干中的 the gold standard study, Harvard and Columbia University scholars 定 位至第 5 段第 2 句。 【解析】本题询问哈佛大学和哥伦比亚大学的学者开展的金标准研究的结果。因此该句 found 后的 宾语从句即为答案:即使是在极度贫困地区的学校,教师也总是会对教育产生巨大的,或积极或消极 的影响。因此,D 项“学生的表现与教师密切相关”为答案,体现了教师对教育所产生的影响。题干中 的 finding 是原文 found 的词性转换。 【干扰项排除】文章中提及部分内城区学校的师资不佳,但并非该研究发现的结果,因此 A 项“很 多内城区学校的教师无法胜任他们的工作”可排除。文章未提及内城区学校学生的行为以及他们对教 师的态度,因此 B 项“大部分内城区的孩子经常翘课”和 C 项“很多学生对他们的教师不满”也可排 除。 55 [A]【定位】根据题干中的 Chicago union's, demand 和 an insult to students 定位至最后三段。 【解析】本题询问为什么说芝加哥工会的要求是对学生的侮辱。第 9 段指出芝加哥工会坚持认为那 些被解聘的 (通常是不称职的) 教师拥有优先聘用权, 作者认为这对学生是个侮辱, 第 10 和第 11 段 对此作具体解释,指出不应过度保护这些人的工作权益,一旦满足工会要求、保护这些人的权益,学 生的权益就会被牺牲掉。因此 A 项“以牺牲学生为代价保护不称职的教师”为答案,at the expense of 是原文中 sacrifices 的同义转换。 【干扰项排除】文章未涉及工会对学生辨别和学习能力的评估,B 项“低估了学生辨别好老师和坏老 师的能力”、D 项“完全忽视学生在学习过程中的主动性”均可排除。文章未提及歧视问题,C 项“让 学生感到在多方面遭受歧视”也可排除。

2016.06 - 2

选词填空 26 [A]空格位于句末, 前面是副词 naturally 和主语 the question,因此应填入不及物动词, 充当句子 谓语。由 As 从句中 take on 所用的一般现在时,可知填入的动词应是第三人称单数。上文提到人们惧 怕机器人缺乏道德界限(without a moral compass),空格后是具体的问题,因此本句应表示问题自然“出 现,引起”,故 arises 符合要求。另一个第三人称单数动词是 ascends“上升;攀登”,与 question 搭配 不当。 27. [D]由空格前的 the 和空格后的 of 可知此处应填入名词。介词 of 后是两个并列的名词结构: computational power“计算能力”和 engineering advances“工程学发展”。 由此可知名词中 combination“结 合体”符合语义逻辑。 28 [F]空格位于助动词 will 和谓语动词 enable 之间,故应填入副词。本句表示某物能够降低残疾 人的家庭护理费用。副词中符合语义逻辑的是 eventually“终于,最终”。 29[O] 。 本 句 的 结 构 是 ... use of driverless cars andcountless... uses for robots, 因 此 填 入 的 词 与 countless“无数的”语义相关,应指运用得“多”或“广”,故填入 widespread “广泛的,普遍的”,指机器 人最终将普遍运用在无人驾驶汽车、家用和服务业等方面。 43

30[C]空格处应填入分词或形容词,构成 be... to 的搭配。上文提到机器人最终会普遍运用,本句 用 but 转折,提到 problems“问题”,接着下文列举了具体的问题,因此空格处填入 bound“肯定的,一 定的”,指“问题肯定会有”。 31 [H] 空格前的 will 表明此处应填入及物动词原形,与后面的名词 privacy“ 隐私 ” 构成搭配。 invade“入侵,侵犯”符合要求,指无人机可能会“侵犯”别人的隐私。 32 [N]空格在 the 和 of 之间,故应填入名词。本句指陪审团对机器的……表示同情,会让企业家 受到惩罚。上文说机器人会发生碰撞,无人机侵犯隐私,机器人割草机轧压邻居家的猫。这些都是机 器的“受害者”,故 victims “受害人,牺牲品”符合语义逻辑。 33 [J]空格前的 company-crushing 是复合形容词,表示“令公司压力大的,可摧毁公司的”,故应 填入与 damages “赔偿金”并列的名词,形式上也是复数,作 punish 的间接宾语。故 penalties“罚金”符 合要求。 34 [K] 空格前的 while 是连词,故应填入动名词形式。由宾语 space“ 空间 ”, 可知搭配恰当的是 preserving“保护,保留”,句子意为:政府在给创新“保留”空间时,应该做些什么来保护人们呢? 35[L]空格与过去分词 built 和 sold 并列,故也应是表被动的过去分词形式。本句指大型复杂系统 (systems)应该由厂商创建……并销售。符合语义逻辑、并与 systems 搭配的是 programmed“规划”。 段落匹配 36 [F]【译文】昂贵的医保计划会被征税,因此大多数雇主可能会将用在医保上的支出转移到工 资上来。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 tax,health insurance plans, money 和 wages 定位到 F 段。该段倒数第 3 句指出, 经济学家预计, 大多数雇主会将用在医保上的支出转移到工资上来。 题目中的 transfer money 是原文 shift money 的同义转述,expensive health insurance plans 与原文 expensive health benefits 对应, 同时题目复现了原文的 wages 一词,故答案为 F 段。 37[J]【译文】国会将通过或者否决全部的改革措施,这样说客就很难对立法者产生影响。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Changes,be approved or rejected as a whole 和 lawmakers 査找到 J 段最 后一句。该句指出,国会只能通过或者否决全部的改革措施,这样一来,狭隘的利益游说集团将很难 迫使立法者顺从他们的意愿。本题复现了原词 changes 及 be approved or rejected as a whole,题目中的 influence lawmakers 是对原文 bend lawmakers to their will 的同义转述,故答案为 J 段。 38 [A]【译文】美国医疗成本的上涨难以控制。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 not easy 和 the rising medical costs 可査找到 A 段第 3 句。该句指出, 根 本 就 不 存 在 一 个 方 案 能 够 轻 易 地 控 制 医 疗 成 本 的 增 加 。 题 目 中 的 not easy 是 对 原 文 no one has an easyfix 的同义转述,故答案为 A 段。 39 [G]【译文】标准的自动化处理流程可以帮助节省一大笔医疗开支。 【定位解析】 根据题目关键词 standardization of forms for automatic processing 定位至 G 段。 该段第 2、 3 句提到, 其行业集团曾主动为自动化处理流程提供标准化的表格。该举措能在未来十年里节省上千 亿美元。题目是对原文这两句的同义概括,故 G 段为答案。 40 [L]【译文】共和党和保险行业强烈反对设立公共医保计划。 【定位解析】关键词 republicans and the insurance industry,strongly opposed 和 publicinsurance plan 定 位到 L 段第 1 句。该句指出,由于保险行业和共和党批评者的强烈反对,这个计划可能无法节省太 多 的 钱 。 题 目 复 现 了 原 词 insurance industry 和 public plan , 而 strongly opposed 是 对 原 文 fierce opposition 的同义转述,故 L 段为答案。 41 [H]【译文】把纸质病历转换为电子医疗记录可以帮助筛除不必要的检查,防止药物相互作用。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 electronic records,redundant tests 和 drug interactions 定位到 H 段。该 段最后一句指出,电子医疗记录将能筛除不必要的检查、防止药物相互作用、帮助医生确定最佳治疗 方案,以实现节省成本。题目中的 conversion 对应了原文的 convert,故答案为 H 段。 42 [C]【译文】医疗服务的成本过高以及不必要的试验和诊疗推动医疗费用的上涨。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 high cost,unnecessary tests and treatments 和 driven up 定位到 C 段。本 段指出, 医疗费增长快的主要原因是医疗服务收费过高以及医院和医生会给病人安排多余的诊疗项目。 44

题 目 中 的 high cost 对 应 原 文 的 high prices, unnecessary tests and treatments 是 对 原 文 unnecessary care delivered... perform a lot more tests and treatments 的概括, 而 driven up 对应文中的 rises, 所以答案为 C 段。 43[I] 【译文】 导致医疗成本增加的一个主要因素是医生是按提供诊疗的次数而非诊疗的效果收费。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 main factor, the amount of care 和 effect 定位至 I 段第 1 句。该句指出, 医生的收入取决于提供服务的次数而非服务的质量或者效果,这是医疗成本如此之高的主要原因。题 目中 main factor 与文中的 primary reason 同义, the amount 对应原文的 the quantity, 而 effect 对应文中 的 effectiveness,故答案为 I 段。 44[P]【译文】与一些分析人士的怀疑态度不同,作者认为能通过谈判降低药品价格。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 analysts' doubts 和 negotiation 定位至 P 段。该段第 2、3 句指出,一些 权威的分析人士质疑部长能达成比私人保险公司更好的协议,但是作者表示相信谈判能取得成效。题 目中的 analysts' doubts 是对原文 analysts doubt that the secretary... already get 的概括,故正确答案为 P 段。 45 [k]【译文】公平竞争会促使保险公司降低产品定价。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 a strong incentive 和 insurers 定位到 K 段。该段最后一句指出,这种正 面交锋会促使医保公司降低自家保险产品的定价。题目中的 charge less 是对原文 lower their prices 的 同义转述,故 K 段为正确答案。 仔细阅读 46 [C]【定位】根据题目关键词 the use of raw sewage for farming 可知是问有关污水在农业上使用 的信息,考查的是考生对整体篇章的理解能力,定位到全文。 【解析】C 项“其利大于弊”是对第 2 段“那些健康危险远不及社会效益和经济贡献重要”的同义转换, 符合文意。 【干扰项排除】A 项“其风险不能被高估”和 B 项“应完全禁止”在原文中无法找到依据;D 项“正使许 多农田受到污染”,以原词 cropland 作干扰,但原文说的是用未经处理的污水对大约 4900 万英亩农 田进行灌溉和施肥,文中只是说这种做法有健康风险,不能直接得出结论“这些农田被这些污水污染 了”,因此 D 项属过度推测。 47 [C]【定位】根据题目关键词 the use of wastewater for irrigation 可定位至第 5 段。 【解析】 本题询问污水灌溉导致的主要问题,C 项“农民和消费者都可能受到有害细菌的影响”是对第 5 段首句的概括,符合文意。 【干扰项排除】A 项“附近的河流和湖泊都将逐渐受到污染”属过度推断,原文第 4 段第 2 句仅仅提 到农田的灌溉水主要源于当地的河流或湖泊;原文虽有提及人们用人类排泄物代替化学肥料,但无法 证明 B 项“利用污水灌溉会使化肥产商倒闭”;D 项“利用污水灌溉会减少农产品在市场上的竞争力”属 于无中生有。 48[A]【定位】根据题干中的人名 Pay Drechsel 定位至第 5 段末句。 【解析】本题考查的是 Pay Drechsel 对将未经处理的人类排泄物用于农业的态度,原文第 5 段末句 提到他认为使用未经处理的人类排泄物灌溉农田所带来的社会和经济效益比其带来的健康危害重要。 说明他支持这一做法,A 项“赞同的”符合题意。 【干扰项排除】询问观点态度的题目宜采用直选法,考生需准确感知人物观点。B 项“怀疑的”、C 项 “冷漠的”以及 D 项“负责的”在文中皆无依据证明。 49 [B]【定位】根据题干中的人名 Pay Drechsel 及 the risks 定位至第 6 段。 【解析】本题考查的是 Pay Drechsel 对未经处理的人类排泄物用于农业带来的风险的看法,第六段开 头提到这个问题可以通过教育农民和消费者来解决,B 项的 dealt with 是原句 addressed 的同义转述, B 项“可通过教育规避其风险”是正确答案。 【干扰项排除】A 项“其风险有些被夸大”、C 项“利用新科技可使其风险最小化”和 D 项“其风险可通 过改进卫生条件来规避”都不是 Pay Drechsel 对风险的看法。 50 [A]【定位】根据题干中的人名 James Bartram 定位至最后一段的最后一句。 【解析】本题考查的是 James Bartram 对人类排泄物用于农业的观点,原文最后他说稍加处理或没有 45

经过处理的排泄物用于农业是有充分理由的,可见他认为将人类排泄物用于农业有其存在的合理性。 而从原文第 5 段可知, Pay Drechsel 认为尽管这种做法有危害, 但是它带来的社会和经济效益比其危 害更重要。因此 A 项“在这个问题上他和 Pay Drechsel 的观点一致”为正确答案。 【干扰项排除】原文第 3 段提到 Liqa Raschid-Sally 认为污水灌溉利弊共存,James Bartram 也只是承 认了有其存在的合理性而已,因此 B 项“他挑战 Iiqa Raschid-Sally 的结论”错误。C 项“他认为这是摆 脱当前粮食危机的唯一方法”和 D 项“他认为这是战胜全球贫困所必需都不是 James Bartram 的观点, 故排除。 51 [D]【定位】根据题目关键词 the kitchen of today 定位至第 1 段末句。 【解析】第 1 段末句提到厨房已成为现代家居的核心, D 项的 the center of a modem home 是原 句 theheart of the modern house 的同义转述,表明 D 项“现在厨房被认为是现代家居的核心”为答案。 【干扰项排除】原文第 1 句提到现代人们无须下厨,因此 A 项“厨房是主妇展示厨艺的场所”与原文 意思刚好相反;B 项“厨房是款待重要宾客的场所”在原文中没有提及;原文提到厨房已成为现代家居 的核心的现象很奇怪,而不是说厨房本身奇怪,故排除 C 项。 52 [B]【定位】根据题目关键词 the Georgian-style kitchen 定位至第 3 段。 【解析】本题考查的是乔治王时代风格的厨房定价高的原因,第 3 段末句提到其主要卖点在于绝无 仅有,你不会在世界其他地方见到这种厨房。B 项“不可能在世界其他地方找到复制品”为答案。 【干扰项排除】A 项“据说有极高的艺术价值”在原文中并未提及;C 项“由一家著名的英国公司制造” 在文中虽有提及,但不是定价高的原因;D 项“其他的制造商都无法制造类似的厨房”属于易混淆项, 但是原文说的是它的卖点在其他人买不到相同的,至于说制造商能否仿制,我们无法得知。 53 [D]【定位】根据题干中 the change in the status of the kitchen 定位至第 4 段第 1 句。 【解析】本题考查的是厨房地位的变化反映了什么,原文第 4 段第 1 句讲到厨房曾经只属于仆人, 而今演变为现代家庭的设计展示间,这讲述了一个世纪的社会变革,D 项正确。 【干扰项排除】A 项“生活水平提高了”、B 项“女性地位的提高”和 C 项“技术进步”在原文都没有直接 提及,属于主观臆测,故均排除。 54 [A]【定位】根据题干中的人名 Beecher sisters 定位至第 5 段末句。 【解析】本题考查比彻姊妹对厨房的看法,第 5 段末句讲到比彻姐妹推介了一种家庭管理的科学方 法,旨在提高妇女的工作效率,A 项是对原文意思的高度概括,故为答案。 【干扰项排除】B 项“认为厨房是可以应用高科技的场所”无中生有;C 项“认为厨房是知识分子感兴 趣的场所”, 这一信息虽在第 5 段首句有提到, 但并不是比彻姊妹的看法, 而是作者的观点; 第 5 段 第 2 句提到该姊妹中的一人以激进的新方式对厨房进行思考,她思考的是怎样提高家务效率,而不 是试验新想法,因此 D 项“认为厨房是实验新想法的场所”错误。 55 [B]【定位】根据题干可知本题考查的是对文章的整体感知理解能力,定位到全文。 【解析】 原文提到 20 世纪 20 年代由玛格丽特设计的第一个配备齐全的厨房中,许多元素依然是今 日厨房的中心特色,说明现代厨房的许多核心特色和 20 世纪 20 年代都具有相似性,因此 B 项“现 代厨房的许多核心特色和 20 世纪 20 年代相比并无差别”正确。 【干扰项排除】 A 项“现代厨房象征人们日常生活中快速的技术进步”和 C 项“现代厨房变得面目全非” 在原文中均无提及。D 项“现代厨房的许多功能有很大改变”与原文最后一段末句意思刚好相反。

2016.06 - 3

选词填空 26 [O]空格所在句子为 when 引导的时间状语从句,从句中缺少谓语动词,且根据主句中谓语动 词 becomes 可进一步确定此处应填入动词的第三人称单数。宾语是 a real job, undertakes“承担;从事” 符合语境,句子表示从事一份真正的工作时,他(她)才真正步人成年人的行列。而 promises“承诺” 不符合语义逻辑。 27[K]空格前面的不定冠词 an 决定了此处应填入一个首发音是元音的名词。上句提到,青少年真 正步入成年人行列是当他从事一份真正的工作时,也就是说成年意味着一份职业的开始 , 故填 入 occupation“职业”合适。 46

28[H] 空格前面 的 the 和后面的 of 决定了此处应填入名词,和后面的 of such ideals 搭配。 existence“存在”符合语义逻辑,表示这些理想的存在。 29[J]空格前面是动词 become,可判断此处应填入形容词或名词。前面提到青少年会产生一些过于 理想化的想法,那么对于这个不那么理想的世界应该是“接受不了”或“难以忍受的”,故填 入 intolerant“无法忍受的”。 30 [A]空格位于动词 comes 之后,when 引导的状语从句之前,所在句子不缺少主要成分,可判断 此处需要填入副词。从逻辑上推断,当青少年改革者试图将他的想法付诸工作实践时,对社会的真正 适应就是自然而然的了,故 automatically“自动地;自然而然地”符合语境。 31[N] 空 格 所在 部 分 为 一个 固 定短 语 take... out of context, 意为 “ 断章 取 义, 脱 离上下 文 ”, 其 中 take 的宾语应是句子的主语 Piaget's statement,所以该过去分词短语在句子中作状语, 且不缺少主要 成分,由此可判断此处需要填入一个副词。本句要说明在什么情况下,皮亚杰的论断或许太过苛刻, 填入 slightly“轻微地”合适,意为“稍加孤立地看”。 32[E]空格所在部分为 what 引导的主语从句,从句缺少谓语动词,由前面的助动词 was 可判断此 处应填入动词的现在分词形式,本句的表语是 the way“那种方式”。emphasizing“强调”符合语境,表示 他意在强调的是那种方式。 33[M]空格前面的 of 决定了此处应填入名词或动名词形式。就业岗位越来越少,所以应该是处于 萧条时期,且根据下文 difficult economic times 也可判断出 recession“衰退”符合语义逻辑。 34 [D]空格所在部分为“leave sb.+宾语补足语”结构,空格填入的单词作 leave 的宾补,且能与后 面的 about 搭配,可判断此处应填入形容词或动词的分词形式。处于这样的经济困难时期,很多青少 年或许对他们在社会中扮演的角色应该是“迷茫”或“困惑”的, 词库中符合这一语义的是 confused“困惑 的;混乱的”。 35[B]空格所在句子缺少谓语,由前面的助动词 are 可判断此处应填入形容词或动词的分词形式。 根据主语 community interventions and government job programs 和空格前的 economically, 可知填入 beneficial“有益的”,表示社区干预和政府提供的就业计划不仅使青少年在经济上受益。 段落匹配 36 [I]【译文】有很多例子证明,穷国和富国都利用环境来发展经济。 【定位解析】根据题目的关键词 Examples, rich and poor 和 the environment 查找到 I 段首句。这句话 指出在世界很多地方,无论穷富,都有很多通过破坏环境而实现财富增长的例子。题目中 的 economicprogress 对应原文的 growing wealth,exploit 对应原文的 trashing。 37. [C]【译文】保护和改善环境使全世界人们受益。 【定位解析】 根据题目关键词 Environmental protection and improvement 可查找到 C 段。 该段承接 B 段 内容,首句引用了 1972 年联合国人类环境大会宣言,“保护和改善人类环境是一个重要议题,因为 这关系到人们的幸福以及全球的经济发展”。题目中的 Environmental protection and improvement 与文 中 The protection and improvement of the human environment 同义。 38[L]【译文】经济增长将使世界更洁净,这未必是事实。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 economic growth 和 our world cleaner 可查找到 L 段最后一句。本段就 财富是否必然带来更洁净的世界展开论证,最后一句是其主旨句:经济增长将必然使我们的世界更洁 净,事实绝非如此。题目的 not necessarily 对应原文的 simply not true。 39 [D]【译文】联合国报告的共同主题是环境保护与经济增长的关系。 【 定 位 解 析 】 根 据 题 目 关 键 词 common theme , relation 和 environmental protection and economic growth 可查找到 D 段。该段指出,在联合国机构和各发展组织准备的众多报告中,环境保护与经济 发 展 之 间 的 联 系 是 一 条 共 同 的 主 线 。 题 目 中 common theme 对 应 原 文 的 common thread, 而 relation 与 linkage 近义, economic growth 则对应原文的 economic progress。 40[K]【译文】如何在确保经济增长的同时解决环境问题,各发展机构意见不一。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Development agencies,tackle 和 environment issues 可查找到 K 段。该 段指出,各发展机构在环境问题上意见不一,有的主张改善环境与经济发展同步进行,而有的则认为 tackle 都是文中的原词复现, 应先发展经济后解决环境问题。 题目中 development agencies、 而 disagree 47

对应原文的 are not united; environment issues 对应 environmental issues。 41[E]【译文】很难找到确凿的证据来证明,对环境友好比开发利用自然环境更有益于人类。 【定位解析】 根据题目关键词 evidence, environmental friendliness, profits 和 exploiting 等可查找到 E 段 前两句。该段首先引用了《千年生态系统评估报告》的论断:保持生态的可持续性比开发利用它们更 有益 于人类;继 而指出,找到支持 这一观点的确凿证据并不容易。题目中 solid evidence 是原 文 hard evidence 的同义转述,environmental friendliness 对应原文的 Managing ecosystems sustainably, profits 是原文 profitable 的词性转换,而 exploiting 是原词复现。 42 [G]【译文】从长远来看,生态系统的可持续管理被证明是有益的。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Sustainable management of ecosystems, rewarding in the long run 可查找 到 G 段。该段引用《千年生态系统评估报告》这项研究的首期结论:维持生态的可持续性可能在短 期内对人类的好处减少,但必定会带来长期效益的。题目中 Sustainable management of ecosystems 和 rewarding in the long run 分别对应原文中的 managing ecosystems sustainably 和 long-termrewards。 43 [A]【译文】一位以谨慎著称的政治家宣称,人类的可持续发展有赖于自然环境。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 politician,cautious 和 natural environment 可查找到 A 段。该段首先引 “如果我们想让经济继续保持繁荣……, 用了戈登·布朗的一段原话, 我们就必须关注自然环境、 资源, 因为这是我们的经济活动赖以进行的基础。”然后指出戈登·布朗是一位以严厉、认真、谨慎而著称的 政治家。 题目中 noted for 是原文 with a reputation for 的同义转述, 而 sustainable human development 是 对 oureconomies are to flourish... in succeeding generations 的概括。 44 [n]【译文】贫穷国家将不得不承担富裕国家经济增长所带来的代价。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Poor countries,bear the cost,rich nations' economic development 可查找 到 N 段。该段主要以气候变化为例来论述富裕国家将发展带来的环境问题转嫁到贫穷国家身上,其 中最后一句总结说,随着国家越来越富有,他们产生的温室气体也会越来越多;这些气体的影响将会 主要波及到世界贫穷地区。题目是对该段最后一句的概括论述。 45 [J]【译文】最近一项研究警告我们地球上的自然资源面临枯竭的危险。 【定位解析】根据题目关键词 recent study、warn、exhaustion of natural resources 等可查找到 J 段。该 段最后一句引用了一项最新的研究,试图通过数据警告人们,我们将在未来的某个时间点被追债,届 时所有这些服务(地球免费提供给我们的一切)都将终止,意即地球资源总有一天会枯竭的。题 目 exhaustion of natural resources 是对原文 all those services... will grind to a halt 的概括。 仔细阅读 46[D]【定位】题干已经将本题定位至第 1 段第 4 至第 5 行。 【解析】本题询问科林·狄克逊所说的这句话的意思。第 1 段开头就指出互动电视广告

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